In: Novels

Submitted By mrinalkapoor

Words 1509

Pages 7

Words 1509

Pages 7

Perhaps the most popular beverage in the world, coffee is brewed and prepared from the roasted seeds of several species of an evergreen shrub of the genus Coffea. It is cultivated in over 70 countries around the world, primarily in equatorial Latin America, South East Asia, and Africa. The beginning of our love affair with coffee can be traced back to the 15th century and most of the world’s population is well aware of its stimulating effect, thanks to its high caffeine content. Today, coffee is much more than just a drink – it’s the world’s second most tradable commodity after oil, and is a fast growing, already multi-billion dollar industry.

Traditionally, coffee has always been grown amongst forest trees, in the shade. However, the yield from such a method of cultivation is low, and as a result, increased demand pressurized coffee producers to opt for alternate methods like sun-grown coffee (explained in detail below), which have ended up harming the environment to a great extent, a fact not many coffee lovers around the world are aware of.

The burgeoning coffee culture that has sprung up over the last few decades has led to an overwhelming increase in demand for this liquid gold which has had a knock-on effect on the environment, with monoculture and sun grown coffee being the norm now. And given that most coffee growing regions are also home to some of the most delicate ecosystems on earth, the potential for serious damage is great.

Sun-Grown Coffee

Originating in the 1970’s, sun cultivated (or sun grown) coffee is produced on plantations, where forestry is cleared so that coffee is grown in rows as a monoculture with no canopy.

Sun-Grown Coffee, in concert with the necessary addition of fertilizer, creates the highest yield of coffee, but eliminates the diversity of plants which support an array of insects and animals, posing detrimental impacts…...

...room in this world for chaos. Though determinism seems to be in accordance with the natural laws including Quantum Mechanics, determinism disregards the randomness that occurs at the microscopic level and seems to only explain the flow of events on a macroscopic level. Modern-day science laws recognize the possibility of results happening contrary to the actual predictions of science laws. This shows that there actually may be another possibility (though unlikely) in any situation, making free will possible. Though slight chance and randomness disproves determinism, it does not prove indeterminism. In indeterminism, each outcome must have an equal chance of occurring to allow the final choice to be left up to the person. Indeterminists fail to prove their theory with actual facts; rather, they support their theory with their feelings and their illusion of free will. Compatibilism flows in accordance with the natural laws by accounting the randomness that does occur on the microscopic level, which allows some room for free will; but shows that in the bigger picture, preceding causes and natural laws predetermine all major outcomes. For this reason, it is possible to have free will, but this slightly probable chance will only occur on the microscopic level because of the chance of randomness on this level . Randomness means that it is not affected by pervious events therefore the outcome will without the influence of preceding events making free will possible in such......

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...Middle Ages DBQ Historical Context The Middle Ages in Europe, a period of time from approximately 500 ce to 1400, have been referred to by a variety of terms: the Age of Faith, the Dark Ages, the Age of Feudalism, and even a Golden Age. The medieval era began with the destruction of the Roman Empire and the disorder that followed, which led to the rise of feudalism. During this period of darkness, the Roman Catholic Church provided spiritual direction as well as many nonreligious functions for the people of the time. Many literary, artistic, and architectural advances occurred. Instructions: Soapstone each document, then based on your own knowledge and on the information found in the documents, formulate a thesis that directly answers the question. Organize the information into a brief outline. Write a well-organized essay proving your thesis. The essay should be logically presented and should include information both from the documents and from your own knowledge outside of the documents. Do not type, all work will be neatly hand written. Remember, others must be able to read it. Question: Which labels for the Middle Ages best describe the era between 500 and 1400 in Europe, The Dark Ages, the Age of Feudalism, the Age of Faith, or the Golden Age of Europe? You must discuss three labels. Document 1 In The Middle Ages, historian Frantz Funck-Brentano made use of previously published texts to describe Europe in the ninth and tenth centuries......

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...Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness Randomness......

