Philosophy and Psychology

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By jjenkins
Words 1964
Pages 8
Philosophy and Psychology

The links in the table on the left take you to sub-headings on this page.
|. |Philosophy can mean different things |
| |Sometimes philosophers deal with questions of truth and sometimes with questions of goodness ; |
| |sometimes they offer consolation for life’s sorrows and sometimes they are purely pragmatic. In |
| |the philosophy of science, a theory may be valued only for its predictive capability ; its truth |
| |or falsity may be immaterial. In ethics, philosophy may have a prescriptive function, offering a |
| |preferred set of values ; but where those values originate from is a debatable question. |
| | |
| | |
| | |
| | |
| | |

I hold the traditional view that philosophy is the attempt to define a qualitative approach to life.
This view implies that philosophy is the analysis and interpretation of values and standards, within the thinker’s experience of reality. But values and standards are also the domain of psychology. Therefore there is a great…...

Similar Documents


...Philosophy of psychology also closely monitors contemporary work conducted in cognitive neuroscience, evolutionary psychology, and artificial intelligence, for example questioning whether psychological phenomena can be explained using the methods of neuroscience, evolutionary theory, and computational modeling, respectively. Although these are all closely related fields, some concerns still arise about the appropriateness of importing their methods into psychology. Some such concerns are whether psychology, as the study of individuals as information processing systems (see Donald Broadbent), is autonomous from what happens in the brain (even if psychologists largely agree that the brain in some sense causes behavior (see supervenience)); whether the mind is "hard-wired" enough for evolutionary investigations to be fruitful; and whether computational models can do anything more than offer possible implementations of cognitive theories that tell us nothing about the mind (Fodor & Pylyshyn 1988). Philosophy of psychology is a relatively young field because "scientific" psychology—that is, psychology that favors experimental methods over introspection—came to dominate psychological studies only in the late 19th century. One of philosophy of psychology's concerns is to evaluate the merits of the many different schools of psychology that have been and are practiced. For example, cognitive psychology's use of internal mental states might be compared with behaviorism, and the......

Words: 717 - Pages: 3


...Psychology as a whole has stemmed from a number of different areas of study from Physics to Biology, but the first psychological foundations are rooted in philosophy, which to this day propels psychological inquiry in areas such as language acquisition, consciousness and even vision among many others. While the great philosophical distinction between mind and body in western thought can be traced to the Greeks, it is to the influential work of René Descartes, French mathematician, philosopher and physiologist, that we owe the first systematic account of the mind and body relationship. As the 19th century progressed, the problem of the relationship of mind to brain became ever more pressing. The word psychology comes from two Greek words: Psyche and Logos. The term ‘psychology’ used early on described the study of the spirit. It was in the 18th century when psychology gained its literal meaning: The study of behavior. In studies today psychology is defined as the scientific and systematic study of human and animal behavior. The term psychology has a long history but the psychology as an independent discipline is fairly new. Psychology started, and had a long history, as a topic within the fields of philosophy and physiology. It then became an independent field of its own through the work of the German, Wilhelm Wundt, the founder of experimental psychology and structuralism. Wundt stressed the use of scientific methods in psychology,......

Words: 1339 - Pages: 6

Philosophy Sociology Psychology (Psp)

...Philosophy Sociology Psychology Mid-Term Assignment By: Table of Content Cover……………………………………………….………………………..Page 1 Introduction…………………………………….…………………….…..Page3 Question 1) What is Sociological Imagination?...........Page4/5 Question 2) What do We mean when we say nobody understands Insanity?.......................................................................Page6 Conclusion/References……………………………………………..Page7 Introduction In this assignment I will answer the Two questions given in class by the lecturer which are: • What is Sociological Imagination? and • What do we mean, when we say no one understands insanity? I will use help from online sources and material given in class (slide about D.L. Rosenhan, 1973, on being sane in insane places.) given by the lecturer to help me develop ideas and reach a good conclusion and understanding of the questions above. I will also analyse Sociological Imagination based on C. Wright Mills ideas, I will develop my own ideas on sociological imagination and also have a critical analysis on insanity and sanity, explaining why is difficult or almost impossible to differentiate the sane from the insane. I will also relate inanity to Sociological imagination. This assignment contains references and aconclusion. Question 1) What is Sociological Imagination? Sociological imagination, is a neologism of sociology, analysed by the American social scientist C. Wright Mills in 1959, that......

