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Submitted By cathburry

Words 729

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Words 729

Pages 3

The Vernier Caliper. A widely used type of vernier caliper is shown schematically. The instrument has both British and metric scales and is provided with devices to measure internal depths and both inside and outside diameters. The jaws c and d are arranged to measure an outside diameter, jaws e and f to measure an inside diameter, and the blade g to measure an internal depth. The knurled wheel W is used for convenient adjustment of the movable jaw and the latch L to lock the jaw in position. A micrometer screw is another device for measuring very small distances. It consists essentially of a carefully machined screw R, to which is attached a circular scale C. A linear scale S provides for observation of the forward motion of the screw. The distance the 3 screw moves forward for one turn, the pitch of the screw, is known. The circular scale enables one to read the fractions of turns, and the linear scale enables one to record the whole number of turns. The least count of a micrometer screw is the pitch of the screw divided by the number of divisions on the…...

...LENGTH: VERNIER CALIPER AND MICROMETER CALIPER A. L. P. Libera, N. C. Lindog, A. D. T. Manlagnit, M. L. C. G. Marasigan, J. F. R. Marquez, J. M. M. Mendones College of Engineering, Adamson University Abstract THIS LABORATORY REPORT PRESENTS THE ACCURACY OF MEASUREMENTS USING THE CALIPER. THE MAIN OBJECTIVE OF THIS LABORATORY ACTIVITY WAS TO BE ABLE FOR THE STUDENTS TO FAMILIARIZE ON HOW TO USE THE CALIPERS AS INSTRUMENTS FOR MEASURING PURPOSES. ANOTHER PURPOSE OF THIS EXPERIMENT IS TO RETAIN OR MINIMIZE THE PERCENTAGE ERROR AND PERCENTAGE DIFFERENCE OF THE PREVIOUS ACTIVITY TO SHOW THAT INSTRUMENTS USED FOR MEASURING ARE MORE ACCURATE. 1. INTRODUCTION The goal of physics is to provide an understanding of nature. The science of physics was developed to explain our physical environment. In no subject does measurement play as important a role as in science. Real science cannot exist without measurement. Calculating accuracy reveals how close a set of measurements are to an accepted reference or true value. This differs from precision, which describes how close the measurements are to each other. Determining the accuracy of a measurement usually requires calibration of the analytical method with a known standard. Accuracy in measuring is knowing the smallest reading that can be accurately measured while using an instrument or a device. The two common instruments used in measuring that increase the accuracy are the vernier......

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... | | | | |4 | | | | | | |5 | | | | | | |6 | | | | | | SLOPE = n = y[pic]Ln 4.2 PROCEDURE (Width calculation) a) Mark the beams with the same span so that they will be supported near their ends and also mark the mid point of the span. b) Take the beam of largest width, measure the width with the vernier Calipers. c) Support the beam at the two marked supporting points and measure the height of the mid-point with the deflection measuring device. d) Apply the 500 g load as the mid point and once again measure the height at the centre. e) Repeat 2, 3, and 4 for each beam. f) Enter your results in the table below and complete the table. g) Plot the graph of logy against logb with logy on the “y” axis and logb on the “x” axis. h) Draw the mean straight line of the graph and measure its slope to determine n. 4.2.1 Results |A/A |Length L (mm)|Width b (mm) |Deflection y (mm) |Logb |Logy | |1 | | ...

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...underground storage system. Service truck having filter, water separator and a pump driven to aircraft and inlet hose connect to the underground hydrant valve. The hose from the truck then discharged and attach to the fueling part of aircraft. -A title block is normally drawn at the bottom of the paper. Inside the title block is important information such as Name, Title and Date. The measurements for the title block can be seen below (these can vary depending on the type of title block being used). -Distance represented by one turn of the thimble is 0.025 inch. The use of Vernier scale on micrometer is to permit measurements within 0.001 millimetre to be made on metric micrometers, or 0.0001 inches on inch-system micrometers. The additional digit of these micrometers is obtained by finding the line on the sleeve vernier scale which exactly coincides with one on the thimble. The number of this coinciding vernier line represents the additional digit. -spilled gasoline should never be swept with dry broom as static electricity may cause spark and ignite. Always flush the spilled gasoline with water first before sweeping. In case of fire happen, provide exit for aircraft in the hangar before the cleaning process as precaution. Also check the availability of fire extinguisher. Class A fires – solid combustible material ( wood, paper or cloth burn, cabin fire ). Class B fires – combustibles liquid ( gasoline, oil, turbine fuel (AVTUR), paint thinner and......

