Substance and Economics

In: Business and Management

Submitted By Corbo101
Words 1209
Pages 5
SUBSTANCE AND ECONOMICS Culture is a learned reaction, this human survival trait gives us a way to colonize and adapt to our environment. With out this key element, adaptation becomes complicated, and our species will die off. Archeologist have dug and scraped away the dirt, rocks and mud to bring us a glimpse of the past. Their fieldwork has shown us how we, as a whole, have biologically adapted to suit our modern needs in the environment that our ancestors have lived in. In addition, they also tell us how we have changed the natural environment as the population has increased in size. This brings us to substance and economics, a basic foundation in which a culture can survive. The definition of economics is reacting to the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. For the definition of substance I have found two that compliment this cross-cultural comparison. One is material possessions, wealth, and property. The second definition is that which gives stability or solidarity, confidence, and ground. These definitions are not only evident in today's modern social infrastructures but also evident in cultures of the past and the social order in other countries. We have come to understand that there are four ways to sustain a community that our evolution process has brought us to. These ways are hunting and gathering, fishing and gardening, herding, and agriculture. The longest known survival method is hunting and gathering. This course of action was a main part of the old stone culture known as the Paleolithic period when hominids walked the land. They would gather berries, seeds, wild fruits, vegetables and even hunted wild game in the area. This type of practice is still used today in Africa and other parts of the world. Similarly, the Yiwara, who inhabit the heart of the Gibson Desert, have a lifestyle adapted to this arid…...

Similar Documents

The Economic Substance of Accounting Treatment of Property, Plant and Equipment

...The Economic Substance of Accounting Treatment of Property, Plant and Equipment Related IASs and Faithful Representation April 03, 2010 Introduction Theoretical principles of conceptual framework help determine which events should take place and when. They aid professionals with development of new standards and principles. The users of financial statements of public companies depend on the faithful representation of the entity’s financial statements. The financial statements must be adjusted on a regular basis to reflect economic substance of their information, as the users need these amounts to faithfully represent the account balances as an indicator of a company’s future earning power. As IFRS is introduced into Canadian practice in 2001, companies will be required to focus on which methods will emphasize economic substance with the changes in accounting policies. In the following discussion, we will focus one aspect of the conceptual framework around IFRS, in particular, economic substance, as it relates to the application of IFRS in reporting Property Plant and Equipment (PPE.) Recognition of PPE to Reflect Economic Substance Changes to the recognition of property, plant, and equipment Among the most significant changes are the options of accounting policy regarding the ongoing valuation of an asset on a class by class basis. Under GAAP, the cost model was the only choice; IFRS provides two options, the cost model or the revaluation model. These options......

Words: 3015 - Pages: 13

Substance Abuse

...In respect to substance abuse, prevention is organized activity designed to avoid or decrease alcohol and other drug problems. The focus may be on drugs, community environments, or individuals. Prevention efforts aim to promote youth development, reduce risk-taking behaviors, build assets and resilience, and prevent problem behaviors across the individual’s life span. Prevention activities may take place in schools, churches, homes, and a variety of other settings. The prevention strategy reaching the most people is education. Other prevention activities reinforce the impact that education creates. On the other hand, intervention constitutes of steps taken for early identification and treatment of an alcohol or other drug problem that has already begun. Also, intervention includes strategies used to prevent, treat, or otherwise control a health or social problem. It is intended to ease and accelerate the drug abuser’s entrance into treatment, thereby minimizing the harm that may occur. The process usually includes recognition of a problem, referral, and follow-up. Similar to prevention activities, intervention activities may take place in homes, schools, worksites, and other settings. Good prevention programs use a structured, community-based approach to substance abuse prevention through models that have proven to be effective. Examples of such models are the Strategic Prevention Framework or Communities That Care (CTC) models. CTC is a coalition-based community......

Words: 404 - Pages: 2

Substance Abuse

...Substance Abuse By: Ashley Johnson Introduction People abuse different substance/drugs for many reasons. The toll for this abuse can be seen in our hospitals and emergency departments through direct damage to health by substance abuse and its link to physical trauma. Jails and prisons tally daily the strong connection between crime and drug dependence and abuse. Although use of some drugs such as cocaine has declined, use of other drugs such as heroin and "club drugs" has increased. A drug is any substance that crosses from the bloodstream into the brain and that somehow changes the way the brain is functioning. By this definition, some common substances such as alcohol, nicotine, and even caffeine are considered “drugs.” Drug abuse implies “willful, improper use due to an underlying disorder or quest for hedonistic or immoral please” (N. Miller, 1995). Substance abuse is “harmful use of one or more psychoactive substance” (Abadinsky, 2008). The term substance abuse describes abusive or harmful use of any substance; it also known as a chemical or drug abuse. Drugs can have the wrong effects on people especially when used improperly. Not only does drug abuse harm you but it also breaks up families. Statement of the Problem According to www.medicinenet.com, the term substance abuse describes abusive or harmful use in excess of any substances. A drug is any substance that crosses from the bloodstream into the brain and that somehow changes the way the......