Words: 1202 - Pages: 5

Philosophy to Psychology: Nature Versus Nurture

...Running Head: Philosophy to Psychology Philosophy to Psychology: The Question of Nature Versus Nurture Bernard Stevens Lux Ferre University Senior Research April 26, 2011 Abstract What influences more, society on the individual or collective individuals on society? Is society, thereby the individual, constructed by a set of pre-existing material conditions, or a pre-existing social condition? The philosophical origins of the question of nature versus nurture, are steeped in the ancient Greek philosophers nomos-physis debate in which the question is man the product (his actions) of conventional law or natural law? If so, is it possible to be balance of both, as suggested by Plato’s construction of the kallopolis (ideal city) in The Republic. For centuries, in Western Philosophy, the debate of which has dominion over man, nature or nurture, has been key to the establishment of many disciplines in the arts and sciences such as sociology, philosophy, and biology. Research suggest in ancient Greek civilization, the debate was termed as the Nomos-Physis debate, in which Plato challenged and/or expounded upon Pre-Socratic philosophers beliefs as to which rules man. The core subject matter is not, as in Psychology, a debate of which determines the personality traits of an individual per se, but whether or not man acts according to the laws of nature (Physis) or laws of man (Nomos). Though it...

Words: 4729 - Pages: 19


...Psychology – A little History PSY/310 Psychology and Where it Began Originally, psychology had its earliest roots in philosophy and physiology. In many descriptions of psychology history, it was the start of the very first psychology lab that officially marked psychology's beginnings as a separate and distinct discipline. This discussion will be explaining exactly when the first lab of psychology formed and who was responsible for this important event in psychology history (Cherry, Kendra). In this paper the philosophers that historically relate to the beginning of psychology as a discipline will be identified. The major philosophers in the western tradition whom were primarily contributors to the formation of psychology, and the development of the science of psychology during the 19th century will also be discussed. In the Beginning Wilhelm Wundt, a German doctor and psychologist, was responsible for creating the world's first psychology lab. Wundt established this lab in 1879 at the University of Leipzig in Germany, and by doing so created an academic laboratory that was dedicated to the study of experimental psychology. Wundt officially took psychology from a less disciplined part of philosophy and biology to a scientific discipline (Cherry, Kendra). William Wundt is known to be the father of psychology. He is famous for his findings on introspection, which is the experiments and reporting of the conscious inner thoughts desires and sensations. ......

Words: 985 - Pages: 4

Termpaperwarehouse.Com - Free Term Papers, Essays and Research Documents the Research Paper Factory Joinsearchbrowsesaved Papers Home Page » Philosophy and Psychology Summary- Read Only Participants in: Philosophy and - Free Term Papers, Essays and Research Documents The Research Paper Factory JoinSearchBrowseSaved Papers Home Page » Philosophy and Psychology Summary- Read Only Participants In: Philosophy and Psychology Summary- Read Only Participants A Case for Participation in Online Courses Tim Colgate Grand Canyon University: UNV 501 6/25/2012 A Case for Participation in Online Courses Online computer courses/degrees are becoming more frequent as technology improves and the availability of technology is greater. This article “Read-only participants: a case for student communication in online classes” (Nagel, Blignaut, Cronje 2007) analyzes data from several studies and suggests that active participation, as opposed to non-active participation, is directly correlated to student achievement. Read-Only Participants The term Read-only participants refers to online students who log into a specific classroom website, read the material provided or student post’s but do not get actively involved in the discussion. Buedouin (2002) suggested that read-only participants can learn and succeed in an online setting without participating (Nagel, Blinaught, & Cronje, 2007). However research by: Nagel, Blinaught, & Cronje (2007); Klemm (1998); Rovai & Barnum (2003); Swan, Shea, Frederickson, Pickett, & Pelz (2000), indicate that participation is essential to be a successful online student. Read-only students also have the tendency to......

Words: 322 - Pages: 2


...PHI130 Mind, Meaning, and Metaphysics DALILE, Boushra Rationalism vs. Empiricism: A Deficient Distinction Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge. It explores how knowledge can be acquired and considers its limits and validity. Rationalism and empiricism are distinct epistemological schools of thought. Among others, they differ significantly regarding the source of concepts and ideas. Prominent rationalists, including Descartes, Spinoza and Leibniz, argue that one must rely on reason as a purely deductive process to attain justified truths about reality (Cottingham 1988). In contrast, empiricists, including Locke, Berkeley and Hume, argue that knowledge is derived from the role of experience and sense data to formulate ideas. The question of what is the ideal foundation of knowledge is still debatable to date. I will argue that the rationalist vs. empiricist distinction is not exhaustive, and that carefully considering the approach-discipline relationship is crucial. In order to support this claim, this essay will discuss differences between rationalism and empiricism. Next, it will closely examine the advantages of each, drawing on the works of René Descartes and David Hume. Finally, this essay will identify problems with both theories and argue that reason and experience can together generate factual knowledge with respect to the subject matter. The major difference between rationalism and empiricism concerns their......

