Rice Farming

In: Business and Management

Submitted By cubogu
Words 1027
Pages 5
Rice-fish farming systems in China
Both rice and fish cultivation have long histories in Asia, where many species and varieties of each originated and were first developed for human use. Fish can be raised in rice fields, either concurrently with the rice crop or in rotation with rice. Ricefish farming can also be practised at different intensities. Not only do rice-fish systems use one habitat to produce both an important grain and a protein resource, but they also promote some very beneficial interactions: rice plants provide shade for fish, while fish oxygenate the water. The systems also minimize risks for resource-poor farmers, protect natural resources and promote biodiversity. As world rice production increases, so too does the adoption of rice-fish farming systems.


Rice is the dominant staple crop of tropical Asia, where it has a long history of domestication and a rich diversity of cultivated ecotypes based on three types of Oryza sativa (indica, japonica and javanica), which are cultivated in different agro-ecological zones for their differing growth, grain and yield characteristics. There are four basic rice agro-ecosystems in China, each with its own peculiar edaphic conditions: irrigated ecosystems, terrace ecosystems, lowland rainfed ecosystems, and flood-prone (very deep water) ecosystems. In addition, many freshwater fish species originated in tropical Asia, especially carps, catfishes and air-breathing fishes. In China there is now a rich variety of rice-fish farming systems, which are adapted to the country’s various cultural, environmental and economic conditions. Rice-fish farming systems form a striking landscape and integrate ecological features and services (e.g. land–water interactions, biological control, nitrogen-fixation) in ways that ameliorate some of the inherent limitations. Fish culture in rice fields…...

Similar Documents


...Rice in the Low Country of South Carolina ENGL-135: Advanced Composition DeVry University Online Professor Berardi-Rogers Rice in the Low Country of South Carolina According to local history the rice seed was brought to the low country of South Carolina in 1672 and by 1691 the General Assembly was allowing the plantation owners to pay their taxes in rice. Rice flourished in the low country of South Carolina which encompasses the southern coastal areas between the rivers and the ocean. The black slaves in the area where from Gambia River area of Africa where rice was grown. These slaves taught the whites how to use their tidal rivers to plant and grow great crops of rice call South Carolina Gold. (Rice and Slavery: A Fatal Gold Seede) Rice was the money making crop for Antebellum South Carolina, it was a labor intensive crop which produced great riches for the white plantation owners and caused great trial and tribulations for the black slaves. Rice became the staple crop for the southern coastal regions of South Carolina. The rice fields were built by African slaves brought to the low country for this specific purpose. They taught the white plantation owners how to make this crop thrive. It made many white men rich. The rice fields were great works of art. “Historical archeologists have found evidence from records that the embankments were six or more feet tall and 15 feet wide. When compared to building the Egyptian Pyramids, the amount of dirt......

Words: 3049 - Pages: 13


...Rice As a Liberian from West Africa, I ate rice from my childhood days to adulthood. I love to eat rice at any time of the day; morning, noon, evening, and night. I connect my life with rice in so many ways; with my parents, family, friends, education, and the community. As a young child growing up, my parents will take me along with my siblings on the farm with them where we will plant and harvest rice together. Although I was around the age of five years old, but I still remember that we all had some part to play in making sure that there was rice available for the entire family to eat, share with family, and friends, and sell to get money, and buy essential things for the family. The proceeds from the rice was also used to educate us. On the farm, we will all gathered, do our assigned tasks; my task was to pick the unbeaten rice from amongst the beaten rice. I will spot the unbeaten rice, and then put it aside so that it can be beaten again. My older sisters, the twin’s task was to let my parent know if we had certain amount of rice. My brothers’ task was to assist in beating the rice. Our parents’ tasks were to perform all of the tasks, and at the same time oversee them. We named ourselves the picker, the counters, the beaters, and overseer respectively. Once our assigned tasks are complete, and the goal of the day is met, we then sit together around the camp fire during meals time, and eat together while connecting with each other through conversation. The......

Words: 494 - Pages: 2

Jasmine Rice

...  the  old  time.  The  direction  of  government  to  rice  producer  is   unclear.  Since  that,  the  poverty  problem  could  not  be  solved.  Therefore,  the   discussion  of  the  paper  would  focus  the  idea  on  the  direction  of  rice  producer  in   order  to  get  the  highest  return  and  can  maintain  the  competitiveness  in  world  rice   market.  This  paper  aims  to  analyze  the  future  direction  of  rice  producer  especially   in  North  and  Northeast  region.  The  objective  of  the  paper  is  focus  on  increasing   farmer  revenue  in  order  to  reduce  poverty  by  growing  a  right  rice’s  strain  that  give   highest  return.  It  mainly  centers  on  premium  rice,  which  is  Jasmine  rice.  Describing   constraint  of  Jasmine  rice  is  provided  in  paper.  Besides,  this  paper  will  discuss  the   effect  of  Thailand  competitiveness,  the  effect  of  poverty,  problem  related  to  Jasmine   rice,  government  role  to  tackle  the  rice  problem  and  direct  the  way  to  sustain  ......