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...inefficiency of market is the lack of accountability. And deficiency in corporate governance. The procedure of flowing new information is very weak in DSE, so improving DSE information flow and also removing by deficiency in Dhaka stock exchange, it can be converted into efficient market as well. Abdul haque, empirical tested out the emerging market of Pakistan from (2000-2010). By analyzing the KSE-100 weekly share index. Run test KPSS test were applied to get the result to test efficiency of stock market of Pakistan. After applying these tests, he had concluded that autocorrelation results rejected the random walk behavior so KSE is weak form efficient. Unit root test after the application in data involved, it proposed that there is randomness in weekly share index data so that it demonstrated that Karachi stock exchange is not efficient market in weak form. From this, he had brought to closes that investor would earn abnormal profit after predicting future prices in inefficient market. Saqib Nisar Et,al. performed empirical analysis to find out the weak form efficiency hypothesis and divulged an empirical evidence from South Asian capital markets as well. As the South Asian market including Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh having developing markets can out-perform in Era during emerging stage. Major investor are moving toward these developing markets to get abnormal returns. This study basically examined the testing of market efficiency of main market of South Asia for......

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...analyzing new investment activities. * Randomness Randomness means lack of pattern or predictability in events. Randomness suggests a non-order or non-coherence in a sequence of symbols or steps, such that there is no intelligible pattern or combination. Applied usage in science, mathematics and statistics recognizes a lack of predictability when referring to randomness, but admits regularities in the occurrences of events whose outcomes are not certain. For example, when throwing two dice and counting the total, we can say that a sum of 7 will randomly occur twice as often as 4. This view, where randomness simply refers to situations where the certainty of the outcome is at issue, applies to concepts of chance, probability, and information entropy. In these situations, randomness implies a measure of uncertainty, and notions of haphazardness are irrelevant. The fields of mathematics, probability, and statistics use formal definitions of randomness. In statistics, a random variable is an assignment of a numerical value to each possible outcome of an event space. This association facilitates the identification and the calculation of probabilities of the events. A random process is a sequence of random variables describing a process whose outcomes do not follow a deterministic pattern, but follow an evolution described by probability distributions. These and other constructs are extremely useful in probability theory. Randomness is often used in statistics to......

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...Poo Randomness means lack of pattern or predictability in events.[1] Randomness suggests a non-order or non-coherence in a sequence of symbols or steps, such that there is no intelligible pattern or combination. Applied usage in science, mathematics and statistics recognizes a lack of predictability when referring to randomness, but admits regularities in the occurrences of events whose outcomes are not certain. For example, when throwing two dice and counting the total, we can say that a sum of 7 will randomly occur twice as often as 4. This view, where randomness simply refers to situations where the certainty of the outcome is at issue, applies to concepts of chance, probability, and information entropy. In these situations, randomness implies a measure of uncertainty, and notions of haphazardness are irrelevant. The fields of mathematics, probability, and statistics use formal definitions of randomness. In statistics, a random variable is an assignment of a numerical value to each possible outcome of an event space. This association facilitates the identification and the calculation of probabilities of the events. A random process is a sequence of random variables describing a process whose outcomes do not follow a deterministic pattern, but follow an evolution described by probability distributions. These and other constructs are extremely useful in probability theory. Randomness is often used in statistics to signify well-defined statistical properties. Monte Carlo......

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...Introduction to Randomness and Random Numbers. Randomness and random numbers have traditionally been used for a variety of purposes, for example games such as dice games. With the advent of computers, people recognized the need for a means for a means of introducing randomness into a computer program. Surprising as it may seem, however, it is difficult to get a computer to do something by chance. A computer running a program follows its instructions blindly and is therefore completely predictable. Computer engineers chose to introduce randomness into computers in the form of pseudo-random number generators. As the name suggest, pseudo-numbers are not truly random. Rather, they are computed from a mathematical formula or simply taken from a pre-calculated list. A lot of research has gone into pseudo-random number theory and modern algorithms for random numbers have the characteristic that they are predictable, meaning they can be predicted if you know where in the sequence the first number is taken from. For some purposes, predictability, is a good characteristic, for others it is not., Random numbers are used for computer games but they are also used on a more serious scale for the generation of cryptographic keys are for some classes of scientific experiments. For scientific experiments, it is convenient that a series of random numbers can be replayed for use in several experiments, and pseudo-random numbers are well suited for this purpose. For cryptographic use,......

