Stem Cell Term Paper

In: Business and Management

Submitted By ncousar
Words 5491
Pages 22
An Analysis of the
Emerging U.S Stem Cell Industry
Management of Technology - MGMT 620 (EMBA)
Professor – Dr. Gopalakrishnan

Norman Cousar
Draft Version 3
December 16, 2011

Due to previous government regulations, US companies have not used embryos for stem cell research, and international companies have gained a first mover advantage in commercializing stem cell treatments and therapies.
The use of stem cells has opened up a new field called regenerative medicine or cell therapy, which replaces damaged or diseased cells that are in the body with new ones. Stem cells have the ability to develop into many different cell types within the body during the early life and growth cycle. Stem cells repair internal system, by dividing and replenishing other cells. They distinguish themselves by being unspecialized cells, renewing themselves through cell division and under certain physiologic conditions, be chemically induced to become tissue or organ-specific cells with particular functions.

There are several different types of Stem Cells: Embryonic Stem Cells (hES), which are derived from embryos, mostly from eggs fertilized in vitro and donated for research with the donor’s permission. Adult Stem Cells (hES), are undifferentiated cells found among differentiated cells in tissue and organs, which can differentiate themselves to yield some or all of the major specialized cell types of that tissue or organ. iPSC Stem Cells: Are also adult cells, genetically reprogrammed to an embryonic stem-cell like state and forced to express genes and factors to define the properties of the embryonic stem cells.

Stem Cell applications can be classified into several categories, one is research: research in developmental Biology, which are models of human disease constrained by animal and cell cultures. Two is transplantation, three, is gene therapy and development of…...

Similar Documents

Stem Cell Research Paper

...Jean-Marie Lux Biology 121 Stem Cell Research Paper September 12, 2012 Stem cell research is a relatively new field and has made huge advances in the past fifty years. The idea of stem cells was first made public by a Russian-American Scientist named Alexander Maksimov in 1908. However it was not until 1963 that two Canadian Scientists were able to actually demonstrate the existence of self-renewing cells found in the bone marrow of mice. The Scientists were James E. Till and Ernest A. McCulloch. So although Maksimov was the first person who put the idea of stem cells out there, it is really Till and McCulloch who are credited with proving that stems cells actually existed. Since Till and McCulloch, many Scientist have contributed to the huge advances in stem cell research. In 1968, the first successful bone marrow transplant was conducted on two siblings suffering from Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID), a primary immune deficiency which typically results in the onset of one or more serious infections within the first few months of life. These infections are usually serious, and may even be life threatening. In 1978, the presence of Haematopoietic stem cells were discovered in human cord blood cells. Haematopoietic stem cells, are multipotent stem cells that give rise to all the blood cell types. In 1981, Scientist were able to derive embryonic stem cells from mice. One of the biggest advancements in all stem cell research came in 1997 when a link......

Words: 1367 - Pages: 6

Stem Cell Research Paper

...accomplished through somatic cell nuclear transfer to clone entire humans (“Cloning Fact Sheet”). For medical, social, religious, and political reasons, there are both proponents and opponents of reproductive human cloning and its ethics. Currently, the best way to deal with reproductive cloning is to ban its use because there are many negative consequences that could arise from using cloning technology. There are two different types of human cloning: therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning. The goal of the former is to obtain stem cells from embryos that can be used to study the growth of the human body and to find possible cures and treatments for various diseases (“Cloning Fact Sheet”). The purpose of the latter, on the other hand, is to create a whole human being through cloning. Specifically, reproductive cloning is done using somatic cell nuclear transfer and can theoretically produce a human that has the same exact nuclear DNA as another individual. Currently, though, this technology has only been used to clone animals and has not yet been successful in cloning humans (“Cloning Fact Sheet”). The process constituting somatic cell nuclear transfer begins with the extraction of nuclear genetic material from the cell of an adult donor. Then an egg is deprived of its nucleus, and the DNA taken from the donor cell is placed into the egg. Afterwards, the egg is stimulated by either electric current or chemicals so that it will start dividing into more cells.......

Words: 1407 - Pages: 6

Stem Cell

...Stem cell A stem cell is essentially a “blank” cell, capable of becoming another more differentiated cell type in the body, such as a skin cell, a muscle cell, or a nerve cell. Microscopic in size, stem cells are big news in medical and science circles because they can be used to replace or even heal damaged tissues and cells in the body. They can serve as a built-in repair system for the human body, replenishing other cells as long as a person is still alive. Adult stem cells are a “natural” solution. They naturally exist in our bodies, and they provide a natural repair mechanism for many tissues of our bodies. They belong in the microenvironment of an adult body, while embryonic stem cells belong in the microenvironment of the early embryo, not in an adult body, where they tend to cause tumors and immune system reactions. Most importantly, adult stem cells have already been successfully used in human therapies for many years. As of this moment, no therapies in humans have ever been successfully carried out using embryonic stem cells. New therapies using adult type stem cells, on the other hand, are being developed all the time.  Significance of the Study Stem cell therapy is a potential treatment for spinal cord injury and different stem cell types has been grafted into animal models and humans suffering from spinal trauma. Due to inconsistent results, it is still an important and clinically relevant question which stem cell type will prove to be therapeutically......