Words: 7024 - Pages: 29


...Factory Farming Each year millions of pigs, chickens, cows, and other mass produced animals are being abused, brutally murdered, and have even become a health hazard to human beings. Many people have turned a blind eye to this world wide epidemic so they can continue to benefit from the prices and convenience of factory farmed animals. It is true that man is the ruler over animals, but they are still living creatures that do feel pain from abuse and do still suffer when neglected. It’s bewildering to realize that we as a human race have revolutionized women’s rights, civil rights, and even going as far as protecting the environment but we continue to accept the horrific abuse of animals. It’s time for a change! Today’s farming has come a long way from what it was like forty or fifty years ago but trust me not in a positive way. Since what most people focus on now a day is money that is all they seem to care about. First lets define the word brutality according to the free dictionary on on-line brutality is the state or quality of being ruthless, cruel, harsh, or unrelenting (Brutality, 2000). Many large corporation run most of the farms today due to the economy and regular farmers not being able to afford to run let alone own a farm, factory farming has become the way to do business, despite the fact that animals are meant to graze on green pastures and drink from clean watering holes many animals are instead being confined to small cages, being brutally abused,......

Words: 1745 - Pages: 7

Organic Farming

...Natalie Cannon Dr. Jana Davis English 1127, 029 18 November 2013 Organic Farming as a Solution to Climate Change Climate change threatens the sustainability of food production. At the same time, conventional food production threatens the sustainability of the climate. In Canada, the agricultural sector is responsible for eight percent of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These emissions translate to 56.6 million metric tonnes of carbon equivalents. An extra three percent can be added to that number for “Agricultural fossil fuel and energy use” (Environmental p 111, figure 16-2). Canada needs to take responsibility and remedy emissions. Wonderfully, organic farming has the potential to mitigate climate change with sustainable food production by creating diverse farms that support farmers and soil health; and by drastically reducing GHG emissions by opting for inexpensive, low-energy, natural pesticides and fertilizers. Organic farming will mitigate climate change by protecting against soil erosion. Soil erosion is the removal of valuable topsoil sometimes caused by naturally occurring processes such as wind, rain, and drought. Often, soil erosion is caused by a combination of factors. For instance, if drought occurs topsoil becomes dry. If after the drought large amounts of wind approach that dry land in a storm, the soil will be blown away. Soil is a complex living organism filled with inorganic matter like sand, silt, and clay; and organic matter abundant with worms,......

Words: 1791 - Pages: 8


...issue of organic aquaculture, the National Agricultural Library published an 80-page bibliography, Organic Aquaculture, through the Alternative Farming Systems Information Center. ATTRA Page 11 rganic certifying agencies can certify organic aquaculture operations, but the products are not allowed to carry the USDA organic label. O Organic Aquaculture Organic production of crops and livestock in the United States is regulated by the Department of Agriculture’s National Organic Program, or NOP. The NOP is an organic certification and marketing program that ensures foods and food products labeled as “organic” meet universal standards and guidelines for organic production. Production inputs used in organic production – such as feed and fertilizers – must be of natural origin and free of synthetic materials. A farm plan, documentation of inputs and production methods, and farm inspection are required to obtain “certified organic” status. This process allows farm products to be labeled and sold as organic. Organic trout, tilapia, salmon and other fish species are raised in Europe, Australia, and Israel using production standards developed by international organic certification agencies www.attra.ncat.org Organic Aquaculture: AFSIC Notes #5 by Stephanie Boehmer, Mary Gold, Stephanie Hauser, Bill Thomas, and Ann Young. Alternative Farming Systems Information Center, National Agricultural Library, USDA. www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/AFSIC_pubs/ afnotes5.htm Evaluating an......

Words: 12936 - Pages: 52


...While Farming has been Around for Centuries Anita M. Ebbinghausen DeVry University Introduction While farming has been around for centuries, the way farmers, farm has been up for debate for many decades. There have been several studies on the Industrial agricultural and equal studies about organic agriculture. According to Best, (2007) “the question as to why humans behave toward the environment is an environmentally friendly or degrading manner has been discussed in the sociological literature for more than 30 years.” (p. 451). Farmers are unable to produce their product and their land has been standing uncultivated in order to reduce the surplus of production. The long-standing concern about the social and environmental sustainability of industrial agriculture has been added to the rising question from dependency on cheap energy derived from fossil fuel. The United States is currently dependent on Industrial Agriculture, switching to Organic Agriculture will benefit the economy and help the environment. Industrial Agriculture Although the United States is currently dependent on industrial agriculture it was somewhat prosperous in accomplishing the goals of maximizing market based production and furnishing brief economic returns, it overlooked many of the unintended negative consequences. The most important recant consequence was the soil and water degradation and the loss of the farmer and the robust rural communities (Kirschenmann, 2009). It......