Words: 858 - Pages: 4

Economics of Substance Abuse

...Health Economics Abstract Studies, research, and conclusions on the effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programs are numerous. However, there does not appear to be a single answer or even a manageable set of solutions for how to effectively and efficiently treat those suffering the ill effects of substance abuse. This paper aims to make the case that the most effective way to deal with this problem is to attack it at the source, by trying to eliminate, or at the very least disrupt, the supply of illicit drugs available for purchase and consumption. The attempt to make this case is done by pointing out the mixed results of previous substance abuse treatment programs and by using systems theory to explain why the complexity of treatment options makes it difficult to accurately evaluate such programs. The Economic Impact on Substance Abuse The effect of substance abuse on the United States economy is astronomical. Consider that in 2004, almost a tenth of the nation’s population ages 12 and older were classified with substance abuse or dependence disorders (Morgan & Crane, 2010). The issue is so complex, in fact, it is nearly impossible to put an accurate price tag on the impact. If one focuses solely on the economic impact of this epidemic, one would have to calculate numerous costs. People who abuse and are addicted to illicit drugs spend hundreds and thousands of dollars to feed their habit, which is money that could be spent in more productive......

Words: 2958 - Pages: 12

Substance Abuse

...a feeling of ‘stress’ until the craving is relieved. The relief felt when this craving is finally satisfied is the feeling that smokers commonly mistake as ‘relaxing’. Eventually, smokers need increasing levels of nicotine to feel ‘normal’. Cigarette smokers often report that smoking helps to relieve feelings of anxiety and stress. The high smoking prevalence among people facing social and economic deprivation suggests that smoking may be used as a self-medicating method of coping with stress. However, instead of helping people relax, smoking actually increases anxiety and tension. The feeling of relaxation is temporary and soon gives way to withdrawal symptoms and increased cravings. While the self-medication theory is widely believed by many people working in mental health, smoking is not, in fact, an effective means of managing a mental health problem. References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), 2000. Sarafino, E. P. (2011). Health psychology: Biopsychosocial interactions (7th ed.). Ch. 7. Substance Abuse and Misuse. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The Royal College of Physicians. Smoking and mental health London. RCP. March 2013 World Health Organization. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) Version for 2010. Chapter 5: Mental and behavioral disorders. F00-F99 Available on the WHO website....

Words: 913 - Pages: 4

Substance Abuse

...Substance Abuse Kyra Prall HCA/250 3/3/2013 Marie Smith Substance Abuse Using drugs started in the early centuries. Smoking tobacco became popular after Christopher Columbus discovered the positive affects of smoking tobacco leaves. Alcohol was seen as a gift from God, and other drugs stemmed from thrill seekers trying different chemicals and natural substances for pleasure. When using drugs frequently a psychological and physical dependence occurs due to the pleasure and relief assoaciated with drug use. Drug use is most commonly started through peer pressure, model observation, and advertisement. The use of tobacco is commonly started in the early 20’s of an adult. There are a number of reasons why people may start to smoke tobacco. As a child growing up, children may see their parents or older siblings smoking cigarettes making them want to try it. As children grow into young adults, they are either pressured into smoking cigarettes or they see their favorite role models smoking cigaerretes. Teenagers usually view cigarettes as the cool thing to do and start becoming regular smoker in the early 20’s. At this age many people have higher risk factors such as having kids, not graduating from college, low paying jobs, or problems with their appearance. Although cigarettes may have a positive feeling as far as calming the person, or realiving stress, there are also negative factors. A persons health is damaged by cigarettes. The nicotine in the cigarette causes......

Words: 731 - Pages: 3

Substance Abuse

... | |Substance Abuse | |Final Research Paper Substance abuse is characterized as a social problem in numerous parts of America. Substance abuse is defined as a pattern of harmful use of substances for mood-altering purposes (“Drug Abuse”). Drug abuse is the use of illicit drugs or abuse of prescription or over the counter drugs for purposes other than those for which they are indicated or in a manner or in qualities other than directed (“Drug Abuse”). Many people believe that substance abusers, drugs abusers, and addicts should be able to stop taking these substances and drugs if they are willing to change their behavior. What many people do not understand is that substance and drug abuse is a problem that needs to be addressed. It is not as easy as some people think to stop using these substances and drugs. There are several causes for substance abuse. Substance abuse ranges in many different ages from teenagers to elderly. This social problem can affect families and many different individuals. 50% of Americans have a beloved one who is suffering from a substance or drug abuse problem at any...