Words: 1768 - Pages: 8


...The Montessori method is founded “on the child himself” (Montessori, 2012, p7), it is based on the child’s psychology and on the observation of events naturally occurring from the child himself (Montessori, 2012). “Help me to help myself” is a key concept of the Montessori approach. All children are born equal; they are all born with an innate desire to learn, to self-construct and to become independent (MCI, 2013a). Through an individualised, child-centred method the children are given the opportunities to learn at their own pace within a favourable environment. The favourable environment fosters and supports the child’s developing independence through its physical structure, the activities available and with the support of the teacher. The Montessori teacher must be a good observer, “the eyes of the teacher must be trained” (Montessori, 2012, p226), and understanding of the child’s development is paramount in order to provide the best guidance for the child. Freedom of movement allows the child to do things by her/himself thus leading towards independence, so the child should be allowed to move and choose freely, it is freedom but within limits and responsibilities (MCI, 2013a). Using a case study, we will look at independence as an intrinsic desire of young children and how the favourable environment supports its development. Montessori presents human development as a natural process working through sensitive periods, human needs and tendencies; the way humans naturally......

Words: 2274 - Pages: 10

Case Study in: Philosophy and Psychology

...Philosophy and Psychology Case Study Case 7. HIT AND MISS MANUFACTURING: A Star is Born The head of HR department, Atty. Mila Bravo was directed by the company president to act as leader of a committee whose task is to revise and update the current compensation scheme of the company. The President designated the following as members of the committee: 1. the accountant 2. the executive secretary 3. an employee in one of the operating units 4. an officer of the labor union 5. the internal auditor 6. a representative from the public During the first meeting, the seven members were all present. The president made a briefing regarding the purpose of the group, the circumstances that lead to the formation of the group, and his expectations about the group’s output. The group proceeded to determine the various factors relevant to the determination of the rates of the various jobs. Most of the members of the committee, however, cannot devote the time required to finish the job within the time frame indicated by the committee’s effectiveness. The first two meetings were held without much fuss. Everybody was given the opportunity to air his or her views about the various matters forwarded for discussion. For one reason or another, the accountant failed to appear in the succeeding meetings. He never attempted to explain his position to the committee leader or to any member, but his body language indicated that he was too busy......

Words: 327 - Pages: 2

Philosophy an equivalent word for either social or independence rebellion through a great part of the world, from the word liberal, American essayists, political gatherings and research organizations received the word libertarian to portray promotion of industrialist free market financial matters and a night-guardian state. One point of interest of taking the deterministic viewpoint is that it endeavors to recognize the reasons for conduct by considering variables in disconnection. By mulling over the variables in confinement circumstances and end results can be built up, alongside broad laws about conduct. This won't just build Psychology's notoriety for being a science additionally expand Psychology's renown, give Psychology more status and build the recurrence that Psychology is called upon when settling on social and political choices. Likewise, by recognizing the circumstances and end results of negative practices then we may have the capacity to change the conduct and advantage the people concerned or society all in all. Determinism likewise appears to take after from our perspectives in material science. We feel that the material world is represented by laws: sufficiently given data around an item and important different articles, laws of nature, and so forth. We can anticipate what will happen to that question as far into the future as we'd like. Yet, people are just totals of matter, and along these lines subject to the same laws. So our conduct ought to be controlled by the...

Words: 1351 - Pages: 6


...1: Philosophy, sophism/sophistry, “pilosopo” 1 [Published in Rolando M. Gripaldo, ed. 2004. Philosophical landscape. Manila: Philippine National Philosophical Research Society.] PHILOSOPHY, SOPHISM/SOPHISTRY, “PILOSOPO” Rolando M. Gripaldo PHILOSOPHY: Ancient Philosophy literally means “love of wisdom.” In contemporary philosophy there are as many definitions of philosophy as there are schools of philosophy.1 What is interesting is that one school defines philosophy to the exclusion of other schools. For instance, the analytic school defines philosophy as the clarification of the meanings of words, phrases, and sentences, and it rejects metaphysical propositions as cognitively meaningless. Its emphasis is logic and language. On the other hand, the continental school defines philosophy in terms of the meaning of life and one’s relationship with the world and the Other (other human beings and/ or God). It considers the activities of the analytic tradition as meaningless to one’s life. Its emphasis is life. It is therefore advisable to just leave the definition of philosophy in its original etymological meaning, although even this is not safe. Quite recently, Hans-Georg Gadamer (1989), an hermeneute, has rejected epistemic wisdom as within the realm of human control. The ancient Greeks defined philosophy as love of (epistemic) wisdom. Thales, who is traditionally considered the father of philosophy, was interested in “knowing” the ultimate reality,...

