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In: Business and Management

Submitted By queenvip
Words 10150
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管理学理论存在的问题

我们回顾了各种管理流派后发现,目前的各种管理理论均无法解释组织管理的所有现实,即使把现有一切学派的理论都结合在一起,也不能使我们对管理得出一个完整的认识。
管理学作为一门科学,它必须解释组织管理的现实,且要能解释管理所面临的全部现实。同时,任何一门科学均应有其统一的、严格的概念、原理、方法、职能,但管理学的学科体系至今在国际上还没有一个公认的统一模式,仍处于管理理论丛林的状态,还是一门远还没有成熟的学科。管理学的不成熟使得管理的研究和教学无所适从,影响了管理学的发展,管理学理论存在的问题可以归纳成以下几点:

一、对管理的内容没有统一的认识 我们在前面已述及管理理论学派林立,有管理过程学派、管理科学学派、社会系统学派、决策理论学派、系统理论学派、经验主义学派、经理角色学派、权变理论学派,早期的行为学派等,各个管理学派对管理职能的内容理解都不尽相同。如管理过程学派认为管理的职能包括计划、组织、人事、领导和控制;经理角色学派认为管理的工作包括人际关系工作、信息沟通工作和决策工作;社会系统学派认为管理的工作包括确定目标、运用手段、控制组织和进行协调;决策理论学派认为管理的工作主要为决策。 之所以这样,其根本的原因在于不同学派的学者都是在自己的实践经验的基础上,结合自己的专业知识,分别从不同的角度研究管理问题。由于研究者所处的环境和时代不同,研究的方法不同,研究的管理对象重点不同,形成了不同的看法和不同的思路,这些学者既排斥其他管理学派,又都无法解释或不去设法解释其他管理学派,往往独树一帜,从而形成了多种管理学派。

二、管理的本质认识不清 在我们对物质的认识中,物质的本质是最重要的,我们只有了解了水是氢气和氧气结合而成的,我们才真正了解了水,否则,我们对水的认识只是在表面上。但令人感到奇怪的是,现代管理理论对管理的本质研究少之甚少,似乎所有的管理学家都忽视了本质这个至关重要的问题,只有很少的管理学家对管理的本质有一些论述,如孔茨把协调作为管理的本质。虽然管理过程学派指出协调是管理的本质,却很少看到他们在管理学中运用管理的本质,只是笼统的说协调存在管理的各个职能中,似乎管理的本质是可有可无的东西。 从根本上来说,分析管理的本质应是管理研究的主要内容,不同学派之所以对管理的研究内容有分歧,正是因为这些学派均缺乏对管理本质的认识,不同学派对管理的描述大都是表现现象,而人们对管理的认识也只能停留在现象上。而管理现象的表现是多种多样的,即使是同一管理现象也能从不同的角度加以描述,管理学之所以学派混乱,其实质是管理学家对管理的本质缺乏了解,未能抓住管理的本质,仅从一个侧面说明管理,从不同的方面对管理说出自己的理解。就像盲人摸象,有的说大象像一面墙、有的说像一根柱子、有的说像一把扇子、有的说像一条绳子,虽然这些说明能正确地描述大象的某一部位,但都未能正确地描述大象。 不从理论上解决管理的本质问题,管理学是根本无法走出管理理论丛林的,因为管理现象会随着管理实践的发展而不断地发生变化,而科学技术的发展又能不断地开阔人的视野,使人可以从新的视角来考察事物的现象,管理理论丛林非但不会逐渐统一,反而会更加枝繁叶茂。

三、未形成统一的管理原理 一个理论如果没有原理的话,我们恐怕很难认同这个理论。管理原理是对管理活动的高度概括并反映其客观规律的基本道理。科学管理的基本原理应能适用于人类的一切活动,从最简单的个人行动到需要最繁杂合作的大型企业的工作。管理原理是管理学的重要组成都分。 管理原理统一的思想涉及很早,许多管理学家试图用管理原理的统一来解决管理学的统一。比较早提出管理原理的是法约尔,他提出了一般管理的14项原则:即劳动分工;权力与责任;纪律;统一指挥;统一领导;个人利益服从整体利益;人员的报酬;集中;等级制度;秩序;公平;人员的稳定;首创精神;人员的团结。但法约尔提出的是管理的原则,而不是原理,因为原理是在任何情况下都可以普遍运用的;而原则是运用在某些特定的条件下,它是人们处理某些特定管理问题的准绳,它既有严格性又有一定的灵活性。管理原则的运用,就是要求管理者在基本原理的指导下,能根据具体的管理问题灵活地采取不同的解决办法。…...

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