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...0.2 cm, you should report this quantity as 10.0 ( 0.2 cm. Instrument Calibration Error Examples: (a) Meter Ruler The smallest division is 1 mm or 0.1 cm. Our measurements can be up to 1 or ½ of the smallest division. Example of measurement: 2.2 cm, 3.20 cm and 5.45 cm. If we write the data up to 1 decimal place only (e.g. 2.2, 3.6, 6.9, etc) then the number at the decimal place can take any value between 0 and 9. If we want to write the data up to 2 decimal places (e.g. 3.20, 4.65, 7.95, etc), the number at the second decimal place should be either 0 or 5 only. One cannot take any number between 1 and 4, and between 6 and 9. (b) Vernier Caliper All measurements should be up to the smallest division of the vernier scale. The smallest division is 0.01 cm. (c) Micrometer Screw Gauge All measurements should be up to the smallest division. The smallest division is 0.01 mm or 0.001 cm. 5. UNCERTAINTY FROM REPEATED MEASUREMENTS If we have made repeated measurements, the best estimate of the “true” value is the average (or mean) of all the measurements. Let the quantity we are measuring be denoted by x, and suppose that we have measured it N times. Let the individual measurements be denoted by x[pic], where i = 1, 2, 3, ………N. The average value of x, which we denote by [pic] is then, [pic] .....(1) To determine the standard deviation, first we find variance, [pic] and standard deviation, ...

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...their results in laboratory reports. 2. Scrutinize and inscribe the readings (i) Vernier caliper Parts of a vernier caliper: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Outside jaws: used to measure external lengths Inside jaws: used to measure internal lengths Depth probe: used to measure depths Main scale (cm) Main scale (inch) Vernier (cm) Vernier (inch) Retainer: used to block movable part to allow the easy transferring a measurement 4 UTAR FHSC1014 Mechanics Trimester 1 Both the main scale and the vernier scale readings are taken into account while making measurement. The main scale is the first reading on the main scale immediately to the left of the zero of the vernier scale while the vernier scale reading is mark on the vernier scale which exactly coincides or aligns with a mark on the main scale. Example: 2.4 cm cm (ii) Micrometer screw gauge + 0.07 cm = 2.47 In order to measure an object, the object is placed between the anvil and spindle (jaws). The thimble is rotated using the ratchet until the object is lightly gripped. DO NOT OVER TIGHTEN! Note that the ratchet (NOT THE THIMBLE) should be used to secure the object firmly between the jaws, otherwise the instrument could be damaged or give an inconsistent reading. It is recommended 3 ‘click’s of the ratchet are obtained before taking the reading. 5 UTAR FHSC1014 Mechanics Trimester 1 Procedure on how to read the scale on micrometer screw gauge is shown in the figure below. 3. Data and error analysis......

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...chemistry and biology. The objectives of the science fair are; 1. One of the programme during the activity week. 2. As a teaching platform to introduce physics, chemistry, and biology subject to lower secondary and for further understanding in the science subjects for upper secondary. 3. Demonstrate science related experiments based on practical books to students. 4. Introduction to laboratory rules and regulations, apparatus and materials. 5. Help students to relate and understand the science concept learned during class by observing and participating in the experiments Content 1.0 Physics 1.1 Topics 1.1.1 Introduction to physics In the experiments, students were introduced to several apparatus like Vernier caliper and Micrometer for measuring purposes. Students were showed on how to properly use the measuring instruments and how to take a measure using these instruments. 1.1.2 Force and Pressure The experiments were conducted for better understanding on liquid, gas and atmospheric pressure. Students were showed the applications of atmospheric pressure and water pressure through the experiments conducted by the teachers. 1.1.3 Waves Students were showed the fundamental of waves and the understanding of waves using specific apparatus. The experiments also demonstrate different phenomena and behavioural of waves in four different forms, reflection and refraction, diffraction, and interference. 2.0 Chemistry 2.1 Topics 2.1.1......

