Vernier Caliper and Micrometer

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Submitted By cathburry
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The Vernier Principle. The vernier is an auxiliary scale, invented by Pierre Vernier in 1631, which has graduations that are of different length from those on the main scale but that bear a simple relation to them. The vernier scale has 10 divisions that correspond in length to 9 divisions on the main scale. Each vernier division is therefore shorter than a main-scale division by 1/10 of a main-scale division. The zero mark of the vernier scale coincides with the zero mark of the main scale. The first vernier division is 1/10 main-scale division short of a mark on the main scale, the second division in 2/10 short of the next mark on the main scale, and so on until the tenth vernier division is 10/10, or a whole division, short of a mark on the main scale. It therefore coincides with a mark on the main scale.
The Vernier Caliper. A widely used type of vernier caliper is shown schematically. The instrument has both British and metric scales and is provided with devices to measure internal depths and both inside and outside diameters. The jaws c and d are arranged to measure an outside diameter, jaws e and f to measure an inside diameter, and the blade g to measure an internal depth. The knurled wheel W is used for convenient adjustment of the movable jaw and the latch L to lock the jaw in position. A micrometer screw is another device for measuring very small distances. It consists essentially of a carefully machined screw R, to which is attached a circular scale C. A linear scale S provides for observation of the forward motion of the screw. The distance the 3 screw moves forward for one turn, the pitch of the screw, is known. The circular scale enables one to read the fractions of turns, and the linear scale enables one to record the whole number of turns. The least count of a micrometer screw is the pitch of the screw divided by the number of divisions on the…...

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