Policy and Development

In: Social Issues

Submitted By ayatex
Words 13791
Pages 56
RESOURCES

COMMUNITY
DEVELOPMENT
AND PUBLIC POLICY guidance on the application of community development approaches to different aspects of anti-poverty and social inclusion work
€10

Siobhán Lynam

Bridgewater Centre, Conyngham Road, Islandbridge, Dublin 8
Tel: 01 670 6746 Fax: 01 670 6760 Email: info@combatpoverty.ie Website: www.combatpoverty.ie

COMMUNITY
DEVELOPMENT
AND PUBLIC POLICY
Siobhán Lynam

Community Development and Public Policy

1

© 2006

ISBN: 1-905485-11-5
While every effort has been made to ensure that the information contained in this book is accurate, no legal responsibility is accepted by the author or Combat Poverty for any errors or omissions. The views expressed in this publication are the author’s own and not necessarily those of Combat Poverty Agency.

2

Community Development and Public Policy

CONTENTS
Acknowledgements
Preface

4
5

Introduction
Background to the publication
Structure of the publication

6
6

Section 1: Defining public policy
1.1 What is public policy?
1.2 How is policy made?
1.3 The public policy cycle
1.4 Example of a community organisation’s impact on policy

7
7
8
13
16

Section 2: A community-development approach to policy making
2.1 Giving voice to excluded groups
2.2 Characteristics of a community-development approach
2.3 Value of adopting a community-development approach

18
18
19
21

Section 3: Influencing public policy making
3.1 Develop a policy agenda
3.2 Make it an integral part of the work
3.3 Be focused
3.4 Develop a strategy for the influence
3.5 Understand the process of policy implementation
3.6 Build operational and organisational capacity

24
24
25
25
27
31
31

Section 4: Issues and challenges
4.1 Challenges for the community sector
4.1 Challenges for the statutory sector

34
34
35

Section 5: References…...

Similar Documents

On the Development of Comprehensive Information Security Policies for Organizations

...On The Development of Comprehensive Information Security Policies for Organizations The article selected for review is titled, “On the Development of Comprehensive Information Security Policies for Organizations.” The article is from the International Journal of Academic Research; the authors are Fahad T. Bin Muhaya, Fazl-e-Hadi, and Abid Ali Minhas. The article offers guidelines on the development of information security policies for organizations based on a proposed framework. The introduction of the article emphases the importance of protecting information, “Information security failures have gradually damage many progressing organizations; ruining its repute, reducing customer trust and ultimately lose its market share.” I believe is this a very strong introductory statement. The introduction of the article also implies that a new form of terroristic attacks may come from breaching organizations and accessing sensitive information. The authors further suggest that information security comprises of three elements which are human, organizational, and technological vulnerabilities. The article objective is clearly stated as a tool on how to develop or improve information security. The development approach when viewing an organizational structure is defined in the article as threats versus defense. The article identifies security policy issues at the environment, application, cryptography, network, and physical layers. This is a simple definition but I feel that......

Words: 565 - Pages: 3

A Critical Examination of the View That the Debt Crisis Is a Result of Inappropriate Development Policies

...Critically examine the view that the debt crisis is a result of inappropriate development policies. (40 marks) In 2008, the total external debt for the world’s developing countries was US$3.7 trillion, and US$163 billion for the worlds least developed countries For the developing world as a whole, in 1991, the total external debt was $1.362 trillion, which was 126.5%of its total exports of goods and services in that year, and the ratio of debt servicing to the gross domestic product of the developing world reached 32.4%. For some LEDCs, debt stood at 98% (Congo) and 112% (Nicaragua) of their GDP in 1980. Consequently, we have the situation whereby the last ten years African countries have paid their debt three time over, yet are three times as indebted as 10 years ago. This phenomenon is the result of international debt growing enormously since the 1970s, which became apparent in 1982 when Mexico announced it could not repay its foreign debt. Other, especially Latin American economies, also faced crises in the 1980s and 1990s, when they simply could not service their debt repayments: they defaulted. Mexico was first in 1982, Argentina in 1999-2002. Many other LEDCs continue to exist in a state of massive indebtedness, which persists until the present day. Inappropriate development policies, that is, the ineffective economic policies of many LEDC governments, did cause the debt crisis and indebtedness, but this is an incomplete explanation. Debt and debt......