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...taken during the product measuring: 1. Hand tools and measuring instruments was chosen and get prepared. These are the tools being used for the project: * Phillips-tip screwdriver * Standard ruler * Measuring tape * Micrometer screw gauge * Vernier calipers Usage of tools: * Phillips-tips screwdriver: Basically, it is use to fasten and loosen screw, for screw with cross-shaped only. * Standard meter ruler: Commonly used as an instruments to measure distance, and make straight line with it. Used to measure the diameter of large components such as inner bowl, cover, outer body, heating element, grate and bottom base. * Measuring tape: A kind of flexible thin metal with a certain length (in meter), that provided with measurement of length on for measuring distance and length. Used to measure the diameter and height of large components such as the inner bowl, cover, outer body, and bottom base. * Micrometer screw gauge: a measuring instrument that measure very small reading. Used when measuring the width and height of small components such as fuse, mica heater and heating element. * Vernier calipers: a measuring instrument that provides a slightly less accurate reading compared to the micrometer but it is suitable to be used when taking the diameter of components and also the width and height of components such as grate, switch, switch connector and the bottom base. 2. As referred to the instruction of the task, 12......

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...their results in laboratory reports. 2. Scrutinize and inscribe the readings (i) Vernier caliper Parts of a vernier caliper: 1. Outside jaws: used to measure external lengths 2. Inside jaws: used to measure internal lengths 3. Depth probe: used to measure depths 4. Main scale (cm) 5. Main scale (inch) 6. Vernier (cm) 7. Vernier (inch) 8. Retainer: used to block the movable part so as to allow the easy transferring of a measurement Both the main scale and the vernier scale readings are taken into account while making measurement. The main scale is the first reading on the main scale immediately to the left of the zero of the vernier scale while the vernier scale reading is the mark on the vernier scale which exactly coincides or aligns with a mark on the main scale. Example: 2.4 cm+ 0.07 cm = 2.47 cm (ii) Micrometer screw gauge In order to measure an object, the object is placed between the anvil and spindle (jaws). The thimble is rotated using the ratchet until the object is lightly gripped. DO NOT OVER TIGHTEN! Note that the ratchet (NOT THE THIMBLE) should be used to secure the object firmly between the jaws, otherwise the instrument could be damaged or give an inconsistent reading. It is recommended that 3 ‘click’s of the ratchet are obtained before taking the reading. Procedure on how to read the scale on a micrometer screw gauge is shown in the figure below. 3. Data and error......

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...their results in laboratory reports. 2. Scrutinize and inscribe the readings (i) Vernier caliper Parts of a vernier caliper: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Outside jaws: used to measure external lengths Inside jaws: used to measure internal lengths Depth probe: used to measure depths Main scale (cm) Main scale (inch) Vernier (cm) Vernier (inch) Retainer: used to block movable part to allow the easy transferring a measurement Both the main scale and the vernier scale readings are taken into account while making measurement. The main scale is the first reading on the main scale 2 UTAR FHSC1014 Mechanics Trimester 1 immediately to the left of the zero of the vernier scale while the vernier scale reading is mark on the vernier scale which exactly coincides or aligns with a mark on the main scale. Example: 2.4 cm cm + 0.07 cm = 2.47 (ii) Micrometer screw gauge In order to measure an object, the object is placed between the anvil and spindle (jaws). The thimble is rotated using the ratchet until the object is lightly gripped. DO NOT OVER TIGHTEN! Note that the ratchet (NOT THE THIMBLE) should be used to secure the object firmly between the jaws, otherwise the instrument could be damaged or give an inconsistent reading. It is recommended 3 ‘click’s of the ratchet are obtained before taking the reading. Procedure on how to read the scale on micrometer screw gauge is shown in the figure below. 3 UTAR FHSC1014......

