Understanding the Impacts of the Eu Framework Program of Research and Technological Development

In: Other Topics

Submitted By selinsalcan
Words 1705
Pages 7
Understanding the Impacts of the
EU Framework Program of
Research and Technological
On the basis of Stratospheric Ozone Research


1) Evaluation of Framework Program
Amsterdam Treaty obligated EU to implement some European research program and policies in order to not fall beyond the world’ powerful countries such as United States or
Japan. Because of this obligation also involved a chapter on research and technological development, Framework Program of Research and Technological Development was established at early 80s. The main reasons of Framework Program focus on carrying
European Union to the world standards in the basis of research and development and make
EU to be able to compete with other countries on R&D areas, notably in energy and
Information Technology. Even so Framework Program had been started as one of the supportive program of R&D, day by day it has become to be one of the most powerful and important component of EU policy. In connection with EU’s desire on becoming as one body,
EU had to develop a way to be better at research and development areas than nation states.
Nation states were already making investment on R&D therefore there was no need to depend on EU and this point of view was conflicting with EU’s. Therefore to avoid and block the diversification between member states and EU, EU has started to invest on Framework
Program more and more by the time of progress and this made Framework Program sustainable and successful over time. Framework Program has become more importance with the release of European Research Area in 2000 and ERA made Framework Program more associated with EU research and innovation policies. In addition to ERA, establishing the idea of European Value Added which is about using EU funding to create or develop ideas, projects or policies etc. on EU level instead of national and…...

Similar Documents

Review Framework for Capacity Building Program

...Impact assessment of capacity building and training: assessment framework and two case studies Jenny Gordon and Kevin Chadwick Centre for International Economics, Canberra February 2007 The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) operates as part of Australia’s international development cooperation program, with a mission to achieve more-productive and sustainable agricultural systems, for the benefit of developing countries and Australia. It commissions collaborative research between Australian and developing-country researchers in areas where Australia has special research competence. It also administers Australia’s contribution to the International Agricultural Research Centres. ACIAR seeks to ensure that the outputs of its funded research are adopted by farmers, policy makers, quarantine officers and other beneficiaries. In order to monitor the effects of its projects, ACIAR commissions independent assessments of selected projects. This series reports the results of these independent studies. Communications regarding any aspects of this series should be directed to: The Research Program Manager Policy Linkages and Impact Assessment Program ACIAR GPO Box 1571 Canberra ACT 2601 Australia tel +612 62170500 email © Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research GPO Box 1571, Canberra ACT 2601 Gordon, J. and Chadwick, K. Impact assessment of capacity building and training: assessment framework and two case studies. Impact......

Words: 54506 - Pages: 219

Technological Impact on Higher Education

...Technology Impact on Higher Education Shoong Wai Kin Master in Information Communication Management 18 November 2012 Evaluation of Technology Impact on Higher Education The important role played by ICT (Information and Communication Technology) in today’s world cannot be denied by anyone, whether it is in the corporate world, social, home and so on. Technology has changed the way on how universities teach and how the students learn. The advancement and pervasiveness of ICT in the 21st century and in the world today means that many nations have been relying on technology to handle and address many arising challenges faced in the education field. Some literature reviews were done in this paper where we would look into the needs of learners today, what and how they learn, how ICT could be used in learning, the new culture of learning through online learning and virtual classroom, how e-learning was accepted among the learners and what were the barriers to ICT implementation in higher education institutions. Introduction Peter and Hong (2011) pointed out that in the past few decades; there have been great changes in education, especially to those economical advanced countries. The arising issues of massification, internationalization, diversification and marketisation in higher education were brought about by political, economical and social changes as well as the globalization and global economic crisis. These issues......