Words: 1566 - Pages: 7

Stem Cell Paper

... Embryonic stem cells; are they the solution to many diseases plaguing the human race, or are they a vehicle for more pain and suffering? Embryonic stem cells are unspecialized cells derived from the inner cell mass of human embryos that are able to self-renew without differentiating for extended periods of time. This means that they do not become a certain type of cell, that they are totipotent, or capable of giving rise to any of the cell types of the human body. Embryonic stem cells hold the potential to cure diseases such as diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, heart disease, cancer, and even spinal cord injuries, along with hundreds of other rare immune system and genetic disorders. There are many moral and ethical dilemmas surrounding the research and utilization of embryonic stem cells and stem cell therapy, which has made it a difficult decision on whether or not to sign an executive order to lift the ban of federal funding for additional stem cell research, put in place by former president George W. Bush in 2001. With the signing of this order, it will bring the much needed change that scientists and researchers, doctors and innovators, patients and loved ones alike have been waiting for. We should zealously support any scientist who pursues this type of research, as there are many promising results in this field. “At this moment, the full promise of stem cell research remains unknown, and it should not be overstated, but scientists believe these tiny cells may have the...

Words: 1021 - Pages: 5

Stem Cell Paper

...Stem Cells: The Future of Humanity Pg.1 Stem Cells: The Future of Humanity By Javier Rodriguez Stem Cells: The Future of Humanity Pg.2 Abstract The United States is a country that is known for being a world leader in technology, finance, and medicine just to name a few. When people around the world become ill their first thought is usually to bring their loved ones to the US in order to seek help from the top physicians of the respective fields, so it would seem logical that in the field of stem cell research we as a country would be a leader as well. Sadly that is as far from the truth as we can get. For a country with such vast resources, we are constantly hindered by politicians, public policy, and above all fear of the unknown. Whether it be fear of new technology or even fear of public opinion, we tend to err on the side of caution to save face but the inherent problem there is that we sacrifice potential advancements that can save countless human lives and propel the human species into an era unlike any before, where we can survive just about anything that comes at us. We as a people of this country need to open her eyes and realize that the potential of stem cell research has such promise that we, as responsible human beings cannot and should not ignore it. Stem Cells: The Future of Humanity Pg.3 The United States is a country that is seen by the rest of the......

Words: 2002 - Pages: 9

Claim Paper Stem Cell Research

...CLAIM: President Bush’s veto of the Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act in July of 2006 was a proportional reaction to the expanding influence of conservative political ideology and religious fundamentalism throughout America. VARIABLES: My independent variables are conservative political ideology and religious fundamentalism. My dependant variable is President Bush’s 2006 veto of the Stem Cell Enhancement Act, also known as the H.R. 810 Bill. EXPECTATIONS: I expect to find overwhelming and convincing evidence to corroborate my assertion that the expanding influence of conservative political ideology and religious fundamentalism in America are the two most profound independent variables to affect President Bush’s 2006 veto of the Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act. I also expect to obtain convincing evidence that political conservatism and religiosity have an interactive effect on the public attitude towards stem cell research which directly influences federal policy concerning this controversial issue. It is my contention that the preponderance of evidence will confirm my theory that as the level of conservatism and religious zeal rises; the public support and enthusiasm for stem cell research will wane proportionally, resulting in federal policies that continue to be restrictive and obtuse. EVIDENCE THAT SUPPORTS THE CLAIM: With the advent of technology and subsequent advances in human stem cell research, the scientific and medical communities were......

Words: 1939 - Pages: 8

Term Paper for Cell Phone

...million. In 1992, it was estimated that 14.6 million women were of reproductive age. Of those married {8.2 million), about 4.6 million did not want additional children, while 2.5million wanted to practise family planning but were not. Around 5.5 million were high risk women for pregnancy but half of these women were not practicing family planning either. The latest survey showed that only 24.2% of all women of reproductive age are using any form of fertility regulation, while a lower rate (15.1%) is practizing a modern and effective method. (DHS, Prelim., 1993) Furthermore, among those who had used a family planning method, 50% of them would drop out per year. BODY Murder, gruesome death.Blameless young infant. These terms do not belong together, but sadly, every twenty-two seconds, a baby dies from abortion . The Roe v. Wade decision in 1973 legalized that a woman, along with her doctor, could choose abortion in earlier months of pregnancy without restriction, and with limitations in later months. Unexpected pregnancies commonly end in a termination of life. Scared and confused, new mothers assume that an abortion is the only option. Women, who are considering abortion for personal reasons, should instead choose adoption. Adoption is the second choice, as well as the better choice. Above all, abortion is morally wrong. Throughout weeks one to four of the pregnancy alone, the foundation of the nervous system forms as well as the heart and circulatory......