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...UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN Centre Course Year/ Trimester Session : Centre for Foundation Studies (CFS) : Foundation in Science : Year 1 / Trimester 1 Unit Code Unit Title Lecturer : FHSP 1014 : Physics I : : 2015/05 Additional Questions 1: unit, dimensions, significant figures 1. According to the label on a bottle of salad dressing, the volume of contents is 0.473 liter (L). Using only the conversions 1 L = 1000 cm3 and 1 in. = 2.54 cm, express this volume in cubic inches. (Answer: 28.9 in3) 2. The diameter of a piece of cylindrical copper rod was measured as 20.0 mm with a vernier caliper. Its length was measured as 50.0 cm with a tape measure. (a) Determine the dimension of the area and volume. (b) Find the cross-sectional area of the rod in SI units. (c) Find the volume of the rod in SI units. 3. Pressure is defined as force per unit area. Which of the following in NOT the correct unit for pressure? (a) lb /in2 (b) N/m (c) N/ft2 (d) tons/m2 (Answer: B) 4. The period of oscillation t of a drop of liquid is given by the formula = where k is a dimensionless constant, a is the radius of the drop of liquid, ρ is the density and γ is the surface tension of the liquid with dimensions MT-2. Determine the actual formula by using dimensional analysis. (Answer: = ) 5. Express the following using the prefixes: (a) 1 × 106 volts, (b) 2 × 10-6 meters, 3 (c) 6 × 10 grams, (d) 18 × 102 meters,......

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...Using Vernier Calipers Introduction Vernier Calipers are a valuable measuring tool that enable us to increase our degree of precision when measuring the size of objects. However, learning to read callipers can be somewhat confusing, thus requiring a certain amount of practice. The activities described below assume students have never before used Vernier Calipers—they are intended to introduce them to this tool, to provide them with an opportunity to practice using them, and to then apply this new skill in a process of scientific inquiry. Special Safety Aspects When the jaw of the calipers is opened, a thin metal guide extends from the bottom of the calipers that could cause injury if students are not careful. Students should be told to take note of this. Curriculum Objectives These activities are intended to address Cluster 0 learning outcomes 5a and 5b in both the S1 and S2 curricula, which state that students should “select and use appropriate methods and tools for collecting data or information”, and “estimate and measure accurately using Systéme International (SI) and other standard units”, respectively. It is hoped that through these activities, students will begin to become familiar with Vernier Calipers, both so that they can measure accurately with them, and so that in the future, they will be able to determine if these would be an appropriate measuring tool for any task they might be doing. Introductory Activity: Learning to use Vernier......

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...Performed: August 27, 2015 Date Submitted: September 3, 2015 EXPERIMENT #1—The Vernier and Micrometer Caliper ABSTRACT In this experiment, the group used a Vernier and micrometer caliper to measure lengths, widths, depths and diameters of various objects. The Vernier and micrometer calipers’ accuracy aided the group to find the volume and density of the objects—namely the steel metal cube, washer and marble. They also used the triple beam balance to weigh the objects. The group compared the density values they computed to the standard value, and also computed for their results’ percentage error. In the end, the group concluded that the micrometer caliper is easier to use, and somehow more error-proof compared to the Vernier caliper. 1. Differentiate the Vernier and micrometer scales. The Vernier scale has the accuracy of 0.05 mm and the capacity of 155 mm. It has a slider, and is usually used for measuring inside and outside diameter, length and width as well as depth. Meanwhile, the micrometer caliper has the accuracy of 0.01mm and has a 26mm capacity. It has a rotary handle and is usually used for measuring diameters and width. 2. Draw the figure for the micrometer readings below. a. 3.86 mm b. 1.59 mm 3. State some of the errors that one might make in measuring length using both the Vernier and micrometer calipers. Errors in using the Vernier caliper usually involves the decimal digits of the measurements such as the......

