Phil 201

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By starrvampire1
Words 1653
Pages 7
Tiffany Tyree
Phil 201
Individual Project 2
Thursday, April 16, 2015 Metaphysics Study of Existence What's out there?
Epistemology Study of Knowledge How do I know about it?
Ethics Study of Action What should I do?
Politics Study of Force What actions are permissible?
Esthetics Study of Art What can life be like? Metaphysics: ◦What is real?
What is real in life is what you make your life out to be yourself. Real is hugging your children and having the person that you love telling you that they love you for life? Real is the pain that you feel when you lose your brother and greave. You do not know if you will ever see this person again because you don’t know if there is a spirit world.
◦Is the physical world more or less real than the spiritual or psychological world? It’s hard to explain if the spiritual world or the psychological world are real or if it is just something that we have been lead to believe so we have spent years rolling over and over in our minds and made ourselves believe that it is real. From the time we are babies we are lead to believe that there is a heaven and angels and such. We are lead to believe in Santa and the tooth fairy and the Easter bunny, but who is to say that any of that is real except what we believe in our own minds and hearts.
◦Is there such a thing as a soul? If so, how does it survive outside of a physical body?
I want to believe that there is such a thing as when we are buried that we have a soul that lives on in a beautiful place. I have a really hard time believing that there really is a heaven or hell or even a God, I want to but I feel in a world that has so much bad in in how can there really be something so grand and why if there is a God does so much really happen. Having these thoughts have also made me scared of the process of dying.
◦Do all people have free will, or are their lives determined by…...

Similar Documents

Phil 201 Response Paper Mccloskey Article

...Response Paper Mccloskey Article Clark Hernanser PHIL 201 February 24, 2013 Ramon Graces Response Paper Mccloskey Article In his article, On Being an Atheist, H.J. McCloskey tried to show that atheism is a more reasonable and comfortable belief than that of Christianity.   McCloskey argued against the three theistic proofs, which are the cosmological argument, the teleological argument and the argument from design.   He pointed out the existence of evil in the world that God made.   He also pointed out that it is irrational to live by faith. According to McCloskey, proofs do not necessarily play a vital role in the belief of God.  Page 62 of the article states that "most theists do not come to believe in God as a basis for religious belief, but come to religion as a result of other reasons and factors."  However, he feels that as far as proofs serve theists, the three most commonly accepted are the cosmological, the teleological, and the argument from design.  It is important to note that he considers these arguments as reasons to "move ordinary theists to their theism." (McCloskey 1968) This is not necessary the case and contradicts the former statement that most theists do not hold to these proofs.  As such, the attempt to dispute these arguments as a reason not to believe in God is almost not worth attempting.  If theists do not generally hold to these proofs as reasons for faith, then why bother trying to......

Words: 2073 - Pages: 9

Phil 201 Lesson 4 Study Guide

...Study Guide: Lesson 4 A Little Logic Lesson Overview Logic is the primary tool or methodology in studying philosophy. Philosophy is about analyzing and constructing arguments and a good understanding of the basics of logical reasoning is essential in performing that task. The next 3 lessons will focus on logic and analyzing arguments. In this lesson, you will first be introduced to the laws of logic. These are the first principles for all reasoning. We will then discuss the specialized terminology we use in logic. Finally, we will examine 2 major kinds of logical reasoning: deductive and inductive. We will consider different forms of arguments under each and discuss how to evaluate these arguments. Take note that a large part of this lesson is about learning the terminology for logic. Tasks Read and take notes from chapter 5 of Philosophy: Critically Thinking about Foundational Beliefs, “A Little Logic.” As you read, make sure you understand the following points and questions: * Why are the laws of logic foundational? The laws of logic make discourse possible. If they are not recognized as true then nothing we claim makes any sense. With the right tools even the most difficult job can be performed with relative ease. Being an effective philosopher requires one to become skilled in logic. Because of this, it is important to have a firm grasp on the laws of logic. * List and explain the 3 laws of logic. 1. The Law of Noncontradiction: “Something cannot...