Words: 3853 - Pages: 16


...Philosophy of Religion My God or Your God Throughout the history of mankind, humans have believed and had no doubt in the existence of a God or gods, for thousands of years. People lived their lives believing and worshiping some sort of superior power. But after thousands of years, we notice that in the 19th century and beyond to present day, people have lost connection with God and stopped having faith. In regards to faith, I believe that we are limited with evidence, therefore we have limited answers. With so many beliefs, religions, and faiths out there in the world, it is easy for someone to give up in their faith, and end up believing in nothing. We then potentially become atheists or agnostics. Also, if we are born with no strong background religion, then it will be impossible for someone to believe in God or any faith. I think people take the easy route; if it does not make sense to them, then they automatically do not believe in it. This acquisition questions our purpose of living in this world. Why are we here? What is our purpose? These questions I believe are difficult or maybe even impossible to understand. As a Gnostic theist I strongly believe that God does exist. I am going to defend my position using the teleological argument. Here are the reasons that I am going to discuss that justify the existence of God: 1. the universe has complex purposes. 2. The human mind is incapable of understanding the complexity and aims of the universe. 3. There are no......

Words: 2596 - Pages: 11


...Examination of Clinical Psychology Paper Francine Morgan PSY 480 June 11, 2012 Professor Elizabeth Kane Examination of Clinical Psychology Paper A branch of psychology that deals with assessing and treating abnormal behavior, psychiatric disorders, and mental illness is clinical psychology which is a form of science psychology. In this field of clinical psychology, psychologist treats elderly individuals, young children and their families, even though an individual’s socioeconomic status is not an issue in the decision making process of who should receive treatment. Clinical psychologist deals with an individual that has been diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and individual coping with his or her own issues, such as losing a love one or divorce. Clinical psychologist let’s patients express his or her frustrations while assisting them in understanding his or her ability and skills in using different techniques to help patients, depending on their psychologist’s area of expertise. In the early 1800’s, psychology has been around since 2500 B.C. In this time, the approach to examining mental health involved supernatural, religious aspects, and medical. The Greek physician Hippocrates, known as the father of ancient medicine, played a role in the development of psychology. The Hippocrates came up with the theory of humors, which consists of four bodily fluids, and they are the key to good health, which the fluid colors are yellow bile, black bile, blood and......

Words: 1489 - Pages: 6


...FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OYE-EKITI, EKITI STATE, NIGERIA. A TERM PAPER TITLE:- “THE ESSENCE/SUBSTANCE OF MAN” BY FACULTY: SCIENCE DEPARTMENT: MICROBIOLOGY COURSE TITLE: PHILOSOPHY AND LOGIC COURSE CODE: GST 205 CONTENT * Introduction * What is man * Philosophically * Scientifically * The essence and substance of man * What constitute man * Man as a dualist * Man as a monad * Man as a socialist * Man as a spiritual entity * Man as a physical entity * Intrinsic characteristics that man have in common * Illustration of the mental essence(when man is abnormal is he still half or full) INTRODUCTION The essence of man is the constituent of man which goes beyond his body alone but extends to his mind, soul, spirit and other attributes of man. But we cannot talk about the essence of man without the existence of man because without an existence of man, man’s essence is of no use and nothing to talk about. This brings about the proposition ‘existence precedes essence’. The proposition that existence precedes essence is a central claim of existentialism, which reverses the traditional philosophical view that the essence (the nature) of a thing is more fundamental and immutable than its existence (the mere fact of its being). To existentialists, human beings—through their consciousness—create their own values and determine a meaning for their life because the human being does not possess any inherent identity or value. By posing the acts that......

Words: 3943 - Pages: 16


...of New York All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission. No part of this book may be stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means including electronic, electrostatic, magnetic tape, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior permission in writing of the publisher. For information, address State University of New York Press, 90 State Street, Suite 700, Albany, NY 12207 Production, Laurie Searl Marketing, Fran Keneston Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Mason, Richard, 1948– Understanding understanding / Richard Mason. p. cm. — (SUNY series in philosophy) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-7914-5871-7 (alk. paper) — ISBN 0-7914-5872-5 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Comprehension (Theory of knowledge) I. Title. II. Series. BD181.5.M27 2003 121—dc21 2003042557 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 for Margie Contents INTRODUCTION, 1 CHAPTER ONE WHAT WE UNDERSTAND, 7 CHAPTER TWO HOW WE UNDERSTAND, 21 CHAPTER THREE UNDERSTANDING AND KNOWLEDGE, 39 CHAPTER FOUR INTELLIGIBILITY, 51 CHAPTER FIVE FAILURES OF UNDERSTANDING, 67 CHAPTER SIX BEYOND UNDERSTANDING, 89 viii CONTENTS CHAPTER SEVEN WISDOM, 105 NOTES, 115 BIBLIOGRAPHY, 125 INDEX OF NAMES, 131 Introduction A physicist tries to understand quantum mechanics. A parent tries to understand a......

Words: 57755 - Pages: 232