Photovoltaic White Paper

In: Science

Submitted By laesong9
Words 12210
Pages 49
Photovoltaic Power Systems
Compiled by Tracy Dahl Overview
Photovoltaic (PV) technology converts one form of energy (sunlight) into another form of energy (electricity) using no moving parts, consuming no conventional fossil fuels, creating no pollution, and lasting for decades with very little maintenance. The use of a widely available and reasonably reliable fuel source—the sun—with no associated storage or transportation difficulties and no emissions makes this technology eminently practicable for powering remote scientific research platforms. Indeed, numerous examples of successfully deployed systems are already available. The completely scaleable nature of the technology also lends itself well to varying power requirements–from the smallest autonomous research platforms to infrastructure-based systems. This technology can be limited, however, by annual fluctuations in solar insolation, especially at extreme latitudes. Based on semiconductor technology, solar cells operate on the principle that electricity will flow between two semiconductors when they are put into contact with each other and exposed to light (photons). This phenomenon, known as the photovoltaic effect, was first discovered by Edmund Becquerel in 1839. Actual development of PV technology began in the 1950s and gained greater impetus through the NASA space program during the 1960s. Research continues today at national laboratories and within private industry, focusing on increasing conversion efficiencies and mass production strategies to further lower the cost of producing PV modules. For a list of some of the many online resources on PV technology visit the Links Section of http:// The same web site offers presentations from the 2004 Renewable Energy Working Group Meeting and links to the Autonomous Systems in Extreme Environments Workshop report under News > Past Meetings.…...

Similar Documents

Memory White Paper

...White Paper on Memory Usage 6/19/2008 Abstract: This paper was written to compare customer environments with regards to memory usage for the Interactive Application running on Metaframe servers in the Hosting environment. Data Information: A sample group of servers was chosen at random and the following information was obtained from these servers using two methods. Calculations were made from the both groupings of data, each section will show the calculation methods used. As a best practice on physical machines memory utilization should not exceed 90%. The remaining 10% of unused memory is to manage runaway processes, unexpected errors, less utilization of memory paging swap file, and memory available to avoid a system abort. 1. HP OpenView data collection occurred on 6/17/2008 a. Physical Memory as reported by HP OpenView b. Max Memory used at time of sample c. Memory (MB)Avail from Peak d. 90% of available memory for process use e. Total users at time of sample 2. Hyena System Reporting data collection occurred on 6/23/2008 a. System Processes and memory utilization for each b. Application process requirements for and c. Total memory used for system and application processes d. Total users at time of sample 3. Calculations a. Total memory available after 90% ruled applied b. Total memory available after 90% rule applied with system and......

Words: 1897 - Pages: 8

Case Study/White Paper

...Case Study/ White Paper HRMN 300 October 7, 2012 Pomodoro Ltd. Code of Business Conduct 2012 Pomodoro Ltd. is a food and beverage industry giant and our recent merger with Thompson snack foods will enable us to grow our business to the next level. In order to do that successfully we will need to be in compliance with all U.S. employment regulations. The following information will be outlined in detail; Occupational Safety and Health Administration laws, sexual harassment policy, Americans with Disabilities Act, and Equal Employment Opportunity. Employees of Pomodoro Ltd., like all major companies, derive from different countries and cultures. Our goal is to educate our employees of all backgrounds so that we are all in compliance with the company’s guidelines. As a leader in the food and beverage industry it is especially important for our company to be aware and compliant of Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) laws. It is our responsibility as employers to comply with all applicable OSHA standards. Under the OSHA act employers are responsible for providing a safe and healthy workplace. OSHA regulations state all employee food service facilities and operations shall be carried out in accordance with sound hygienic principles. In all places of employment where all or part of the food service is provided, the food dispensed shall be wholesome, free from spoilage, and shall be processed, prepared, handled, and stored in such a manner as to be......

Words: 975 - Pages: 4

Information Technology White Paper

...Tan Pham CSIA 303 Information Security White Paper Professor Gupta Information Security White Paper The internet and its technology have brought many advantages and disadvantages for information system of businesses, whether public or private. There is no denying that the business world will move further and further into the cyber world, where information are available just by a click of a finger. No matter how large of a scale a business is, private restaurant or large Banking Corporation, the truth is every single one of these business is at risk. Risk of losing trade secret and risk of losing employee’s confidential data are some of a few risks that a business must address. These risks originally come from sources calls vulnerabilities and threats. Vulnerabilities in plain definition are weaknesses of an information system. These weaknesses later can be translated and exploited by attackers, insider or outsider. These attackers are generally can be seen as threats. Businesses must find solutions to mitigate these threats by eliminating vulnerabilities of their system in order to reduce risk of their information and information system. Information security addresses the three following components: confidentiality, integrity and availability, which are the main goal for business toward protecting their information and information system. Confidentiality is basically to ensure no confidential......