Words: 2647 - Pages: 11

Policies for Budget Development: Case Study 1

...Policies for Budget Development Policy Comments Overall, it appears that Hector Corporation has a solid annual budget development policy in place. There is a budget committee that Hector Corporation sets up in order to drive the budget process. The company’s controller, who is responsible for implementing the master budget, is part of the committee. At the beginning of the budget process, Hector Corporation reviews the plans and determines what the overall goals for the following budget year are going to be. Early in the process, sales goals are determined. The operating budget includes the day to day operations of the company. The financial pro forma can be created in integrated into the budget. Moving into the fall timeframe, after the initial budget information is gathered and compiled into the master budget, this is reviewed and rounds of changes are made as necessary until final approval. Once there is the final approval, it is the policy of Hector Corporation to communication these to the appropriate managers (Crosson, 2011). It is clear that those who have authority over the budget, such as division manager and department heads are involved in the budget process, which is key since they will be held accountable for the results in the following year (Crosson, 2011). What changes would you recommend? I would recommend the budget committee to review the long term goals of the company. As mentioned in the chapter reading, this is critical to setting the......

Words: 482 - Pages: 2

Policies for Curriculum Development

...Policies For Curriculum Development Ashanti C. Chambers Grand Canyon University 10/30/2013 Policies For Curriculum Development Instructional practices and there implementation are crucial to the success or failure of students. In order to achieve high-level learners based on a standardized curriculum, instructional practices must be examine and analyzed to ensure that all student’s needs are met. There are proven instructional practices that have led to higher level learning and student success that are engaging and allow students to be responsible for their own learning. By aligning these practices with a standard based curriculum, students can be successful at applying their learning to real world problem solving while passing the curriculum-based assessments to determine student growth. Marzano’s High Yield Strategies It has been said that teacher are made, not born. Robert J. Marzano used this premise to start his work on creating instructional strategies that can make any teacher an effective instructor. An important study during the late 1960’s indicated that teachers form expectations about their students’ chances for academic success and then interact with students on the basis of those expectations (Marzano, 2010, p. 82). This basically says that teachers often treats students according to what they expect each can do based on their abilities. With these expectations, students will usually start to act in accordance with the expectation that this......

Words: 1440 - Pages: 6

Monetary Policy and Capital Market Development in Bangladesh

...Monetary Policy and Capital Market Development in Bangladesh Policy Note: PN 0708 Shubhasish Barua* and Md. Habibour Rahman* Abstract Bangladesh Bank (BB) adjusted its monetary policy stance during 2005 in order to contain inflationary pressures and facilitate stability in the foreign exchange market. At the end of 2005, interest rates on NSD certificates were also adjusted upward. The latter development, however, raised some concern among different economic agents regarding its possible impact on the country's capital market. In this paper we attempt to closely inspect the evolvement of monetary policy and capital market indicators in recent years and their possible interrelationship to shed some light on the issue. Since prices of stocks are mainly determined by company fundamentals, monetary policy can have only short term effect on stock prices. Even in the short run, effect of interest rates on stock prices is less clear-cut, and in a less developed capital market like Bangladesh, stock prices do tend to respond, for short term, to new reform measures and government incentives. 1. Introduction Bangladesh Bank (BB) adjusted its monetary policy stance during 2005 in order to contain inflationary pressures and facilitate stability in the foreign exchange market. At the end of 2005, interest rates on NSD certificates (government borrowing instruments from the non-bank public) were also adjusted upward. The latter development, however, raised some concern among different...