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...conflict. II. Body A. Argument 1: Humans have free will so their decisions are independent of god A.1. Introduction - Definition and concept of free will: capacity of rational agents to choose a course of action from among various alternatives 1. God created a universe, which is random a) Randomness is a requirement for free will b) Life and universe as a game simulation (“The Sims”) c) Determinism is impossible for god because if god knows everything that we’ll do and every event that will happen to us, then it seems that we have no free will because of the plans laid out for us. 2. Free will as being the source of our actions a) God cannot control the behavior of humans b) Criminal acts and good deeds c) Humans cannot blame a supreme being for the consequences of their actions thus encourage responsibility for one’s actions. 3. Free will to choose what is right or wrong (ethical level) a) God doesn’t have the authority to judge what is right or wrong for it’s creations b) Golden rule c) God even with such a power does not guarantee it any superiority over me on an ethical level. Conclusion * Randomness is required to have free will * God does not have deterministic control * If god has deterministic control then we have no free will * God cannot control the behavior of humans * Humans can decide on their own on what is right and wrong B. Argument 2: God creates or promotes......

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...« -Please…please…No! Have mercy! » As he was slowly walking towards the crawling creature in front of him, he thought to himself, has it been always this easy? The answer came to him instantly. Yes, always and forever said the wicked voice inside of his mind, the one which seemed to wake up when he was being self-conscious. Yes, it has always been delightfully easy for him. As far as he can remember, he always had innate tendencies to be charming, deceitful, and of course, discrete in his skillful work. Now came another one of those specific moments, where the hunter and the hunted came to face each other, in the truth of their humanity. She would see the monster in front of her, the beautiful magnificent predator that he was. And he would see the -almost childlike- fearful woman, devoid of all the femininity that she was selling, make up smudging her face because of the tears, and which would be begging for her life till the very end. This one had been particularly easy to lure. Usually, the women were instructed to take their business in their rooms, or in cheap hotels arranged for such purpose. Yet, his persuasive talents were perfect, and they would always come with him wherever he wanted. This one, the one begging for her life, and crawling in front of him in a desperate attempt to escape, came with him without a fuss. They were in his favorite place, the old industrial district. The place was perfect, and fit for his favorite hobby. The old shady buildings and......

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...among algorithms that decode strings from their descriptions (codes), there exists an optimal one. This algorithm, for all strings, allows codes as short as allowed by any other algorithm up to an additive constant that depends on the algorithms, but not on the strings themselves. Solomonoff used this algorithm, and the code lengths it allows, to define a "universal probability" of a string on which inductive inference of the subsequent digits of the string can be based. Kolmogorov used this theorem to define several functions of strings, including complexity, randomness, and information. When Kolmogorov became aware of Solomonoff's work, he acknowledged Solomonoff's priority. For several years, Solomonoff's work was better known in the Soviet Union than in the Western World. The general consensus in the scientific community, however, was to associate this type of complexity with Kolmogorov, who was concerned with randomness of a sequence, while Algorithmic Probability became associated with Solomonoff, who focused on prediction using his invention of the universal prior probability distribution. The broader area encompassing descriptional complexity and probability is often called Kolmogorov complexity. The computer scientist Ming Li considers this an example of the Matthew effect: "... to everyone who has more will be given ..." There are several other variants of Kolmogorov complexity or algorithmic information. The most widely used one is based on self-delimiting......

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... values ! Δ= !!! ������! Δ! second part randomness B-‐S PDE can also be derived from the CAPM: ß������ = ß������ . . 2. Stochastic processes: As S0 becomes very large in relation to K, d1 and d2 also Financial market data is not deterministic, variables likely become very large and N(d1), N(d2) tend to 1. ������ = ������! − random -‐>follows stochastic process ������������ !!" , put tends to be 0 Randomness is now replacing states of the world If the other way around: F(t,w); w represents underlying randomness ������ = ������������ !!" − ������! Idea: stock ......