Words: 2860 - Pages: 12

Substance Abuse

...Joseph Derowski It is not a disease. Do people just need to “man up” and deal with their responsibilities? They chose that life. Or is there much more to substance abuse than what people who haven’t experienced it firsthand know. Growing up I have experienced substance abuse in many ways, most predominantly through my dad. Alcohol was pretty much a staple in my family as I’m sure it is in many families all over the world. It wasn’t weird that whenever family was together everyone was drinking. It was just what it was and it was normal for us. I thought everyone’s dad was just like my dad, and my dad was awesome. All the time I would hear “shh don’t tell mom, just get in the car” and we would go out and have fun and everything was great, most of the time. But it came with serious problems, but only being a kid I thought screaming, yelling, and getting hit when you were out of line was just how things were. This essay is in no way meant to paint my dad in a bad light. As of right now my dad and I live together in a small apartment and I can honestly say he is my best friend, but it’s been a long battle of recovery that I possibly cannot explain in a short essay. So I will give you snapshot of what substance abuse can lead too and how it can affect a family. If you were to classify my dad or fit him into one the thousands of stereotypes out there you would have called him a functioning drunk. In a social setting he was always the happy guy who always had a little too much,......

Words: 1341 - Pages: 6

Substance Abuse

...Substance Abuse Just like many disease or mental illness, substance abuse does not discriminate. Substance abuse can result from sociocultural, due to stress of environmental factors, social economics and unemployment’s. The use of substance abuse whether it is alcohol, prescription drugs, or other method it is a stress reliever for the abuser, helping them escape. The addiction to substance abuse makes it hard to function and work in the real world because the abuser becomes dependent and develop higher tolerance. Those suffering from substance abuse may have genetic been given through it through an addict mother, or suffering through a life crises of depression, stress and anxiety. Psychological Factors There is several reason one would try drugs that may turn into substance abuse, it could be the mere fact of stress and unemployment, abusing alcohol or substance abuse allows the person to be able to relieve the stress and feel at peace. Substance abuse can result from social economics and surrounds, whether it is something we see on television or dealing with peer pressures of friends, family and coworkers. The void drugs fill in your life will take part of you life making it hard to accomplish any tasks. Effects The effect of substance abuse can result in changes in the brain interfering with the ability to think clearly, exercise good judgment, controlling our behavior, and this results in poor work performance. You frequently call out of work, running late,......

Words: 594 - Pages: 3

Substance Abuse

...Substance Abuse to cope with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Military Veterans face many life changing stressors while away on active duty as well as when they return home. To cope with the stress, drugs and alcohol become a way to self-medicate and cover the unseen pain. Substance abuse, because of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), is a coping mechanism for some of the nation’s Veterans, but with proper medical attention, treatment is possible. PTSD can occur after a traumatic event, in which there are four types of symptoms: reliving the event or flashbacks, avoiding situations that may trigger memories, and feeling numb or detached from life (“United States Department of Veteran Affairs”, 2013). Many classifications of drugs are abused to help cope with the different symptoms of PTSD. Unfortunately, substance abuse has negative consequences and in return, increases the stressors experienced once home. Treatment and recovery options are available to make the coping a positive experience. There are several risks associated with serving this country, such as leaving home at a young age, training for combat, seeing explosions, witnessing innocent by standards injured and killed, and attacks by the enemy. Returning home is also stressful for many Veterans; mentally and physically life is different, personalities have changed, and the perspective on beliefs are not as they once had been. Some find themselves easily angered, irritated, and no longer finding joy......

Words: 693 - Pages: 3

Substance

...comes up. One question that often leaves many lost or confused with little reasoning or not adequately addressed is, what causes substance use disorder and why? Substance use disorder, also known, as addiction is an actual disorder when an individual has the inability to stop using a substance. There are many reasons to why one will experiment with drugs. Whether it ‘s for the thrill of peer pressure, to overcome ones fears and become more social, or being born addicted to a substance. Automatically you put yourself at risk, along with your family and friends. All it takes is one time for someone to become addicted. Some are introduced to a substance and their neuron receptors, desiring the feeling and instantly wanting to repeat the act. For others the introduction could be nothing more then an experiment. The individual that becomes addicted will struggle to avoid using the drug again. Every individual is different, how one reacts to a substance may differ from person to person. Overall the individual brain reacts to the drug. There has been some studies conducted that drug addiction is caused by existing conditions, for example one that has struggled with crime, illness, and unhappiness are easily influenced. Initially ones reasoning to take a drug is to benefit from it, intended to bring relief often causing the individual to crave the substance more and more. Overall there are many factors that contribute to an addiction, a lot of it deals with ones genetic makeup,......