Words: 856 - Pages: 4


...than females of the same age. 5. The calves/yearlings should be healthy, vigorous, active and non-emaciated. 6. The calves/yearlings should be of normal built up, almost uniform in weight, size and age. Slightly underweight calves/yearlings will perform better for weight gain purposes as they have the ability to catch the compensatory growth. Transportation of Animals Following points should be kept in mind to minimize the stress and risks during the transportation of the animals. 1. Before loading the purchased calves/yearlings in the truck, they should be given anti-pyretic and terramycine injection to avoid stress during transportation. 2. Proper bedding of the truck either with dried grass or wheat straw/rice straw should be provided to avoid injury. 3. Loading of the calves/yearlings should be done according to the available space in the truck to avoid suffocation and injury. 4. Initially, a palatable Transit Ration having high fibre should be introduced and then gradually shift to feedlot fattening ration. This will help to avoid any digestive problem. 5. Make sure that all animals are weighed on arrival and given some kind of identity (neck tags, ear tags, etc.). 6. Consult the veterinarian or feedlot fattening officer to know the vaccination schedule and source of good vaccine. Ensure that all the animals are vaccinated as per recommended vaccination schedule. 7. Ensure that animals are grouped according to......

Words: 5394 - Pages: 22


...NAME NAME: NITISH SINGH ROLL NO.: BBA 39 SEMESTER: 5th (3rd year) COURSE: BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (HONS.) SUPERVISOR: Mr. Mohammed Feroz TOPIC: RICE INDUSTRY IN INDIA PAPER: BBA 508 Term Paper submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Graduate Degree in BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (HONOURS) J.D. BIRLA INSTITUTE Affiliated to JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY At KOLKATA 1 Date: 03/01/2013 To, The Controller of Examination, Jadavpur University, Kolkata. Respected sir, This term paper has been done by me and is an original work. The references used have been mentioned in the bibliography. This term paper work is partial fulfilment of the requirement for the BBA degree to be awarded by Jadavpur University. Yours faithfully, (Nitish Singh) 2 DECLARATIONS: To include plagiarism and ethical issues statements and word count is a formal requirement. I declare the following: (1) That the material contained in this dissertation is the end result of my own work and that due acknowledgement has been given in the bibliography and references to ALL sources be they printed, electronic or personal. (2) The word count of this dissertation is 14875. (3) That unless this dissertation has been confirmed as confidential, I agree to an entire electronic copy or sections of the dissertation to being placed on the e-learning portal, if deemed appropriate, to allow future students the opportunity to see examples of......

Words: 16896 - Pages: 68


...Rice & Peas Ingredients 1 fresh coconut (or you could use coconut milk in a can) 850ml (1½ pint) warm water 1 hot red chilli (ideally Scotch bonnet), whole and undamaged 7 allspice berries 2 sprigs of thyme 1 garlic clove, peeled 1 spring onion, bruised with a rolling pin ½ onion, roughly chopped 400g can 30g black beans, drained Salt and pepper 450g (1lb) basmati rice Directions 1. First you need to get into your coconut. Decide which of the three 'eyes' (you'll see them at one end) is the one you are most likely to be able to break into - only one will work! 2. Try to penetrate it with a strong, sharp-tipped knife. If that one doesn't work, try the others. 3. Pour the coconut water out through the hole and set aside. 4. Smash the coconut (doing this outside against a bit of concrete is a good idea). 5. Using a small, sharp knife, lever the coconut flesh away from the shell. 6. Grate the coconut into a bowl. Pour 650ml (1 pint 2fl oz) water over and stir. Lift the coconut flesh up in fistfuls and squeeze out all the juice into the water. Put the squeezed clumps of grated coconut into a sieve, transfer the coconut water to a saucepan, tip the squeezed coconut back into the bowl and cover with the remaining water. Again lift the coconut flesh up in fistfuls and squeeze out all the juice into the water. Transfer the coconut water to the saucepan. Discard the squeezed-out flesh. Add the coconut water from the coconut to......

