Photosynthesis

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Chapter 15
Overview: Locating Genes Along Chromosomes * Mendel’s “hereditary factors” were genes * Today we can show that genes are located on chromosomes * The location of a particular gene can be seen by tagging isolated chromosomes with a fluorescent dye that highlights the gene
Mendelian inheritance has its physical basis in the behavior of chromosomes * Mitosis and meiosis were first described in the late 1800s * The chromosome theory of inheritance states: * Mendelian genes have specific loci (positions) on chromosomes * Chromosomes undergo segregation and independent assortment * The behavior of chromosomes during meiosis can account for Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment *
Morgan’s Experimental Evidence: Scientific Inquiry * The first solid evidence associating a specific gene with a specific chromosome came from Thomas Hunt Morgan, an embryologist * Morgan’s experiments with fruit flies provided convincing evidence that chromosomes are the location of Mendel’s heritable factors
Morgan’s Choice of Experimental Organism * Several characteristics make fruit flies a convenient organism for genetic studies * They produce many offspring * A generation can be bred every two weeks * They have only four pairs of chromosomes * Morgan noted wild type, or normal, phenotypes that were common in the fly populations * Traits alternative to the wild type are called mutant phenotypes
Correlating Behavior of a Gene’s Alleles with Behavior of a Chromosome Pair * In one experiment, Morgan mated male flies with white eyes (mutant) with female flies with red eyes (wild type) * The F1 generation all had red eyes * The F2 generation showed the 3:1 red:white eye ratio, but only males had white eyes * Morgan determined that the white-eyed mutant allele must be located on…...

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...Plant and other photosynthesis organisms produce foods that begin food chains. We count on the sun to be a constant energy source for both warmth and food production for all of plant Earth. The sunlight that strikes our planet must be converted into a form of chemical energy in order to be useful to all non- photosynthetic organisms. The most common chemical energy produced from photosynthesis is the molecule glucose. Photosynthesis produces sugar molecules as a food source for the plant. Sugars such as glucose are held together by covalent bonds. It requires energy to create those covalent bonds and the source of energy can ultimately be traced back to the sun. Photosynthesis is divided into two stages. The first stage is a set of reaction that trap light energy and convert it to the chemical energy of ATP. It is typically referred to as the light- dependent reactions. In addition, light energy is also used to accomplish a reaction that is called photolysis of water. In this reaction, water molecule is split into its component elements: hydrogen and oxygen. The oxygen that is split away due to the photolysis of water is typically released from the plant leaf as a waste product. The second stage is a series of reactions collectively referred to as the light- independent reactions. ATP and hydrogen are used as forms of chemical energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into useful organic molecules for the plant. Photosynthetic rate is highly dependent on many......

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