Words: 272 - Pages: 2

Substance Abuse

...Student’s Name Professor Course Code Date Psychology Drug Abuse Introduction The aim of this research paper is to discuss contributions offered by anthropology especially, ethnography in the study of addiction and recovery basing arguments from the book, ‘Anthropology of Addiction and Recovery’. The paper further lists the criteria for substance use disorder and thereafter gives an explanation to the negative impacts of alcohol on Native American nations. Finally, the paper will show detailed information on how specific cultural knowledge was used to market cigarettes. Four specific contributions that anthropology, especially ethnography, has offered in the study of addiction and recovery. Ethnography is the study of people, culture and how the environmental and cultural factors affect values and behaviors of a person or groups of people in a social setup. A study of ethnography conducted outside United States of America reveals that the number of drug ethnographies has grown steadily since 1960s because many social issues are associated with drug use. Ethnography illustrates that drug use is not one phenomenon, but many since specific drug is used in specific situations. According to Glasser (2012), Ethnography clarifies the different implications of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs in the life of an individual. According to Glasser, Ethnography also explains the psychological and physiological implications of the use of such drugs. Ethnography further......

Words: 919 - Pages: 4

Substance Abuse

...Psychology and health issues with Substance Abuse Sherry Ramos Resurreccion HCA/250 03/02/2014 Tiffany Hanshaw Psychology and health issues with Substance Abuse A psychological education program that we have here in our community is a program at our local Hospital. Our local hospital Sutter Delta Hospital has a Substance Abuse program. They provide information about substance abuse and they work with the largest treatment center in Northern California called the Impulse Treatment Center. The Impulse Treatment Center provides resources such as where they can go for group therapy, extended care, long treatment care, and intensive out patient care. This program is not a free program however your insurance company may cover it. When deciding to use this program we should learn more about being a healthy and learning the signs of someone who is unhealthy and need treatment. When you are healthy, you are free from any sickness/illness, you feel good about yourself, and your body is physically fit. When you are healthy it also means that you feel positive mentally and physically. The relationship between health and Psychology go hand in hand because in order to have a healthy life you should be physically healthy but you should also feel mentally stable. If you are not mentally stable it will make an impact on your over all health. Some people who are psychologically not stable will become ill because they may decide that they do not want to eat, they seclude themselves......

Words: 1645 - Pages: 7

Substance Counseling

...Daniel Lambus College Composition 1 Professor Raymond 06/27/2015 Substance Abuse, Assessment, and Addiction By Fischer, Allison G. Murati, Kristina A. Nova Science Publisher Inc., 2011 The article I choose to do is Substance Abuse. The reason I choose this article is because I can relate to to people that have addictions. I want to go into the field, and connect with adolescent and Adults and help them get on the road from addiction to the road of recovery. Drug dependence, or addiction, is a relapsing disorder characterized by the loss of control of drug intake, or compulsion to take the drug, associated with the appearance of a withdrawal syndrome after a discontinuation of its long-term use. Having an addiction from drugs is so complex that Doctors can’t give you a clear idea of why you have an addiction. The reason for that is because it can affect where you live. For instance someone who lives in a relatively low socio- economic have higher chances of becoming an addict. Versus someone who has a stable job, is financially stable from the author and my own personal opinion I can tell you the turning point to have the drug become an addiction is when you can’t stop taking it. As well as relapsing from the side effects of the drug, which is trying to get out of your system and that is where you feel that need to want the drug. Being addicted to drugs can neurologically mess someone up in the mind. People take these drugs for the pleasure of the feeling that......

Words: 728 - Pages: 3

Purity of a Substance

...Purity of a substance report Create a report describing the factors that influence the purity of a substance. It is important that chemical substances are as pure as possible. This reduces the chances of unnecessary side-effects and helps ensure an accurate dose in each tablet/substance. The purity of a substance or compound can be established by using data from its melting point or boiling point and from thin layer chromatography. Impure compounds have a range of melting and boiling points, as different substances contain different things they will have different boiling and melting temperatures. Sometimes the different substances may interfere with each other’s melting and boiling points. However the pure compounds have definite boiling and melting points. The presence of an impurity usually lowers the melting point and raises the boiling point. The greater the amount of an impurity, the bigger the differences from the true melting point and boiling point. Thin layer chromatography is similar to paper chromatography, but instead of paper, a thin layer of power is coated onto the plastic plate or glass. Different types of powders and solvents are used; this depends on the type of substance being separated. The results of a pure substance should show that the substance produces just one spot on the plate and the distance travelled by the substance is identical to known sample of that substance on the same plate. Weighing, mixing, heating, cooling, filtration, washing and...

Words: 378 - Pages: 2