Psy 100 Study Guide Exam #3

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Memory Retrieval
Serial Position Effect: Recall is superior for the items at the beginning and end of a list
Primacy Effect: superior recall for items at the beginning of a list
Recency Effect: superior recall for items at the end of a list
Retrieval Cues
Recall: individual must retrieve previously learned information (essay test)
Recognition: individual only has to identify (“recognize”) learned items (multiple choice test)
Encoding Specificity Principle: associations formed at the time of encoding or learning tend to be effective retrieval cues (ex. Mnemonics, semantic encoding)
Priming: activating particular connections or association in memory
Flashbulb Memories: memories of emotionally significant events that people often recall with more accuracy and vivid imagery than everyday events
Factors involved in forgetting
Challenges of Forgetting 1. Absent-mindedness: inattention to details produces encoding failure 2. Transience: storage decay over time 3. Blocking: inaccessibility of stored info
Challenges of Distortion 4. Misattribution: confusion about source of info 5. Suggestibility: lingering effects of misinfo 6. Bias: belief-colored recollections
Challenge of Intrusion 7. Persistence: unwanted memories
Proactive Interference: info learned earlier interferes with recall or newer material; material that was learned earlier disrupts the recall of material learned later
Retroactive Interference: difficulty in recall of info because of later exposure to different material; material learned later disrupts retrieval of info learned earlier
Memory Construction: Constructive process: memories are influenced by the meaning that we give to events
Schemas: organized bodies of info stored in memory that bias the way new info is interpreted, stored and recalled
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