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...Objective: To acquaint the student with basic principles of using measurement instrumentation and to help the student become familiar with several measuring devices used in physics and apply them to measuring length and mass. Particular emphasis will be given to the use of the Vernier Caliper and the Micrometer scale. Formulas, rules: Density: ρ=M/V Volume: Cylinder: V=π r^2h Rectangular box: V=l×w×h r: radius = d/2 d: diameter l: length w: Width h: Height M: Mass Results (tables): Cylinder: Measurement 1 2 3 Average H (cm) 6.42 6.43 6.44 6.43 d (cm) 2.23 2.22 2.24 2.23 V (cm^3) 25.07 24.89 25.38 25.11 M (g) 66.80 66.99 66.91 66.90 ρ (g/cm^3) 2.66 2.69 2.64 2.66 Rectangular Box: Measurement 1 2 3 Average l (cm) 4.98 4.97 4.96 4.97 w (cm) 3.24 3.27 3.28 3.26 h (cm) 1.61 1.66 1.67 1.65 V (cm^3) 25.98 26.98 27.17 26.71 M (g) 66.67 66.61 66.52 66.62 ρ (g/cm^3) 2.57 2.47 2.45 2.50 Graphs: Cylinder: Rectangular box: Calculations: Cylinder: #1: V=π r^2h=π×〖(2.23/2)〗^2×6.42=25.07 〖cm〗^3 ρ=M/V=66.80/25.07=2.66 〖gm/cm〗^3 #2: V=π r^2h=π×〖(2.22/2)〗^2×6.43=24.89 〖cm〗^3 ρ=M/V=66.99/24.89=2.69 〖gm/cm〗^3 #3: V=π r^2h=π×〖(2.24/2)〗^2×6.44=25.38 〖cm〗^3 ρ=M/V=66.91/25.38=2.64 〖gm/cm〗^3 Rectangular box: #1: V=l×w×h=4.98×3.24×1.61=25.98 〖cm〗^3 ρ=M/V=66.67/25.98=2.57 〖gm/cm〗^3 #2: V=l×w×h=4.97×3.27×1.66=26.98 〖cm〗^3 ρ=M/V=66.61/26.98=2.47 〖gm/cm〗^3 ......

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...we came up with the computed resultant forces of the three given concurrent forces by using the component method. II. Questions and Problems 1. Differentiate the resultant and equilibrant of two forces. The Vernier Caliper’s metric scales composed of a fixed and located on the lower part of the beam. Each division on the Vernier scale equals 0.9 of a division on the fixed scale. The part of the reading from the Vernier scale is in tenths of a millimeter, which means that the precision of the instrument is 0.1 mm or 0.01 cm. The Micrometer scale barrel is graduated in millimeters and it also has graduations in halves of millimeters which are indicated by the lower set of graduations on the barrel. The threads on the spindle are made so it takes two complete turns of the thimble for the spindle to move precisely one millimeter. The head (rotating scale) is divided into fifty equal divisions—each division indicating 0.01 mm, which is the precision of the instrument. Since our eye can still estimate another decimal place between marks on the rotating scale (or 0.001mm, which is 0.000001 m), this device is called a micrometer. Another comparison is that the Vernier Caliper has the capacity of 155 mm and has an accuracy of 0.05 mm while the Micrometer Caliper has the capacity of 26 mm and its accuracy is 0.01 mm. 2. If three concurrent forces are in equilibrium, what is the relation between any one of the three forces and the resultant of the other two forces? 3.......

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...laboratory reports. 2. Scrutinize and inscribe the readings (i) Vernier caliper Parts of a vernier caliper: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Outside jaws: used to measure external lengths Inside jaws: used to measure internal lengths Depth probe: used to measure depths Main scale (cm) Main scale (inch) Vernier (cm) Vernier (inch) Retainer: used to block movable part to allow the easy transferring a measurement 4 UTAR FHSC1014 Mechanics Trimester 1 Both the main scale and the vernier scale readings are taken into account while making measurement. The main scale is the first reading on the main scale immediately to the left of the zero of the vernier scale while the vernier scale reading is mark on the vernier scale which exactly coincides or aligns with a mark on the main scale. Example: 2.4 cm cm + 0.07 cm = 2.47 (ii) Micrometer screw gauge In order to measure an object, the object is placed between the anvil and spindle (jaws). The thimble is rotated using the ratchet until the object is lightly gripped. DO NOT OVER TIGHTEN! Note that the ratchet (NOT THE THIMBLE) should be used to secure the object firmly between the jaws, otherwise the instrument could be damaged or give an inconsistent reading. It is recommended 3 ‘click’s of the ratchet are obtained before taking the reading. 5 UTAR FHSC1014 Mechanics Trimester 1 Procedure on how to read the scale on micrometer screw gauge is shown in the......

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