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...literature as well as in music. The importance of random numbers in this case can be underlined in the gambling and gaming industry in a bid to increase the chances of unpredictability in the games. This sequence of random numbers comes up with a series of values that are totally independent and do not rely on each other. Taylor and George through their extensive research posit that in the event that the output results fail to match the instructions that have been input, then such a failure has been corrupted. The two main approaches that are used in the generation of random numbers are the Pseudo- Random Number Generators commonly abbreviated as (PRNG) and True Random Number Generators, abbreviated as (TRNG). Haar in Introduction to Randomness and Random Numbers posits that C++ programming language is arguably the most used programming language in various hardware and operating systems canvass. The usage of C++ is premised on the distinguished factors of efficiency as a compiler to the initial native code and this allows it to be applicable in a wide array of sectors. Microsoft is a global company that is regarded as being among the major producers in mass capacity of the free C++ as well as proprietary software. This further highlights its proven reliability and widespread usage. An extensive research has been conducted on the faults that are to be associated with the use and application of C++. Most of the literature reviews in existence concerning this aspect seem to......

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...budget needs to be altered or not. The question: Is there a positive return on the investment that is being made in advertising? What is the relationship between sales and the amount spent on advertising? The owner collected data for the past year by month. The data is in millions of dollars. Month Advertising Expense January 2 February 3 March 3 April 5 May 6 June 4 July 5 August 6 September 7 October 8 November 10 December 9 Is there a relationship between the two variables? What is the coefficient of correlation for this data? A. No, 0.457 B. Yes, 0.892 C. Yes, 0.961 D. Yes, 0.980 42) What randomness exists in the linear regression model? A. The randomness of the dependent variable, the Y's B. The randomness from what is unexplained, the error C. The randomness from the explanatory variables, the X's D. None of these 43) Thomas and Thomas, a large plumbing company in Louisville, has a huge staff of plumbers that are utilized on contractual projects. Before a plumber is hired, an aptitude test must be taken and passed. After a plumber is hired they are evaluated on their performance. Each plumber receives a job performance score based on their individual production. The production manager wants to determine if there is a relationship between the performance score and the aptitude test score. Additionally, the manager wanted to investigate the influence that being a union member has on......

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...possibility to make our own choices or do we follow a predetermined path? I believe that the existence of free will mainly depends on many factors. First and foremost is how we define free will. I think it is the ability to choose any possible course of action without earlier determination by divine or physical forces. one of the major argument that can be made about this definition is the so called “Standard Argument Against Free Will” which considers determinism and randomness to be the only two logical alternatives. Divided in two parts, it states that if determinism is the case our will is not free, and if randomness is the case will is not under our control and therefore we cannot be held responsible for our actions. Thus it results fundamental in the debate to consider the belief in destiny, karma, God or every other creed that has a deterministic component in it, because free will appears totally incompatible with them. However my conjecture is that the other part of the argument, the one which concerns randomness, does not clash with it. I think that it is true that all events occur at a random moment in a random way but what makes the difference in our lives is how we react to these random events. Yet this definition of free will is still not complete. If we consider, for instance, Professor Libet’s experiment we realize that our perception of “making a choice” is wrong. Benjamin Libet was a revolutionary researcher in the field of human consciousness and free......

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...average of the residuals which is 290.0484 and has a mean of 0. Next a runs test was conducted to determine whether or not randomness exist in the Sales data. A runs test is one of the formal methods for testing randomness. [pic] Figure 2: Time Series of Residuals If there are too many or too few runs in the series, then we conclude that the series is not random. In this case it shows that the number of observed runs stands at 18. The number of expected runs under the supposition of randomness is 31. There are too few runs pursuant to the series of residuals. In addition, according to the P-Value this is 0.0003 in this case far below the average of 0.05 which indicates that the null hypothesis of randomness is rejected and as a result concludes that there is nil random noise (Albright, Winston & Zappe, 2010). |StatTools Report | | |Analysis: |Runs Test for Randomness | |Performed By: |Prince Storr | | |Date: |Thursday, November 17, 2011 | |Updating: |Live | | | | | | | |Residuals | | |Runs Test for Randomness |Data Set #1 | | |Observations |62 | ......

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