Words: 2699 - Pages: 11

Response Paper Phil 201

...A Response to the Article: "On Being An Atheist" by H. J. McCloskey Joshua Cottrell PHIL 201-D32 Professor Pensgard August 12, 2013 The belief in a Creator and a literal God has been a subject of many arguments down through the centuries. Despite a written record and a large contingency of believers, there has arose a strong group of people who believe there is no God and that man just happens to exist and that there is nothing beyond this life. In 1968 H.J. McCloskey published an article entitled "On Being an Atheist". He argued that theories such as the Cosmological or Teleological arguments did nothing to prove in his mind the presence of God. He strongly believed that evil further cemented the idea that a righteous God did not exist. With his writing he attempted to empower the atheist and once and for all prove that God did not exist. I. "Proofs" McCloskey indentified theistic arguments for God as "proofs", and in so doing opened himself up to much scrutiny. He quotes a colleague as saying "...most theists do not come to believe in God by reflecting on the proofs, but to come to religion as a result of other reasons and factors." I do not believe that his colleague was referring necessarily to Cosmological or Teleological arguments as "proofs", as McCloskey ends of doing. I believe his associate was merely stating that most people do not come to religion because they see the sky and think there must be a Creator. There are a number of......

Words: 2242 - Pages: 9

Phil 201 Week 6

...Study Guide: Lesson 18 Arguments for the Existence of God Lesson Overview: In this lesson, we arrive at 1 of the most important questions of the course for Christians: Do we have good reasons to believe that God exists? Today, many are claiming that there is no evidence for God’s existence and those who believe in God are just deluding themselves. However, this lesson will show that some very interesting arguments have been developed throughout the history of philosophy that demonstrate that the theist is within his epistemic rights in believing in God. While the case is not 100% certain (few things are in philosophy), it is certainly reasonable in the absence of any contrary evidence to hold that God exists as the best explanation for certain effects we observe in creation. Tasks: View and take notes of the presentation: “Arguments for God’s Existence.” Read “The Absurdity of Life without God” by William Lane Craig. This reading by Christian philosopher William Lane Craig is titled the “The Absurdity of Life without God.” In this powerful argument, Craig seriously considers the ramifications for us if in fact there really is no God. I assign it to my students on campus and they always tell me it is their favorite reading of the semester. I think you will really enjoy it. It is not a difficult reading and is very powerful on a personal level. While it does not prove God's existence, it does add positive epistemic evidence for the cumulative case for God......

Words: 704 - Pages: 3

Phil 201

...Stacy Mottola PHIL 201-D05 25NOV2013 Essay 1 Many question whether or not what we are seeing and are experiencing is real or just part of our imagination. This question is one that has been proposed for hundreds of years by philosophers like Descartes and Plato. How is it possible that a Greek philosopher, a philosopher from the seventeenth century and the movie The Matrix can be so similar? It is the intent of this paper to compare and contrast these questions in relation to the movie The Matrix. The main thing that stands out for each one of these is the question of the reality of the world in which we live. Our sense of being is called into question in each of these examples. Are our senses correct or are we simply living in a dream world that is made up? The Matrix is a computer system that has taken control of peoples everyday lives. Each individual is hooked up to this computer that generates a dream world where everyone believes that they are actually living a realistic life. In the Matrix Morpheus a leader of a group of people who have rebelled against this system come to the knowledge that they are not living real lives. In his recruitment Morpheus meets with Neo and attempts to show him the truth. Learning this Neo sees that what you can see, touch and feel are not exactly real, their senses have betrayed them. In the excerpt from Descartes he makes several statements which also question the reality in which our perceptions believe we are......

