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Chapter 15
Overview: Locating Genes Along Chromosomes * Mendel’s “hereditary factors” were genes * Today we can show that genes are located on chromosomes * The location of a particular gene can be seen by tagging isolated chromosomes with a fluorescent dye that highlights the gene
Mendelian inheritance has its physical basis in the behavior of chromosomes * Mitosis and meiosis were first described in the late 1800s * The chromosome theory of inheritance states: * Mendelian genes have specific loci (positions) on chromosomes * Chromosomes undergo segregation and independent assortment * The behavior of chromosomes during meiosis can account for Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment *
Morgan’s Experimental Evidence: Scientific Inquiry * The first solid evidence associating a specific gene with a specific chromosome came from Thomas Hunt Morgan, an embryologist * Morgan’s experiments with fruit flies provided convincing evidence that chromosomes are the location of Mendel’s heritable factors
Morgan’s Choice of Experimental Organism * Several characteristics make fruit flies a convenient organism for genetic studies * They produce many offspring * A generation can be bred every two weeks * They have only four pairs of chromosomes * Morgan noted wild type, or normal, phenotypes that were common in the fly populations * Traits alternative to the wild type are called mutant phenotypes
Correlating Behavior of a Gene’s Alleles with Behavior of a Chromosome Pair * In one experiment, Morgan mated male flies with white eyes (mutant) with female flies with red eyes (wild type) * The F1 generation all had red eyes * The F2 generation showed the 3:1 red:white eye ratio, but only males had white eyes * Morgan determined that the white-eyed mutant allele must be located on…...

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