Words: 1157 - Pages: 5

Information Security White Paper

...Information Security White Paper UMUC In business, an information security is a set of policies to protect the companies and small businesses infrastructure, physical and information technology assets, and to ensure that all information technology users within the domain of the companies and small businesses comply with the rules and guidelines related to the security of the information stored digitally at any network within the boundaries of authority. In short, it can protect data from the outside and even inside threat. The data and information, which the companies and small businesses have, are arguably the most important assets. They should ensure the data confidentiality, integrity, availability, non-repudiation, authentication, and authorization. Most small businesses and companies must have information security to ensure their business and information assets. Information security protects data and controls how it should be distributed within or without the businesses boundaries. This means that information should be encrypted and may have restrictions placed on its distribution to the third party. Information security should protect the data from the outside threats such as: Threats |Confidentiality |Integrity |Availability | |Denial of Service Attack |Low |Medium |High | |Power Supply Failure |Low |Low |High | |Malicious Code Infection |High |High |High | |Theft and Fraud |High |Medium |High | |Website Intrusion |High |High |High |......

Words: 697 - Pages: 3

White Paper

...over nutrition-a billion- had officially surpassed the number suffering from malnutrition” (Pollan 102). People know that the effects of eating fast food is not in their favor. Poor eating habits can lead to obesity or even more serious, diabetes. Americans have also become so consumed by sedentary activities, such as television and video games. According to Children Health Alert, “Children and adolescents spend an average of five and a half hours a day using media that includes, TV, video games, computer activities, and Internet” (Green, Riley, and Hargrove 917). Which means that they consequently are not receiving the amount of exercise that they should. The problem of childhood obesity needs to be addressed and the policy that the White House should implement is a physical education class for grades K-12. This new policy will provide students with at least thirty minutes of physical activities each day, and can help prevent and reduce obesity among children. 4 Obesity is posing a serious threat to our nation. Obesity rates are dramatically higher than they were over a generation ago. Over the last 20 to 30 years the cases of obesity has tremendously increased. Childhood obesity has tripled since the early 1960s. At risk children are those whose BMI is between the 85th and 95th percentiles. There are about 20 percent of children in the United States who has a BMI over the 95th percentile. Body Mass Index (BMI) is the weight and height of a person calculated together.......

Words: 2714 - Pages: 11

White Paper

...Johnson & Wales University Providence, Rhode Island Feinstein Graduate School WHITEPAPER “The Port Development of Gaza” A Written Paper Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the MBA Degree Course: Global Economic Environments-IBUS 5511 Qiong WU 12/11/13 INTRODUCTION My name is Qiong Wu, and I am a consultant of international trade and safety in Gaza. My job is controlling the maritime passage into and out of Gaza thus allowing the safe transport of goods to and from the rest of the world, finding problems and offering solutions to improve the situations there. The purpose of this document is to provide my solutions for the port development of Gaza. Gaza needs to create a new policy to suit the changing global environment that will protect the safety of people’s lives as well as boost Gaza’s economy. BACKGROUND 1. Political Environment Gaza has very long history in the world, and it is also a place that suffered a lot. It has been ruled by both Egypt and Israel and is beloved by neither, which is a problem for all. Gazans are emphatically Palestinian, a national identity forged from the trauma of losing their land to Jewish armies in 1948, the year Israel was established. Many defeated Arab landowners fled to Gaza, where 3 out of 4 residents are classified as refugees. The Jews initially made no claim to Gaza, and the strip of coast became a holding pen administered by Egypt's military. The West Bank was......

Words: 1408 - Pages: 6

White Papers

...remained largely unaddressed for the previous four decades. Likewise, the ‘Lokpal’ bill, currently so fi ercely debated, has a long and faltering ancestry in Indian politics. Between 1969 and 1998, six separate Lokpal bills have been passed in India, only to lapse with the dissolution of parliament. What the historical farce of the Lokpal bills suggests is that the consistency with which independent enquiries diagnose and prescribe against political corruption in India, is matched only by the uniformity 53 with which their activities are ignored or obfuscated by the parliament. The fate of proposals directed more specifi cally at fl agrantly criminal acts of political corruption is worse still. Most recently, the 2010 background paper on electoral reforms prepared by the Indian Election Commission has revisited two unheeded recommendations with which to combat the criminalisation of Indian politics, both of which were fi rst proposed in 2004. The Commission advises that prospective candidates for the lower house of the Indian parliament be required to declare all previous convictions, pending criminal cases and assets prior to standing, and suggests that the withholding of such information should be made punishable by a minimum of two years imprisonment. Moreover, the commission recommends disqualifi cation for all candidates against whom charges have been brought at least six months prior to election for the most serious category of offences.......

