Submitted By von1002
Each year, over one thousand tornadoes touch down in the United States, much greater than any other country in the world (Edwards, 2013). Typically in the spring, the cool dry air from Canada meets with the warm humid air from the Gulf of Mexico. These mixtures of air meet in the mid-west to create super-cell storms, ultimately leading to the formation of tornadoes. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, tornados are responsible for numerous deaths each year. In 2011, there were reported over 500 fatalities in the Unites States due to tornados (NOAA, 2013). Scientists are unfortunately unable to prevent potentially deadly tornados to ensure public safety. Tornadogenesis “deals with the different processes and features that help create tornadoes” (Howard, 2013). Understanding how these super-cells form may help scientists to minimize casualty loss as well as property damage from these deadly twisters. Tornadogenesis can be classified into many different types based on their complex formation processes. Centered on the recorded data of circulations and wind speeds, the tornado is the most powerful type of circulation detectable in the atmosphere (Lin, 2007). Type I tornados produced by super cellular mesocyclones, are among the most common and intense type of tornados (Agee, 2009). A super mesocyclone is a long-lived thunderstorm containing a continuous updraft of air within it. These thunderstorms will have a low-lying cloud that rotates and causes this updraft. “Out of the 5322 individual mesocyclones detected by Doppler radars, only 26% were associated with tornadoes” (Lin, 2007). A pressure-deficit tube is formed due to the mesocyclone moving downward. This is termed called a ‘top-down’ concept. A tendency of the elements in the mesocyclone to spin, or vorticity, will result as pressure decreases within the vortex.…...