Words: 755 - Pages: 4

Phil 201

...COURSE SCHEDULE PHIL 201 Textbooks: Dew & Foreman, How Do You Know? A Short Introduction to the Issues of Knowledge (unpubl.) Evans, Philosophy of Religion: Thinking About Faith (2009). Foreman, Prelude to Philosophy: Critically Thinking about Foundational Beliefs Hasker, Metaphysics: Constructing a World View (1983). Holmes, Ethics: Approaching Moral Decisions (2008). Wood, Epistemology: Becoming Intellectually Virtuous (1998). WEEK/ MODULE READING & STUDY ASSIGNMENTS POINTS DUE DATE 1 3/17-3/24 Foreman: chs. 1-3 3 presentations 3 study guides Course Requirements Checklist Class Introductions Quiz 1 0 0 60 Wed,3/19 Mon,3/24 Mon, 3/24 2 3/25-3/31 Foreman: chs. 5-7 2 presentations 3 study guides Quiz 2 60 Mon, 3/31 3 4/1-4/7 Hasker: chs. 1-3 1 Word document 4 presentations 3 study guides Group DB Forum 1 Quiz 3 100 60 IP Fri, 4/4 R Mon, 4/7 Mon 4/7 4 4/8-4/14 Dew & Foreman: ch. 3 Wood: chs. 1-2 3 presentations 3 study guides Quiz 4 60 Mon, 4/14 5 4/15-4/21 Dew & Foreman: chs. 7, 10 Wood: ch. 4 1 Word document 2 excerpts 3 presentations 3 study guides Essay Quiz 5 120 60 Mon, 4/21 Mon, 4/21 6 4/22-4/28 Evans: chs. 1-3 1 book excerpt 2 presentations 3 study guides Quiz 6 60 Mon, 4/28 7 4/29-5/5 Evans: ch. 7 Holmes: chs. 1-3 1 article 2 presentations 3 study guides Response Paper Quiz 7 200 60 Mon, 5/5 Mon, 5/5 8 5/6-5/12 Holmes: chs. 4-7, 14 1 presentation 3 study guides Group DB Forum 2 Quiz......

Words: 349 - Pages: 2

Phil 201 Study Guide 4

...Study Guide: Lesson 4 A Little Logic Lesson Overview Logic is the primary tool or methodology in studying philosophy. Philosophy is about analyzing and constructing arguments and a good understanding of the basics of logical reasoning is essential in performing that task. The next 3 lessons will focus on logic and analyzing arguments. In this lesson, you will first be introduced to the laws of logic. These are the first principles for all reasoning. We will then discuss the specialized terminology we use in logic. Finally, we will examine 2 major kinds of logical reasoning: deductive and inductive. We will consider different forms of arguments under each and discuss how to evaluate these arguments. Take note that a large part of this lesson is about learning the terminology for logic. Tasks Read and take notes from chapter 5 of Philosophy: Critically Thinking about Foundational Beliefs, “A Little Logic.” As you read, make sure you understand the following points and questions: * Why are the laws of logic foundational? * The Law of Logic makes discourse possible. If they are not recognized as true, than nothing we claim makes any sense. Therefore, it is important to have a firm grasp of these laws. * List and explain the 3 laws of logic. 1. Noncontradiction – “Something cannot both be and not be at the same time and in the same respect. Expressed symbolically: ~ (P•~P).² It reads, “It is not the case that there can be both P and non-P”. 2....

Words: 1412 - Pages: 6

Phil 201

...Study Guide: Lesson 4 A Little Logic Lesson Overview Logic is the primary tool or methodology in studying philosophy. Philosophy is about analyzing and constructing arguments and a good understanding of the basics of logical reasoning is essential in performing that task. The next 3 lessons will focus on logic and analyzing arguments. In this lesson, you will first be introduced to the laws of logic. These are the first principles for all reasoning. We will then discuss the specialized terminology we use in logic. Finally, we will examine 2 major kinds of logical reasoning: deductive and inductive. We will consider different forms of arguments under each and discuss how to evaluate these arguments. Take note that a large part of this lesson is about learning the terminology for logic. Tasks Read and take notes from Prelude to Philosophy, chapter 5: “A Little Logic.” As you read, make sure you understand the following points and questions: * Why are the laws of logic foundational? * List and explain the 3 laws of logic. * Know the symbolic expression of the law of non-contradiction and how it clears up confusions. * Explain the common confusion concerning God and contradictions. * Know the symbolic expression of the Law of Excluded Middle. Why is it called the Law of Excluded Middle? * Know the why the laws of logic are self-evident. * Know the three parts of an argument. * Distinguish the language of evaluating arguments (deductive and inductive)...