Words: 401 - Pages: 2


...Organic Farm Business Plan Freedom Farm Submitted for Commerce 492.3, University of Saskatchewan 2001 Rosalind Ball Heather Hack Murray Nelson Myles Thorpe Executive summary Introduction Organic farming in Canada, and Saskatchewan in particular, has steadily increased especially in recent years. Reasons for the increase in organic food production are: market premiums of 2 to 2.5 times the conventional market price; an expansion in the consumer sector willing to pay the higher prices demanded by organic food; an expansion of markets in the developed world where Saskatchewan farm exports traditionally are targeted; and lower input prices due to organic production. This document is a proposed business plan, with a financial model, for setting up and operating an organic grain farm in Saskatchewan. The business is new, and is named Freedom Farm. Financial performance is projected for a ten-year period from 2002 to 2012. To sell organic produce at premium, Freedom Farm will obtain organic creditation from the Organic Crop Improvement Association (OCIA). The mission statement of Freedom farm is: To provide quality organic produce to suit customer demand while maintaining soil fertility and crop productivity. Operations Plan The proposal is for the establishment of a new organic grain production business in Kipling, South East Saskatchewan. The proposed business is a sole......

Words: 1414 - Pages: 6


...producing an economic benefit or only a cost. The costs for monitoring soil and regularly changing plants are to be considered, but are not the most expensive costs to take into account. The biggest financial challenge for organic farming is education (Juneghani et al.). It is difficult to educate farmers to be aware of the techniques needed and to educate them as to the reasons that it is better to experiment with new methods rather than continue to practice their craft in the same way that their families have done for generations. This is especially true in developing countries where the majority of people are illiterate and elderly (Juneghani et al.). For example, a study on apple farmers in a province in Iran showed that around seventy percent of the people surveyed were illiterate and that the majority of these farmers were between the ages of forty-one and fifty (Juneghani et al.). The researchers found a reluctance to new methods to be especially high amongst elders and uneducated people, who often are negatively disposed to new ideas and modern ideas of farming (Juneghani et al.). This study concluded that it would be a long, slow and resource-consuming process to educate people to use different farming methods when they are barely making a profit (Juneghani et al.). Further, the cost of paying for repeated testing of soils every few years is significant for small farmers. The tests to determine whether a crop is best suited for......

Words: 1479 - Pages: 6

Outsourced Farming

...products back into the U.S. and making a bunch of money. Although trade and outsourcing seem to play a good role in American economics, it is actually hurting the farming industry. The U.S. continues to import large amounts of products that can be produced in the U.S. It is necessary to trade with other countries even if you are able to produce it domestically, but the U.S. should not be importing more than we need if we are able to produce it. By importing large numbers of food products we are hurting the market for domestic suppliers. If corn can be imported for $2.50 per bushel and the U.S. market price for corn is $4.00 per bushel, consumers of corn will generally choose the cheaper option because they are better off that way. Imports are driving down prices of domestic markets which is hurting the farmers who are still producing in the U.S. Not only are all of these imports hurting the markets, but they are also hurting the farmers. More and more farmers are being forced to shut down and go out of business because they can longer compete with the farm businesses that are outsourcing and importing cheap products. America has prided itself on being a self-sufficient nation but with all the imports we are becoming more and more dependent on foreign countries. There are certain products such as cocoa, coffee beans, rice, and sugar, that can’t be produced efficiently in the U.S. that must be imported. However, products such as corn, soybeans, and fruits and vegetables......

Words: 1456 - Pages: 6

Farming in Zambia

...Grade 10-12 Geography FARMING IN ZAMBIA AND THE SUB-REGION Grade 10-12 Geography Author: C.I. Chilukusha (Mrs) Summary: This lesson plan covers land tenure in Zambia, types of farming, the problems associated with subsistence farming, the pastoral system, commercial farming, impact on the environment, farming in other countries in the sub-region, and an outline of Government measures to develop agriculture in Zambia. ZAMBIA A. LAND TENURE This is the process of acquiring and possessing of land by individuals. There are four types of land tenure in Zambia namely: 1. TRADITIONAL LAND This is land controlled by traditional chiefs on behalf of the people. Individuals or families have the right to use the land but not to sell it. This land is inherited according to existing customary law. 2. FREE HOLD This is reserve land especially on the unproductive land. Mostly used as collateral before independence. 3. STATELAND This is the acquisition and control of land by the president in public interest. This is administered by the ministry of Lands which issues title deeds in collaboration with the council. 4. LEASEHOLD This is the statutory lease of land for a maximum period of 99 years. This also requires the consent of the president. Certificates of title are also issued. B. TYPES OF FARMING TRADITIONAL FARMING This is the farming or growing of crops basically for the family’s’ sustenance. Small portions of land are cleared and the crops are food...

Words: 4678 - Pages: 19


...Rice is the greatest food on earth. It is a main source of food for many around the planet. Unfortunately due to global warming, rice has been confused with snow and people are eating acid snow and turning into zombies. This has caused great uproar in the rice preacher's religious community where they worship mr. sushi, the god of rice bowls. Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler.Here's some more filler....

Words: 250 - Pages: 1