Words: 3361 - Pages: 14

Cameroon Trade and Development Policies

...Geneva School of Diplomacy and International Relations – Spring Trimester 2010 Topic: Cameroon’s Trade and Development Policies: Analysis and recent Tendencies Student: ANYANGWE Fombang Claudius Course: International Trade and Development: 21st Century Issues Instructor: Prof. Dr. Gustavo Olivares Abstract: Cameroon was one of the few privileged countries to join the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995 as a founding member while establishing a Common External Tariff (CET) to enhance intraregional trade under the CEMAC economic bloc. This accession came at a time when Cameroon was implementing drastic structural reforms to handle the scourge of the great economic depression of the 1990s that spread as wildfire across most African countries. In struggling to advance the IMF-World Bank proposed structural reforms of economic liberalization and privatization, WTO was seen as an appropriate panacea for the devastated economic situation by providing a multilateral trading system where Cameroon could gain greater market access for its products and attract foreign direct investment. This paper analyzes the trade and development policies that Cameroon has adopted within the framework of the WTO and other economic partnership agreements in addressing the developmental and economic problems facing Cameroon. The study explores Cameroon’s past and ongoing negotiations geared towards the objectives for an open trade regime. The study concludes that despite the loopholes in WTO......

Words: 2656 - Pages: 11

A Criticism of Neoliberal Policies as a Method of Development

...A Criticism of Neoliberal Policies as a Method of Development * Neoliberalism is a philosophical theory that uses market value as the primary method of evaluating all aspects of life. Thus, the market is seen as the template for all other activities within a society, even those that involve an ethical dimension. (Paul Sukys, 2009) Thesis Statement: The pro-market principles that neoliberalism encourages do have benefits that, if managed realistically, are means of development and sustainment for countries worldwide. * “The neoliberal doctrine emphasizes competition over cooperation and in doing so encourages each individual to pursue his or her own well being, thus effectively creating "companies of one" who will sell whatever they possess (talents, property, abilities, education, and so on) in order to accumulate "points," in whatever way those points may be defined within a given system.” (Jason Read, 2008) * “Neoliberalization has not been very effective in revitalizing global capital accumulation, but it has succeeded remarkably well in restoring, or in some instances (as in Russia and China) creating, the power of an economic elite...” (David Harvey, 2007) * Neoliberalism is an ideology, method of governance, and a set of policies which originated out of classical liberalism and as a backlash to Keynesianism during the early 1980’s (Steger and Roy 2010:10-11) * Neoliberal intellectuals insisted that the ‘free market’ was a superior mechanism......

Words: 1846 - Pages: 8

Policy Development

...Policy Development CJA/464 Policy Development Prison overcrowding has been a major problem in this country for the last 20 years. This problem stemmed from many different causes or reasons. The fundamental breakdown of the correctional system as a whole has contributed to this problem. This has caused havoc within our system in many different ways especially from a financial standpoint. It cost a tremendous amount of money to house prisoners, and death row inmate’s cost of incarceration is astronomically high. As this paper goes along we will look at some of the reasons as to why our prisons are overcrowded, and how we might be able to remedy the situation. Prison overcrowding has become an issue in just about every state in the country, and especially in California, New York, and Texas. In 1980 there were states that a tougher outlook on crime which in turn resulted in several new policies that were adopted. California adopted, and enforced the three-strike policy, and New York implemented the broken window policy. According to Jerome Mullins,” the three strike law has significantly increased the overcrowding of prisons” (Mullins, 2005). This policy increases the prison sentence for those already serving time although it also prevents a person previously convicted from receiving any punishment other prison time. California had major impacts due to this law from the onset, and in less than a year major implications begin to surface. After a mere six months there were......

Words: 2406 - Pages: 10

Why Is Regional Development Considered to Be an Important Eu Policy?

...Why is regional development considered to be an important EU policy? “The mission in the Directorate General for Regional Policy is to strengthen economic, social and territorial cohesion by reducing disparities in the level of development among regions and Member States. This means investing in regions’ indigenous potential to promote the competitiveness of regional economies and the permanent catch-up of those lagging behind the more prosperous areas” (http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/regional_policy/index_en.htm) I chose this essay as I found it very interesting to learn about how and why the EU develops regions when I was doing my presentation for this module. I found it surprising to discover just how important an EU policy it is and to learn why both poorer and wealthier regions require development funding, often for very different reasons. My aims for this essay are firstly to give an insight into the history of EU policy over the past fifty years, with particular reference to the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) that was established in 1975. I will then begin with examples from Ireland, in regions where the EU consider development an important policy. From there, I will contrast this development with poorer regions in Europe, where regional development is now a major EU priority (especially regarding new Member States). As I conclude, I will highlight current and future regional development actions of the European Union. During the period 1957-1988, the......