Words: 2752 - Pages: 12

White Paper

...An ISS White Paper Security Strategy Development Building an Information Security Management Program 6303 Barfield Road • Atlanta, GA 30328 Tel: 404.236.2600 • Fax: 404.236.2626 Security Strategy Development Information Security Management A sound information security management program involves more than a few strategically placed firewalls. These safeguards, while important, are only truly effective as part of an overall information security management system. The integration of existing security technologies and processes into a cohesive framework for security management will ultimately reduce inefficiencies and redundancy and ensure the manageability of those solutions. A comprehensive security program should contain the proper balance between people, processes and technology to effectively manage risk with minimal impact on normal business operations. In order to build an appropriate information security program, an organization should assess and define their specific security requirements, design a solution that meets those unique requirements, deploy the necessary policies, technology and procedures, and continuously maintain, adapt and improve that solution. An organization’s overall security strategy will provide a framework for defining those elements necessary in building and maintaining a sound security management program. Strategic planning can take many forms, but the end result should yield a documented approach for achieving goals set within......

Words: 1442 - Pages: 6

Social Media White Paper

...or services. There are three major approaches to looking at social media – channel reporting tools, overview score-carding systems and predictive analytic techniques (primarily text mining). Each has its useful aspects, but each also has limitations. In this paper we will discuss a fourth approach – using a predictive analytic platform that includes not only text mining, but network analysis as well as other predictive techniques such as clustering to overcome not only the limitations of the previous techniques, but generate new fact based insight as well. This approach was first used at a major European Telco. To explain the detailed approach, this white paper will work on publicly available data. We show not only sentiment analysis and influencers, but we are able to combine these techniques and – in our example – prove that participants who are very negative in their sentiment are actually not highly regarded as thought leaders by the rest of the community. This is an amazing result which goes against the popular marketing adage that negative users have a very high effect on the community at large. Note: To enable our approach to be repeated by the reader, we used the KNIME open source platform throughout this white paper. Sample data and workflows showing these techniques are available on the KNIME site at WWW.KNIME.COM . Social Media Channel-Reporting Tools. A wide number of tools – both open source and commercial – is now available to gain a first impression of a......

Words: 5930 - Pages: 24

White Paper

... Culture is connecting with development and is poised to become a fundamental component of sustainable development. This White Paper sets the stage for a revival of arts and culture in Mauritius. My government sees arts and culture as an important lever of social integration and as an industry that can offer employment potential and wealth creation opportunities. While culture in the abstract is a set of mental constructs, it is rooted in a place at a moment in history and is always local. However, we often forget that it is a renewable resource that can and should be nurtured to become a tool for sustainable development. Thus, developing arts and culture fits in our strategy of ‘Maurice République Durable’. Investment in arts and culture provides a stimulus for activity in the broader economy. This White Paper lays the basis for an enabling environment that will provide the right opportunities for realizing the full potential of arts and culture in the total development of our population through actions and policies aimed at nurturing creativity and innovation, while at the same time preserving and highlighting the diverse heritage of our plural nation. I congratulate the Minister of Arts and Culture and Mr Hans Kanhye for this laudable initiative and I invite all stakeholders to give their views on the proposals contained in this White Paper before we translate it into a blue print for action. Dr. The Hon. Navinchandra Ramgoolam, GCSK,......

Words: 20646 - Pages: 83

White Paper

...A New Design Concept of Optical Fibers to Reduce Non Linearity and Bend loss in Optical Networks REENA HARNAL AND SAURAV DUTTA E-2, Sterlite Technologies Ltd, MIDC, Aurangabad, India, Abstract: Fiber with an Enhanced value of SBS threshold and low macro bend Loss is presented in this paper. The fiber has a SBS threshold value greater than 12 dBm and complies G.657A ITU-T specification for Bend loss. It can be used as a single line fiber in Optical networks. 1. INTRODUCTION Stimulated Brillouin scattering is a dominant nonlinear process in optical networks. In long haul transmission systems, it degrades the output signal once input power reaches above a certain threshold [1]. In FTTH networks bend loss is the main concern because of the stringent indoor wiring requirements. Therefore there is a requirement of an optical fiber, which has an enhanced SBS threshold value and improved bend performance. Such a fiber can be used in different parts of the optical network, in long haul and access networks, as a single line fiber. 2. STIMULATED BRILLOUIN SCATERRING AND BEND LOSS Stimulated Brillouin scattering and Bend loss are the two fundamental effects which effect the signal transmission in optical networks. The below sections describes the principle behind Stimulated brillouin scattering and Bend loss. 2.1 Stimulated Brillouin scattering Scattering is a general physical process whereby some form of......