Words: 5171 - Pages: 21

Culture: the Foundation for Technological Development

...Culture: The Foundation for Technological Development Since humans first walked the earth there has been a focus on the inventing of tools and technologies to better the quality of everyday lives, and a comparison of life through the different eras exemplifies the impact that new technologies have had on society. Delving into various “evolution timelines” of technologies provides us with important insight into how and why new technologies are developed, and the impact that these technologies have on society. Portable music devices are an example of a development that emerged from a social need, yet have had a significant cultural impact. Looking at this example and the perspectives of various theorists we aim to explore the initial impact that certain technologies have had on the development of society and ultimately how culture shapes new technologies and media forms. Different theorist’s definitions of the term “technology” need to be looked at collectively, as there is not one explanation that can wholly encapsulate a true definition. Theorists have opposing views on what technology is, therefore their individual perspectives will always shadow their definitions to some extent. For example, Lorenzo Simpson’s definition of technology suggests it is “a constellation of knowledge, processes, skills and products [that aim to] control and transform”, this comes from a culture shapes technology perspective as it highlights that technology comes from the “knowledge,......

Words: 2409 - Pages: 10

Assess the Impact of Eu and National Regulations on the Prices of Natural Gas Across the Eu

...Assess the impact of EU and national regulations on the prices of natural gas across the EU”. Abstract: European natural gas market currently has a decline of indigenous resources that is, at the same time, combined with the growing dependence of gas supplies coming from a few foreign exporters. As a result of this, new EU regulations and polices are proposed. This paper will analyze the past gas reforms and will try to assess the impact of those regulations on prices for natural gas and also investigate the competition of the EU natural gas market. The empirical analysis will focus on reform indicators such as vertical integration and market structure of the natural gas market, in order to show how these indicators are related to prices. By Kirill Osaulenko Content 1.0 Introduction ……………………………………………………..3 2.0 Literature Review ……………………………………………….3 2.1 The Structure Of the Gas Market in Europe ………………...3 2.2 How competitive is the natural gas market in Europe ……....4 2.3 Liberalization process across Europe………………………..5 2.4 Existing Empirical Evidence in the Academic Literature …..7 2.5 Summary of the review……………………………………...9 3.0 Competition in the EU gas Market …………………………….10 3.1 Wholesale Market ………………………………………….11 3.2 Production Market …………………………………………12 3.3 Conclusion on the competition in EU………………………12 4.0 EU Gas......

Words: 9150 - Pages: 37

Technological Development

...Technological Development ITS325-1: Technology, Ethics, and Global Community Colorado State University- Global Campus Amy McLaughlin May 25, 2014 Introduction The world is rapidly changing and we are in continual pursuit of faster and more gratifying solutions. This paper gives an overview of society’s use of technological evolution to compensate for our need for instant gratification. It will also take a look at the technology of video chat and how this innovation may potentially change our ways of communication and travel. Telegraphs Effects on Society As a result of Samuel Morse’s telegraph cross country communication improved vastly. The telegraph’s role was completely transformed by 1880, becoming crucial to the political and economic life of the nation (Winston & Edelbach, p. 40, 2014). After the Atlantic cable was completed, the speed and frequency of the communications between nations increased, forever changing the political landscape (Winston & Edelbach, p. 39, 2014). The use of telegraphs became integral to society. It was the lifeline for newspapers. President Lincoln’s balloon corps took off in 1861. The primary reason for the corps’ existence was the fact that the balloon was equipped with a telegraph (Army Balloon Corps, n.d.). The operator was able to give real time information regarding the movements of enemy troops. This could then be reported to the ground troops, thus giving us the first aerial telegram. Railroad companies used it...

