In: Science

Submitted By lenasheng
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Associative Learning: Operant Conditioning * Child associates his “response” (behavior) with consequences. * Child learns to repeat behaviors (saying “please”) which were followed by desirable results (cookie). * Child learns to avoid behaviors (yelling “gimme!”) which were followed by undesirable results (scolding or loss of dessert).
Ivan Pavlov’s Discovery
While studying salivation in dogs, Ivan Pavlov found that salivation from eating food was eventually triggered by what should have been neutral stimuli such as: * just seeing the food. * seeing the dish. * seeing the person who brought the food. * just hearing that person’s footsteps
Before Conditioning
Neutral stimulus: a stimulus which does not trigger a response. NS->No response
Unconditioned stimulus and response: a stimulus which triggers a response naturally, before/without any conditioning. US->UR( dog salivates)
During Conditioning
The bell/tone (N.S.) is repeatedly presented with the food (U.S.). NS+US=UR
After Conditioning
The dog begins to salivate upon hearing the tone (neutral stimulus becomes conditioned stimulus). NS=>CS
The UR and the CR are the same response, triggered by different events.
The difference is whether conditioning was necessary for the response to happen.
The NS and the CS are the same stimulus.
The difference is whether the stimulus triggers the conditioned response.
Your romantic partner always uses the same shampoo. Soon, the smell of that shampoo makes you feel happy.

John B. Watson and Classical Conditioning: Playing with Fear * In 1920, 9-month-old Little Albert was not afraid of rats. * John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner then clanged a steel bar every time a rat was presented to Albert. * Albert acquired a fear of rats, and generalized this fear to other soft and furry things.…...

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