Words: 1683 - Pages: 7

Stem Cells

...Experimentation Critique Stem Cells Abstract According to human guidelines, human stem cell research is questionable. The main ethical dilemma revolves around whether or not an embryo is a human being of a cluster of cells. Stem cell research has the ability to provide treatment for many of today’s incurable diseases and disorders, and it is apparent this type of research produces many ethical issues in which one can consider both positive and negative for such research. Experimentation Critique Introduction Stem cell research is a modern method of discovering new medical break throughs. Research is involoved, using human embryos, causing heated moral debates. Human –nature and goal-based ethics theories apply to this controversial debate. The debate lies in the determionation of the embryos with moral status is owed. There has been extensive research in the underlying law and religious ethics surrounding the use of embryos for medical reasons. Discussed, is the debate, controversy, and opinion of government officials, in relation to the ethics involving stem cell research. Issues/Conflict Stem cell research proposes many ethical issues. The basis of this issue is that embryonic stem cells research holds such vast promise for so many people but obtaining the cell means destroying embryos. The ethical conflict brought on by stem cells means destroying embryos. The ethical conflict brought on by stem cell research is whether or not it is acceptable by social......

Words: 901 - Pages: 4

Stem Cells

...A Pluripotent Challenge Recent advances in human stem cell research have generated enormous enthusiasm on the part of researchers and optimistic predictions of revolutionary advances in biomedicine. These same advances have also sparked considerable ethical debate. The main ethical challenges associated with stem cell research have to do with the source of those cells. Although some advances have been made in the use of adult stem cells, the consensus seems to be that the most promising categories of stem cells are embryonic stem (ES) cells (derived from the five- to seven-day-old embryos known as blastocysts) and embryonic germ (EG) cells, derived from immature aborted fetuses. In fact, there are four main sources of (non-adult) stem cells, and each presents its own challenging ethical issues. The first such source (of ES cells) is the surplus embryos that are a by-product of the activities of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) labs. One ethical concern here has to do with the status of the embryo itself. The degree of respect that ought to be granted to a human embryo is highly controversial. Some hold that the embryo - genetically human and a potential person - deserves our full respect and protection. Others hold that while the embryo may be genetically human, it has (particularly at early stages) none of the characteristics of persons. It is not conscious; it is not self-aware. It is a cluster of cells with no independent ethical status. Still others hold an in-between view,......

Words: 1545 - Pages: 7

Stem Cell

...STEM CELL RESEARCH AND THERAPYAND ITS IMPACTS ON SOCIETY Abstract There are several types of stem cells being used in stem cell research and therapy today. They are embryonic, adult and induced pluripotent stem cells. Each will be discussed further. This topic has stirred much moral, ethical and political debate as whether cells from fetuses should be used in this research. This impacts governmental policies on laws and funding. Another issue that must be analyzed is the economics and who should have access to this treatment. The views of people and government on this research differ greatly across the world. There are countries that have very strict laws restricting this research while others take an extremely liberal stance. Stem Cell Research and Therapy and Its Impacts on Society Introduction Stem cells are the basic unit of life that gives rise to all living things. They are the undifferentiated cells that transform into the specialized cells that make up all of the tissues in organisms. With further research and understating, these cells can be used in medicine to cure a wide range of diseases. The most important type of stem cell to humans is the pluripotent stem cell which is usually obtained from human embryos. This has sparked controversy in many aspects of human life. In this paper, we will concentrate on animal and human stem cell research, and its impact on society. A Brief Description Of The Technology And An Explanation Of The......

Words: 6987 - Pages: 28

Stem Cell Research Paper

...According to the National Institutes of Health, human embryonic stem cells are derived from an embryo, a fertilized egg. Shortly after an egg is fertilized, it begins to divide until eventually it becomes a ball-like shape called a blastocyst that consists of roughly one thousand cells. The blastocyst is made up of three parts: outer cells that keep everything together, an inner mass of cells that will eventually develop into an organism, and fluid that disperses itself within the blastocyst (4). At this stage, the inner mass of cells are not specialized yet meaning they have the potential to turn into anything in the body. These cells are what are known as human embryonic stem cells. Currently, embryonic stem cells are apart of a clinical trial to treat patients with Stargardt's Macular Dystrophy, a disease inherited at an early age that ultimately results in legal blindness (5). To correct the disease, embryonic stem cells are injected into the eyes of patients in the hopes they will eventually replace the cells that are altering the vision. reports that the embryonic stem cells have shown encouraging signs of hope. In addition to embryonic stem cells there are also adult stem cells. Similarly to embryonic stem cells, they are able to transform into more than one type of cell, but adult stem cells are much more limited in what they can become (1). Adult stem cells have been found in numerous regions of the body in different organs and tissues. For......