Words: 1406 - Pages: 6

Conformity of the Cba Students to the Use of Continues Technological Development

...the gas pedal. All of these innovations are because of technological developments. Agreeing to the definition of technology that can be applied to all stages of history may be impossible. Early technology evolved primarily through accident and trial and error. While the discovery of technology is still very important, contemporary technology is mainly the result of a constantly expanding knowledge base. With the proliferation of technologies that are able to overcome the obstacles of time and space, one would be use to gain an understanding of other culture; meet people all over the world. Maintain and strengthen familial relationship, communicate effectively with others, and help people to become more socially adept. However, some technological advances cause people to be distracted, overly stressed, and increasingly isolated. Many people are involved in an abundant number of relationships through technology, but sometimes the quantity of these associations leaves people feeling qualitatively empty. Obviously, technology has had a profound impact on what it means to be social. Today, the concept of an educated person includes an element of technological literacy. Technology offers broad tools that extend human capabilities. In contemporary society, the bond between human and technology goes to very extent level, and this is must be carefully examined in order for us to keep in perspective the scope of technological variation, the scope of its effects globally, the......

Words: 6904 - Pages: 28

Understanding Eu Fiscal Compact

...The Fiscal Compact: A Pillar of Understanding: In this project we will look at the Fiscal Compact Treaty which came into effect on the 1st of January 2013. Firstly, we will briefly outline the various factors that led to the signing of the Treaty. Following this we will assess the rules established under the Treaty and how the Treaty will impact future fiscal policy. Furthermore, we will compare and contrast which method of ratification, public referendum or a vote in parliament is more suitable for Ireland when it comes to deciding on EU matters, such as the Fiscal Compact. In addition to that we will interview a person who has strong convictions regarding the Fiscal Compact. To conclude, we will present our opinions and recommendations based upon our research and findings. We will seek to predict whether the Treaty will solve the Eurozone Crisis or plunge the EMU into greater financial instability. Background and Contributing Factors A number of factors contributed to the signing of the Fiscal Compact Treaty on 2 March 2012 (European Council, 2013). Although the Eurozone crisis was the main driving force behind the signing of the Fiscal Compact, a number of flaws existed before the collapse of the Eurozone (McArdle, 2012). McArdle (2012) notes that a major drawback was the fact that the Eurozone didn’t have a common fiscal policy. A “Stability and Growth Pact” (SGP) was passed and came into effect on the 1st January 1999 and made a number of key structural changes......

Words: 4798 - Pages: 20

Technological Impact of E-Cigarettes

...and   is   classified   as   a   poison   (Cancer   Research   UK,   2013).   The   issue   has   attracted   heated   debate,   but   the   question   remains:   “Should   e-­‐ cigarettes   be   classed   as   general   consumer   products,   tobacco   products,   medicines   or   drug-­‐delivery  devices?”               2   In   attempting   to   answer   the   above   question,   this   paper   discusses   the   evolution   of   e-­‐ cigarettes  through  the  lenses  of  technological  determinism  (TD)  and  social  constructivist   approach   (SCOT).   In   the   first   part   of   the   paper,   the   main   assumptions   underlying   TD   are   considered  and  development  of  e-­‐cigarettes  is  illustrated  as  a  linear  process.  A  thorough   criticism   of   TD   is   provided   and   e-­‐cigarettes   are   used   to   show   its   main   limitations.   The   second   part   of   the   paper   offers   an   overview   of   SCOT   and   analyzes   how   its   main   elements   –   RSGs,   technological   frames,   inclusion,   interpretative   flexibility,  ......