Words: 2071 - Pages: 9

Policy Development

...Policy Development Natausha Crespin CJA/464 November 3, 2014 Kim Chapman Policy Development Domestic violence can be described as any form of deliberate coercion, bodily harm, sexual assault, or any other form of violent behavior committed by an intimate partner. Domestic violence has plagued all walks of life despite the age, race, religion, or background. Violence against an intimate partner is frequently followed by psychological abuse and controlling behavior relating to the methodical blueprint of power and control. Domestic violence comes in many forms but not always seen by the naked eye. Domestic violence constitutes forms of physical abuse, psychological abuse or even death that can be seen by other family members possibly causing a continuous cycle of abuse for generations to come. Facts and Statistics It is hard to grasp the notion that somewhere in the world every nine seconds a woman is being beaten or assaulted. On average, 85% of victims of domestic violence are women and 1 in every three women will endure some form of domestic violence in their natural life. Sadly enough only one fourth of all victims who have been physically assaulted by an intimate partner will actually report it to the police, implying that official statistics will never justify the full scope of the problem. The average age of a female victim who is at the greatest risk of harm by an intimate partner is between 20 to 24 years old. Domestic violence......

Words: 2543 - Pages: 11

Factors That Shape Policies in Sports Development

...Factors that Shape Policies in Sports Development in the UK Communities. Name + Code: Professor’s Name: University’s Name: State/City: In the community, sports seem to be a form of utilizing leisure time. Apart from being a form of recreation, it is also a profession activity. Thus, it is a common phenomenon to see teenagers as well adults engaging in sports activities such as football, swimming, hockey, and running. Sports have a number of benefits to the community that tend to help the teenagers and the adults. For instance, it keeps young people busy; thus, they do not have time to engage in drug abuse and crime. The frequent exercises often improve the physical health of the population; thus, they avoid diseases such as obesity (Coalter, 2007). Such benefits need the intervention of the government to improve the state of the sporting facilities. Therefore, the government must establish policies that will ensure efficiency in the sports department. Such policies will go ahead and improve the state of sports in the community level. The essence of improving sports at the ground level is to tap the talent of the youngsters (DCMS, 2008). A wide pool of talent will ensure success of the country in international sports activities. A number of factors such as employment, engagement, investment as well as the countries prestige tend to encourage policy development in sports. In essence, such factors tend to shape policy developments in community sports (Coalter, 2007). Although......

Words: 2167 - Pages: 9

On the Development of Comprehensive Information Security Policies for Organizations

...Textual analytics and personal knowledge management for policy analysis (Master thesis). Retrieved from ProQuest dissertation and thesis database. (UMI No. MR38373) The author noted while there are a great many software tools available for managing digital information, there appears to be no research speaking to their use in the field of policy analysis. The purpose of this thesis was to identify and apply a set of standards for evaluating the usefulness of existing knowledge management tools for policy analysis. The second part of the analytic task was to catalog the shortcomings of the tools in order to provide a recommendation for improvement. The disciplines examined for this thesis were policy analysis, knowledge management, communication, and cognitive linguistics. The author examined qualitative software such as NVivo, Atlas, and QDAMiner. NVivo, according to the author is not as dependable as Atlas and QDAMiner. Atlas offers a semi-automated analysis, which according to the author is slow. Adding a new code requires the whole coding to be run again. The major advantage of QDAMiner software is the “ability to classify any stretch of text using any category” (p. 58). This provides greater flexibility in categorizing discrete words or thoughts. Document and meta-data management tools such as iTunes, PaperPort Adobe Acrobat, and PDF Explore were examined. They too were, according to the author, inadequate for policy analysis. Content management tools such as Drupal......