Words: 511 - Pages: 3

Phil 201

...Reflection Paper 2 [Introduction: Prayer and Hope in the modern world.] Christians strive and struggle to remain strong in their faith while navigating today’s secular world. Faced with a constant bombardment of negative messages, portrayals, and media by popular culture Christians have to deal with outside influences as well as their own personal struggles. Prayer and Hope are two of the most powerful tools God has given Christians to renew their faith and receive Gods blessings. Prayer is the very act of a Christian reaching out to God for wisdom, help, renewal, forgiveness, and blessings. God requires prayer (1 Timothy 2:8 ESV), God rewards prayer (Luke 11:9 ESV), and God guides us in prayer (Matthew 6:9-13 ESV). The hope God provides is in the reward of everlasting life in heaven. (Core Christianity by Elmer Towns) God wants Christians to be hopeful and at peace with the future. (Jeremiah 29:11 ESV) Prayer and Hope can change the very way a Christian presents themselves in public and allow themselves the ability to stand firm in their faith knowing Gods promise. [Part One: Prayer] a. Theological Definition As stated in the introduction Prayer is the very act of a Christian reaching out to God for wisdom, help, renewal, forgiveness, and blessings. It is through prayer that Christians build their relationship with God to seek His presence and guidance in their lives. Prayer is considered to be the intimate relationship between God and the individual. Beyond......

Words: 1139 - Pages: 5

Philosophy 201

...Course Syllabus ------------------------------------------------- PHIL 201 Philosophy and Contemporary Ideas Course Description A survey of the major positions and figures in philosophy and the cultural worldviews and practical applications that derive from them, focusing specifically on theism, naturalism and humanism in contemporary thought. Rationale PHIL 201’s purpose extends beyond degree completion to the spiritual edification of Liberty University students both as disciples of Christ and ambassadors of the Christian faith. It equips students to defend their faith against the intellectual attacks of non-believers by exposing the issues and problems of philosophy. I. Prerequisites None II. Required Resource Purchases Dew, J. K., & Foreman, M. W. (2014). How do we know? Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. ISBN: 9780830840366. (E-book available through MBS Direct). Evans, C. S., & Manis, R. Z. (2009). Philosophy of religion: Thinking about faith (2nd ed.). Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. ISBN: 9780830838769. Foreman, M. W. (2014). Prelude to philosophy. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. ISBN: 9780830839605. (E-book available through MBS Direct). Hasker, W. (1983). Metaphysics: constructing a worldview. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. ISBN: 9780877843412. Holmes, A. F. (2007). Ethics: approaching moral decisions (2nd ed.). Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. ISBN: 9780830828036. Disclaimer: The above......

Words: 854 - Pages: 4

Phil 201 Study Guide 1

...Study Guide: Lesson 1 What is Philosophy? Lesson Overview Welcome to this introductory course in philosophy. For our first lesson, we are going to examine the question: What is philosophy? There are 4 ways you can get to know what a discipline is: define it, describe it, contrast and compare it with other disciplines, and finally experience it. In this first lesson, we will aim to accomplish the first 3 of these activities. The rest of the course will be an exercise in experiencing philosophy. Tasks View and take notes of the presentation, “Misconceptions about Philosophy”. Read and take notes from chapter 1 of Prelude to Philosophy: An Introduction for Christians, “What is Philosophy?” As you read, make sure you understand the following points and questions: • List 4 reasons students often presuppose a low view of philosophy. o They think you have to be super intelligent to do philosophy o Most students study it late in their academic development o Most people do not think philosophy is practical o They do not know what it is or how it can benefit them • Know Socrates’ quote: What is the unexamined life? What did he mean when he said it wasn’t worth living? o Socrates was saying that the unexamined life is when people go through the motions of life without making the effort to reflect and think about what life is about. When Socrates says the unexamined life is not worth living, he is saying that we......

Words: 944 - Pages: 4

Phil 201 Essay

...Phil 201 6/14/15 Comparisons of The Allegory, Descartes and The Matrix While in the reality of his world, the main character of The Matrix, Neo finds himself doubting what really is and really isn’t. The writers of The Matrix did an excellent job of drawing similarities to that of Plato’s “Allegory of the Cave” and Descartes’s Philosophical ideas. There are many similarities between the Allegory as well as to the Philosophical differences to The Matrix. The first major similarity that I noticed between the Allegory and The Matrix is the fact that both Neo and the character in Plato’s work had a feeling that something was not right. The both seemed to want to gain a deeper knowledge of the world around them and believed the world was not all it seemed but that it was more than what it seemed. They believed there was a deeper meaning to what was around them. They both accepted this and began the search for deeper meaning. This allowed both Neo and the slave to understand that they are not really in control of their world. At any moment something could change. In Neo’s case the computer programmer could change a code and have a building fall on him or possibly make someone disappear from his life. In the slaves case his life, since he was born, was ran by the farmers that he worked for within the cave. Their lives are very similar. Neo, even though he did not realize it was in the same position as the slave. He was a slave himself. The differences between The Allegory and...