Words: 3915 - Pages: 16

Development Research

...not deal in any depth with the School-Based Assessment (SBA). This guideline should be read in conjunction with: • • • The National Curriculum Statement (NCS) Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS): Economics The National Protocol of Assessment: An addendum to the policy document, the National Senior Certificate: A qualification at Level 4 on the National Qualifications Framework (NQF), regarding the National Protocol for Assessment (Grades R–12) The national policy pertaining to the programme and promotion requirements of the National Curriculum Statement, Grades R–12 Copyright reserved Please turn over Economics 4 Examination Guidelines 2. ASSESSMENT IN GRADE 12 2.1 DBE/2014 FORMAT OF THE PAPERS CLASSIFICATION OF TOPICS FOR THE GRADE 12 ECONOMICS QUESTION PAPERS FINAL EXAMINATION PAPERS ECONOMICS GR.12 PAPER 1 150 MARKS - PAPER 2 1½ HOURS 150 MARKS MAIN TOPIC MACROECONOMICS TOPICS: • Circular flow • Business cycles • Public sector • Foreign exchange markets • Protectionism and free trade MAIN TOPIC ECONOMIC PURSUITS TOPICS • Growth and development • Industrial development policies • Economic and social performance indicators - 1½ HOURS MAIN TOPIC MICROECONOMICS TOPICS: • Perfect markets • Imperfect markets • Market failures MAIN TOPIC CONTEMPORARY ECONOMIC ISSUES TOPICS • Inflation • Tourism • Environmental sustainability 2.2 DETAIL OF THE GRADE 12 ECONOMICS QUESTION PAPERS • • • Each paper carries 150 MARKS. The duration of each paper is......

Words: 5874 - Pages: 24

The Impact of the Eu

...The Impact of the EU on Greece’s Economy INT 650 9-2 Short Paper Greece is one of the most affected country’s that entered into the European Union because the unification of the economies of the sovereign states in the region known as Europe is limiting their ability to emerge from their own financial crisis. In-order for Greece to devise a solution to their current national debt they must negotiate with the leaders of the European Union to create terms that will allow them the ability to correct their economy. However, the social unrest that this delay of negotiations is causing continues to inhibit Greece from moving forward in-order to restore stability to their country. Russia is interested in helping the country, but this would violate the terms set by the EU; plus the population of Greece is split between the ideas of removing itself from the European Union and entering into another agreement with other nations such as Russia. The Unification of Greece into the Union was not the creation of their financial issues, but is hindering the ability of the country to correct it in-order to help its citizens. The country is experiencing tremendous instability in their banking system due to the distrust of the people losing their money in the banks because the government fears that if they do not freeze the people’s accounts a rush to withdraw their cash will occur once the announcement after June, 2015 passes that a resolution for Greece’s debt was not agreed......

Words: 854 - Pages: 4

Technological Development

...“Technological development has a positive rather than a negative impact on society.” Discuss. In the contemporary world, whether or not technological development has a positive rather than a negative impact on society is debatable. Technological development refers to a progress in scientific understanding that produces new equipment and methods. This essay will discuss these impacts which include convenience of long-distance communication, improvement of health and medical treatment and the widening gap between rich and poor. Firstly, convenience of long-distance communication is an important positive impact caused by technological development on society. It is well known that the continuous developments in telecommunications technology and the expansion of the Internet have made the long-distance communication extraordinary convenience and high efficiency. For example, overseas students can use mobile phones and instant messaging software to contact with family and friends who are living in their homeland. Geographical distance is no longer a major hurdle in human relationships. Therefore, technological development has a positive impact in long-distance communication. Furthermore, another positive impact of technological development is the improvement of human health and medical treatment level. For example, the average life span of humans continues to lengthen due to the improvement of the level of clinic medical treatment. Many kinds of illness can be cured......

Words: 466 - Pages: 2

The Research Process Theoretical Framework and Hypothesis Development

...The Research Process Theoretical framework and hypothesis development • CHAPTER 4 * Chapter Objectives • The need for theoretical framework o Components of theoretical framework • Variables and its types o Identify and label variables associated with any given situation. • Defining hypothesis o Null and alternative hypothesis • Managerial implications The Steps for Research process –Step 4-5 * Theoretical Framework A theoretical framework represents your beliefs on how certain phenomena (or variables or concepts) are related to each other (a model)and an explanation on why you believe thatthese variables are associated to each other (a theory). Theoretical Framework A framework is a model of how one theorizes or makes logical sense of therelationships among several factors that have been identified as important to the problem. (Sekaran, 2001) Components of Theoretical Framework o Identify and label the variables correctly. o State the relationships among the variables: known as formulate hypotheses. o Explain how or why you expect these relationships. So, Theoretical Framework is ? • A mechanism that helps to clarify a big idea. • A means through which you can explore the multiple dimensions of a big idea. • An instrument for judgment. • A filter through which you can consider various ideas in order to further clarify a position. So, Theoretical Framework is? • A guides to your research, determining what things you will measure, and what...