Words: 2652 - Pages: 11

White Paper

...Jordanna Lieberman Dr. Michelle Gibbons ENG-100 15 October 2015 Problems in Middleport, NY : Dredging cleanup [Research papers that use MLA format do not include a cover page unless requested by your instructor. Instead, start with the information shown at the top of this page. Do not bold the title or use all capital letters. Capitalize the first and last words of the title, and all principal words. If your paper includes a subtitle, separate it from the title by a colon and space, as shown. For more specific guidance on capitalization, see the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th Edition (MLA 7th Edition).] [All text—including titles, quotations, notes, and list of works cited—uses double line spacing. Body text and note text use a half-inch first-line indent. The list of works cited uses a half-inch hanging indent. Table titles and source text use a quarter-inch indent. Access all of these text formats on the Home tab, in the Styles gallery.] [MLA format discourages extensive use of content notes. But, when you need to add notes, you can use either endnotes or footnotes. MLA 7th Edition indicates that you should use a superscript, Arabic numeral at an appropriate place in the text for the note reference. To begin the note text, use the same numeral, not superscript, and followed by a period.] [If you use endnotes, they should be on a separate page, at the end of your text and preceding the list of works cited. If you use footnotes, consult your......

Words: 659 - Pages: 3

Strategic Leadership White Paper

...Institute of Corporate Directors Management white paper (Are you sure of your leadership) Executive Summary This paper provides managers and leaders with the necessary information to implement a cure for poor organizational performance and its negative workplace politics. The paper addresses the following subject areas: 1. Leadership and Performance; 2. Strategic Alignment; 3. Performance Diagnoses Checklist; 4. Bad Politics and Performance Risks; 5. Treatment Challenges; 6. Best Practices for Curing Bad Politics 1. Leadership and Performance The subject of leadership has been greatly covered by scholars, academicians and consultants, yet building high-performance teams remains elusive to most companies. Leadership is the most important competitive advantage of a company, not technology, finance, operations or anything else. Leadership formulates the company's business strategy and builds its resources, including its people, finances and operations. The leadership team is the most important asset of the company and can be its worst liability. A failed business is the result of poor performance. Poor performance is the result of an incompetent or dysfunctional leadership team. To paraphrase Tolstoy, All successful companies are successful for different reasons, but dysfunctional companies are dysfunctional in the same way. In my experience, the main reason for poor organizational performance is not the lack of business knowledge, but rather negative......

Words: 1729 - Pages: 7

White Paper

...Jie quan ACM 681 White Paper Content 1. Abstract-------------------------------------------------------------------3 2. History--------------------------------------------------------------3 2. Products------------------------------------------------------------3 3. Facing more and more rivals-----------------------------------4 4. The way of people do make-up is changing---------------4 5. Be ahead of other rivals and acquiring the 3D printer----5 6. Conclusion----------------------------------------------------------5 7. References-----------------------------------------------------------6 Abstract MAC is a world wide cosmetic company that was once the leader of the beauty and fashion industry. The beauty industry is favorable and everyone wants to get more profits from it; there are more and more new entrance involveD in and the competitors are producing some product that making MAC company less differentiated. Nowadays, there is a new technology called 3D printing machine that is threating the traditional beauty industry. MAC Cosmetics, Makeup Art Cosmetics, was founded in Toronto, Ontario, Canada by Frank Toskan and Frank Angelo in 1985. With the assistance of chemist Vic Casale, the first U.S MAC store opened in 1991, in New York. History The company's products were initially specifically designed for professional make-up artists but are now sold to consumers worldwide. Long before their company history, MAC cosmetics founders directed their......

Words: 964 - Pages: 4

How to Write a White Paper

...Steps to writing a proper white paper… Use a Linear, Logical Approach: a white paper must be educational, not promotional in tone. And should posses the following objectives: It must attract the right audience. White papers are highly audience specific, it is better to write white papers tailored toward different groups of stakeholders. Must engage the reader; engage by showing them that you understand their problem and that you can “relate”. Or by quickly showing mastery of the subject, through good clear writing. It must inform your reader. Written more like an objective magazine article than a sales brochure. they should objectively present a problem, the business case for solving the problem, and alternative ways of solving the problem. Therefore, the reader gains knowledge from having invested the time to read the paper. Ultimately the reader feels informed, not sold. It must convince your reader; to convince reader to give your organisation consideration based information that you have presented. Example, if your product has a high up-front cost but lower maintenance costs, your paper might include an analysis of ongoing “hidden” costs and a ROI model that shows how a high initial investment might actually be more cost-effective over the life of the purchase. Your Title Is Key to Success of Paper: A creative, meaningful title drives readership, whether you promote your paper online, distribute it at a conference, or pitch it to trade magazine editors. The......

Words: 854 - Pages: 4