Words: 643 - Pages: 3

Phil 201 Paper

...While the question, “to torture or not to torture?” is a valid question; I feel that it is important for man to understand why he is torturing the other. What justifies physically or mentally abusing someone to get information? At what point do we decide for another man that he is or is not worthy of this abuse? Each viewpoint would suggest its own justification for the prisoner. Kant said you should never treat people merely as instruments; never just as means to your own goals.  Humans, he says, are autonomous beings with their own goals. (Perry) Utilitarianism would allow the torture if it meant better for society as a whole and was to their benefit. Kantian duty-based ethics would, “just be following orders” and not stop to think about the impact they are making on the prisoner or even for queen and country” or to “protect my children”. Virtue ethics would find themselves asking if it was morally appropriate to cause the prisoner to suffer and what the justification would be in said situation. Christian-principle based ethics would choose to follow the Bible and God’s call to love and show forgiveness to those who have wronged us as to whether the prisoner should be tortured or not. From a Christian-principle based ethic standpoint, it would be very situational as to whether they were to torture the prisoner. While the stereotypical Liberty students view would be to base my decision upon my Christian beliefs, I actually would decide upon a mix of these views. Hopefully,......

Words: 405 - Pages: 2

Phil 201

...PHIL 201Response Paper Response to “On Being An Atheist” by H.J. McCloskey H.J. McCloskey attempted to contradict the arguments proving Gods existence used by theists in the article “On Being an Atheist”. Although there is no sufficient proof in the cosmological argument of their being a perfect creator, it does however provide evidence of a singular being. The evidence of an almighty creator is provided by the simple element of complex design. However, though this almighty creator allows the existence of evil in the world, He was not the one to create it, and, as such, has a purpose behind its existence. The existence of God can be logically concluded, contrary to McCloskey’s beliefs, using the philosophical inquiry. McCloskey refers to the cosmological, teleological, and design arguments throughout his article, and discuss how theists use them to prove the existence of God. McCloskey may, perhaps, believe that these arguments are unsuccessful because his different beliefs allow his approach to be different. Contrary to proof, these aspects of cosmological, teleological, and design are more accurately represented when used as evidence or as simply arguments. Dr. Mark Foreman describes proof, in his presentation of “Approaching the Questions of God’s Existence”, as something that involves a characteristic of complete certainty. As McCloskey refers to the many arguments as “proof” he implies that the arguments are thought to be facts of absolute truth. If this were......

Words: 1717 - Pages: 7

Phil

...Tianna Dockett PHIL 101 Final Exam 1. Retributive justice is a legal principal that dictates that punishment for a crime is acceptable as long as it is a proportionate response to the crime committed. In this type of justice system, a crime is typically seen as being done against the state or government, rather than against an individual or community. The standard of fairness is likewise found in the thought of reasonable play. On the off chance that individuals accept that a reasonable procedure was utilized as a part of choosing what it to be dispersed, then they may well acknowledge an irregularity in what they get in correlation to others. 2.3. As a record of political association on the bigger scale, Plato's protection of a aristocratic government was unrealistic to win wide endorsement in fair Athens. He utilized the characters Glaucon and Adeimantus to voice pragmatic complaints against the arrangement. They are particularly concerned (as Plato's Athenian counterparts may well have been) with some of its procurements for the gatekeeper class, including the support of both men and ladies, the disposal of families, and the instruction of youngsters. Likewise, Plato accepted that the hobbies of the state are best saved if kids are raised and taught by the general public overall, instead of by their natural folks. So he proposed a basic (if startlingly new) plot for the reproducing, sustaining, and preparing of youngsters in the gatekeeper class.4. Using a...

Words: 1277 - Pages: 6