Supply Chain Management Methods

In: Business and Management

Submitted By mars1321
Words 504
Pages 3
1. 供应链管理概述 任何一个企业都不能孤立地生存,它需要市场、需要各种企业的支持。这些市场和企业联系到一起,形成了一条长长的供需链。所以,供需链是早已客观存在。当前的市场竞争已经是供应链之间的竞争,是一种“合作竞争”。在市场竞争形势下供应链管理(Supply Chain Management,SCM)的意义就更为突出。
实质上,在供应链上的每一个环节都含有“供”和“需”的双重含义。例如,企业的销售部门是市场的供方,但又是生产部门的需方;而生产部门是销售部门的供方,又是采购部门的需方。“供”与“需”总是相对而言、相伴而生的。所以,也有人称它为供需链。
供应链上有5种“流”在流动。这就是信息流、物流、资金流、价值流和工作流。这些“流”相互关联、相互影响,形成了一个完整的系统。
•信息流分成需求信息和供应信息两种不同流动方向的信息流。
•物流是供需链上最显而易见的物资流动。计划与控制功能主要是针对物流的。
•企业的各项业务活动都会消耗一定的资源,消耗资源会导致资金流出,所以企业中有资金流。对此,提供了各种监控资金流动、分析产品获利性和优化总成本的功能。
•各种物料在供需链上移动,是一个不断增加其技术含量或附加值的增值过程。因此,供需链还有增值链的含义。提供了分析增值作业的功能。
•信息、物料、资金都不会自己流动,物料的价值也不会自动增值。要靠人的劳动来实现,要靠企业的业务活动—工作流,它们才能流动起来。
整个供应链管理框架图如下:

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结合Intranet/Extranet/Internet等新技术,把供应链进一步扩充,可以得到一个全新的现代企业管理模式,如下图所示:

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从20世纪60年代起,企业就开始了管理信息化的应用,从MRP到ERP,逐步地实现了对采购、库存、生产、销售、财务和人力资源等业务的管理,使其内部业务流程和处理实现了自动化,为企业内部纵向一体化管理创造了不可磨灭的功绩。但是,在经济全球化蓬勃发展的今天,ERP在供应链的跨企业横向一体化管理方面显得力不从心。以前是企业与企业之间的竞争,以后将是供应链与供应链之间的竞争。因此,全球500强企业在经过若干年的ERP应用后又纷纷引入了SCM(供应链管理)。 供应链管理(Supply Chain Management) 是对供应链所涉及组织的集成和对物流、信息流、资金流的协同,以满足用户的需求和提高供应链整体竞争能力。简言之,供应链管理就是优化和改进供应链活动, 供应链管理的对象是供应链的组织(企业)和它们之间的“流”;应用的方法是集成和协同;目标是满足用户需求,最终是提高供应链的整体竞争能力。 随着新技术和管理模式的不断涌现和应用,供应链管理在企业内的角色和地位在过去三十多年中已经发生了巨大的变化。在20世纪7O年代,供应链管理还被称作"分销",集中于企业内部的仓储和运输的整合优化。从1980年代起,供应链管理的中心转移到整个供应链中流程和成本结构的再造。HerbertW.Davis&Co.的数字表明,从1982年到1990年间,北美的供应链成本,包括成品运输、仓储、订单处理、客户服务、行政管理和存货成本等,降低了将近三分之一。自20世纪90年代起,供应链管理的中心开始从降低成本转向提高客户服务水平。20世纪90年代后期,战略供应链管理的浪潮开始兴起。战略供应链管理区别于传统理念的关键是从"成本为中心"转变为"以客户为中心",从最终用户开始分析供应链各环节的可能组合的收益和风险,进行企业的未来战略定位和设计。
有效的供应链管理可以使管理者充分了解到整条供应链的信息,这条链从原材料的获得开始,到产品的生产,并一直延伸到把产成品送到客户手中,管理者有了这些信 息,则可以进行更加科学、全面的决策。供应链规划把整条供应链作为一个连续的、无缝进行的活动来加以规划和优化,把整条链中各环节的规划工作集成在一起, 而不是各行其事。它能够同步地考虑需求、能力、物料等约束环节,在这一点上,它是区别于MRP以及DRP的。 相对于ERP的软件包而言,SCM软件还有其他一些专长,例如把整条供应链图形化管理,使得在有些时候,问题的所在一目了然。SCM引导你更加轻松地遨游供应链的数据海洋,这由供应链导航软件所提供的精致的图形用户界面就做得到。这种界面能使您的视线穿透供应链的里里外外,无论是需求、供给,还是排程、运输,一切尽在您的指尖。…...

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