Words: 1772 - Pages: 8

“Technological Development Has a Positive Rather Than a Negative Impact on Society.” Discuss.

...“Technological Development has a positive rather than a negative impact on society.” Discuss. Technological development refers to the process of research and development of technology. In discussing whether or not the development of technology has a positive impact on society a number of arguments, both or against, need to be examined. These arguments include bringing convenience to our daily life, the economic growth bought by the technology advancement, the problem of electronic waste and the decline of interpersonal skills. Firstly, technology is very useful in our daily life. Nowadays, almost everyone has a mobile phone, it improves the communication between people. Also, the invention of GPS solves many problems that we had. For examples, you can find a certain restaurant easily as long as your mobile phone has GPS function and you will not worry about getting lost even if you are travelling in other countries. Another reason why technological development has a positive impact on society is that it boosts the economy. As more labors are required for doing research and development on inventing new products, more people will be employed, it helps to reduce the unemployment rate. Moreover, when the new products were being introduced to the market, it would attract many consumers to make purchases, as a result, it leads to an economic growth. However, as the technology develops so rapidly, tons of new products are releasing every single day, the consumers will......

Words: 375 - Pages: 2

Program Framework Within the Nonprofit Organization:

...Running Head: PROGRAM FRAMEWORK WITHIN THE NONPROFIT Program Framework within the Nonprofit Organization: How to Create a Successful Nonprofit Khalid Abuhassan, Helen Alexander, Tanaya Horne, Andrew Lang, Lisa Long, Joshua Wheeler Liberty University Abstract The program framework of a nonprofit organization is the planning foundation that it is built on. The authors of this paper recognize the importance of creating a strong blueprint from which a nonprofit is then realized. An explanation factoring each step of the strategic planning process from a start-up perspective is followed by the authors applying the newly acquired knowledge to broadly create a “mock” foundation. Program Framework within the Nonprofit Organization: How to Create a Successful Nonprofit Harvard Kennedy School’s curriculum for one of their nonprofit classes states that “Strategic Frameworks for Nonprofit Organizations is designed to help nonprofit and NGO leaders use strategic management frameworks to improve their organizations.” (Letts, 2012) Smith, Bucklin & Associates, Inc. teaches: “Strategic planning is a management tool that can help focus – and periodically refocus – an organization’s vision and priorities. This planning process establishes choices about how best to accomplish the organization’s mission.” (Smith, 2000) Carl Richardson simplifies the urgency of strategic planning by asserting “An organization that is growing and hopes to sustain that growth needs a set of......

Words: 2703 - Pages: 11

Framework for Analyzing the Development Impact of a Project

...Case Analysis: “Framework for analyzing the development impact of a project”. Adam smith wrote in his 1976 classic “The Wealth of Nations” that a private businessman worried only about the profitability of his investments, would be guided by an invisible hand , to those actions which are best for society as whole. But he also noted that the results do not always follow. More often than not, In a free market the managers will take into account the extra costs and benefits from their actions and decisions to their private business and not consider their effects on society as a whole. There are several reasons why the profitability of an investment from a society’s perspective may differ from the private business. An example would be the environmental pollution impact of the Leather tanning and textile dyeing industries vs. the private profits. The concept of social return is very complex considering that every project affects a wide cross section of society different ways. These impacts may be primary and secondary in nature. Determining the net impact for calculation of social returns is complex. This case provides a framework to analyze the social returns as compared to the private returns of an investment project .The methodology to do this is follows Define the reasons, why social and private returns will differ. Namely • Externalities- All large projects have negative and positive externalities. For example a new power plant in power starved Indian states may......

Words: 1464 - Pages: 6