Words: 3359 - Pages: 14

Development of Connection Policy for Distributed Generation in the Uk

...Tnegra Design Development of connection policy for distributed generation in the UK Gareth Evans Technical Directorate, Ofgem The British Electricity & Gas Regulator 1 gareth.evans@ofgem.gov.uk ERRA DG Working Group - July 2007 Tnegra Design Development of connection policy for distributed generation in the UK • Introducing Ofgem • The challenge of DG • Connection incentives • The Electricity Networks Strategy Group • The Energy White Paper • Conclusions 2 ERRA DG Working Group - July 2007 Tnegra Design Development of connection policy for distributed generation in the UK • Introducing Ofgem • The challenge of DG • Connection incentives • The Electricity Networks Strategy Group • The Energy White Paper • Conclusions 3 ERRA DG Working Group - July 2007 Tnegra Design About • Total staff currently ~300 • Principal disciplines: – Economists 50% – Finance/Admin 15% – Legal 6% – Social/Environmental 6% – Technical 6% • Overall Budget ~£30m per year 4 Ofgem’s main office near Houses of Parliament + small office in Glasgow ERRA DG Working Group - July 2007 Tnegra Design Principal objective • Our first priority is to protect the interests of consumers now and for the future. We do this by: – promoting markets/competition wherever appropriate, and – regulating effectively the monopoly companies which run the gas and electricity networks 5 ERRA DG Working Group - July......

Words: 2304 - Pages: 10

Prospects and Chaleenges of Land Development Policy in Bangladesh

...release of the last political hostages (Colombia Reports 2012) was seen as a huge step towards pacification. Violence has been decreasing 7 since 2002, but some insurgents continue to throw attacks against civilians. The total population in Colombia according to cia Factbook (2012) is 45.239.079 (July 2012 est.), and the life expectancy at birth is 74,79 years (Ibid.). The economic performance of the last decade has been strong, and Real gdp grew 5,7 % in 2011 and inflation ended 2011 at 3,7 %. Unemployment is still relatively high 10,8 % in 2011—arguably due to hidden economy—and economy is still highly dependent on oil exports (cia 2012). gdp per capita is 10.100 $ (2011 est.), which ranks the 109th in the world (Ibid.). Its hdi (Human Development Index) in 2011 was 0,710 ranking 87th in the world (undp 2012). Its Gini coeffient—an index that tries to quantify inequality—was 58,5 in 2005 (Ibid.). The city of Armenia is currently the 21st most populated city of Colombia with an estimated population of 281.013 hab. (dane 2010). GEOGRAPHICAL CONTEXT Colombia is located in northern South America,limiting with Venezuela and Panamá on the North,and with Ecuador, Perú and Panamá on the South.It has access to both Caribbean and Pacific Sea, andits landscape is varied, ranging from Andes Mountains to the Amazonian jungle and lowlands in6 the coast. Its estimated land area is 1.038.700 m2 (cia Factbook 2012).The capital Bogotá is also the most populated city (8.262.000 hab.),......

Words: 4623 - Pages: 19

Policy Development

...Policy Development Prison crowding is becoming more and more of an issue in the United States. Every day the problem continues to grow as each person who is arrested, taken into to custody and ultimately convicted joins the prison population. Concerns have been raised when it comes to the topic of prison and its population by everyone from the public to law makers. Over the years, the growth of prison capacity has been slightly behind that of the inmate population always resulting in an overcrowding issue. “There has been no consistent evidence that crowding is associated with mortality, morbidity, recidivism, violence, or other pathological behaviors, but rather due to changes to both federal and state sentencing policies. These changes have increased the proportion of the individuals who are charged with felonies and sentence to lengthy jail and prison sentences” (Van Ness, 2008). In addressing any problem area, one first must define the terms or operational definitions. “The United States Supreme Court on November 30, 2010, heard oral argument in Schwarzenegger v. Plata about whether a federal court in California properly ordered the release of 40,000 prisoners to relieve the severe overcrowding in the state's prisons that has led to inadequate medical and mental health care for prisoners” (“U.S. Supreme Court Reviews Prison Overcrowding And Horrendous Conditions Of Confinement,” 2010). “America’s prisons now hold more than 2.3 million people, and many of......

Words: 1884 - Pages: 8