Words: 1243 - Pages: 5

Stem Cell

...Pierron March 28,2016 Stem Cell Research Stem cells are a different from other cells in the body. Three general properties are common to all stem cells: (1) they are unspecialized (2) they give rise to specialized cell types and (3) they can divide and renew themselves for a long time. Unlike nerve cells, muscle cells and blood cells, stem cells rapidly reproduce. Millions of cells can be grown in the laboratory from a beginning group of stem cells. The unspecialized stem cells are capable of long term self-renewal like parent stem cells. There are two types of stem cells: embryonic and adult stem cells. Also there are some advantages and negative things about stem cells. Stem cells are an important part for living organisms for serval reasons. Blastocysts are 3 to 5 day old embryo. They encompass the whole body including specialized cells and organs. Adult stem cells focus more on the cells that need to be replaced that were injured, diseased or worn out. Adult stem cells are rare and hard to isolate and grow. Embryonic stem cells are fairly easy to grow in a lab. The unique abilities stem cells offer is potentially treating diabetes and heart disease. There is still a lot of work that has to be done by the clinic and laboratory to understand how these cells can be used for cell based therapies to help treat disease. Since stem cells are unspecialized, they can give rise to specialized cells including nerve cells, blood cells and heart cells. This process is......

Words: 418 - Pages: 2

Stem Cell

...discovery of stem cell therapy, it has been a controversial topic of long debate of moral ethics and politically. The discovery of stem cells and their ability to generate new cells began in the 1800’s. Today the topic of research therapy makes headlines with its controversy with the use of embryonic stem cells. Historically stem cell research includes plant, animals and human stem cells but today the prominent use of stem cells in humans is bone marrow transplant. This has become a simple one day medical procedure that is one of a lesser debate. Complete strangers can now simply be tested for a compatible match to an awaiting recipient. This type of success has brought stem cell to the forefront of medical researches discovery of other stem cell therapies that are futuristic in nature and have the possible to cure devastating disease and injuries that would otherwise leave someone completely debilitated or worse. Stem cell therapy is on the verge of being a revolutionary medical advancement in history. The discovery that stem cells could generate new healthy cells in the 1800’s had revolutionized the medical profession. Blood marrow transplant are the front runner of the success that stem cells can produce. This is the prominent force that guides researcher to believe that stem cells can be a cure for many diseases such as Parkinson’s disease, immune deficiency disease, certain types of leukemia’s, severe blood disorders and traumatic injuries to the spine and brain. A......

Words: 847 - Pages: 4

Stem Cell Research Paper

...BIO 1 Paper Stem Cells Research WHAT ARE STEM CELLS? * Stem cells are biological cells found in all multicellular organisms, that can divide through mitosis and differentiate into diverse specialized cell types or can self renew to produce more stem cells. * In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells that are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells that are found in various tissues. * In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenished in adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all the specialized cells, but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues. Properties The classical definition of a stem cell requires the following properties: * Self-renewal - the ability to go through numerous cycles of cell division while maintaining the undifferentiated state. * Potency - the capacity to differentiate into specialized cell types. In the strictest sense, this requires stem cells to be either totipotent or pluripotent - to be able to give rise to any mature cell type, although multipotent or unipotent progenitor cells are sometimes referred to as stem cells. In Self-Renewal.. Two mechanisms exist to ensure that the stem cell population is maintained: * Obligatory asymmetric replication - a stem cell divides into one father cell that is......

Words: 2510 - Pages: 11

Stem Cell Research Paper

...SBI4U ISP Part II: Genetic Technology Research Paper Embryonic Stem Cell Use Abstract: Researchers discovered that embryonic stem cells could be originated from early human embryos. This discovery has raised a series of ethical and public-policy questions that are now being confronted by multiple international organizations, nations, cultures, and religious traditions. This essay surveys policies for human embryonic stem cell research in four regions of the world, reports on the recent debate at the United Nations about one type of such research, and reviews the positions that various religious traditions have adopted regarding this novel type of research. In several instances the religious traditions seem to have influenced the public-policy debates. There are many ways in which human stem cells can be used in research and the clinic. Studies of the medical use of Embyonic Stem cells will yield information about the complex events that occur during human development. A primary goal of this work is to identify how undifferentiated stem cells become the differentiated cells that form the tissues and organs. Scientists know that turning genes on and off is central to this process. Some of the most serious medical conditions, such as cancer and birth defects, are due to abnormal cell division and differentiation. A more complete understanding of the genetic and molecular controls of these processes may yield information about how such diseases arise and suggest new......

Words: 1283 - Pages: 6