Outline One Contemporary Issue from the Social Approach and Discuss This Issue Using at Least 3 Concepts or Theories from This Approach

In: Psychology

Submitted By tinkerbell77
Words 806
Pages 4
Why does football hooliganism occur? Football hooliganism has been occurring for decades but has only become recognised by the government and media as being a problem in the last 40 years or so. Football associated violence occurs before and after matches where mobs of supporters roam the streets surrounding the grounds, causing trouble. Football related offences have continued to occur, despite the football clubs efforts to ban alcohol and provide seating for spectators. The source of the violence is triggered by feelings of hostility that supporters hold towards their rivals. Some psychologists believe another cause of the hooliganism is to reflect the search of high levels of emotional arousal after enduring long periods of boredom. The importance of this issue is demonstrated by the large number of incidents where several deaths have been the result of violence.

One explanation for the occurrence of football hooliganism is the Frustration-Aggression theory (Freud and Dollard et al). Freud believed that when people get frustrated they displace it onto a scapegoat and not onto the source of the frustration. Dollard developed this by suggesting that frustration leads to aggression, which is what people displace onto another target. With relevance to football hooliganism, fans may become frustrated after either losing a game or watching poor play from players. Moreover, the fans are unable to relieve their aggression on the players themselves because they have legitimate power which prevents most people from expressing violence towards them. Therefore, they displace their aggression onto a scapegoat, which in this instance is the opposing team’s fans. A weakness of this theory is that Berkowitz showed that frustration does lead to aggression, but not specifically to prejudice. Thus there may be other factors involved such as pre-existing prejudice which is…...

Similar Documents

Use Concepts and Ideas from the Social Approach to Explain the Key Issue You Have Studied (12 Marks)

...Use concepts and ideas from the social approach to explain the key issue you have studied (12 marks) The key issue I have studied is the abuse of detainees at Abu Ghraib. Abu Ghraib is a prison in Iraq and was used by the Iraqi government as a prison for many years. When the Iraqi government was removed from power, the prison was used to hold Iraqi detainees, who were guarded by soldiers from the USA. In April 2004 it was made public knowledge that the detainees were being tortured and dehumanised by the American soldiers. Newspapers were filled with photographs and descriptions of the torture of the Iraqi detainees and there was public disapproval of what was evidently intolerable treatment inflicted on them. One theory that could be used to explain the issue is Milgram’s agency theory of obedience. This theory could be used because the soldiers are trained to be agents of authority and believe they have a duty to protect America as agents of society thus as soldiers, they would be agents obeying the orders rather than autonomous individuals making their own decisions. The soldiers would not have been in an autonomous state, and would have therefore be more able to carry out the orders given to them by an authority figure. This may have been because the soldiers were under the impressions that they would not be held responsible for their actions hence they thought it was acceptable to torture the Iraqi detainees as well as degrading them in the process. ...

Words: 915 - Pages: 4

Hrm a Contemporary Approach

...Human Resource Management A Contemporary Approach Julie Beardwell Tim Claydon 5th Edition Human Resource Management Visit the Human Resource Management, fifth edition Companion Website at www.pearsoned.co.uk/beardwell to find valuable student learning material including: • • • • • Multiple choice questions for every chapter, with instant feedback Questions and exercises with suggested answers for self-directed study Links to useful websites to facilitate independent research Flashcards of key terms and definitions for reference and revision Online glossary We work with leading authors to develop the strongest educational materials in business, bringing cutting-edge thinking and best learning practice to a global market. Under a range of well-known imprints, including Financial Times Prentice Hall, we craft high quality print and electronic publications which help readers to understand and apply their content, whether studying or at work. To find out more about the complete range of our publishing please visit us on the World Wide Web at: www.pearsoned.co.uk Fifth Edition Human Resource Management A Contemporary Approach Edited by Julie Beardwell Leeds Metropolitan University Tim Claydon De Montfort University, Leicester Pearson Education Limited Edinburgh Gate Harlow Essex CM20 2JE England and Associated Companies throughout the world Visit us on the World Wide Web at: www.pearsoned.co.uk First edition published in Great Britain......

Words: 412962 - Pages: 1652

Aligning the Is Organization Within the Enterprise Has Its Set of Unresolved Issues. Why Is This Exercise Such a Contemporary Issue

...Question: 1. Aligning the IS Organization within the Enterprise has its set of unresolved issues. Why is this exercise such a contemporary issue? [25] The alignment of business and IT has been a major management concern for decades. Two recent surveys revealed that it continues to be a top priority for CIOs. A contributing issue is the lack of functional relationships between business and IT, complicated by the complexity of the service delivery mechanism. There is also the attitude that a quick application fix, if implemented, will be the magic bullet that solves the problem and increases confidence and collaboration within the business units receiving the IT service. We can look at the IS organisation aligning within the Enterprise in the context of the Strategic Information Systems Planning (SISP) which entails establishing a program for implementation and use of information systems in ways that will optimize effectiveness of information resources and use them to support the objectives of the organization. In order to fulfill alignment the plan should:- ❖ Be deeply embedded in business issues ❖ Continue to meet Data Processing and MIS Needs ❖ Have objectives and priorities derived from business imperatives ❖ Provide long term benefits and advance business strategy First, let’s look at why alignment problems occur. In some organizations, alignment difficulties can begin as communication problems when business and technical staff speak......

Words: 4424 - Pages: 18

Using Relevant Theories and Examples Outline the Arguments for and Against an Organization Adopting an Ethical Approach to Management.

...Using Relevant Theories and Examples outline the arguments for and against an organization adopting an ethical approach to management. The purpose of this essay is to compare and contrast the case for and against an organization adopting an ethical approach. This essay will look into the two sides of the argument in depth using relevant theories, examples and case studies. The first part of this essay will look into why an organization adopting an ethical approach to management could ultimately benefit the firm. The essay will look at various strengths that could be achieved by an organization, these theories and ideas will be backed up with possible case studies and real life examples. The second part of this essay will look at the case against a firm adopting an ethical approach to management. Again various reasons will be analyzed and will be backed up using relevant theories, case studies and real life examples. After looking at both sides of the argument this essay hopes to come to a conclusion perhaps suggesting that it would be important for organizations to act ethically to a certain extent. Before going into the first side of the argument it will be important to define what is meant by an ‘ethical approach to management’, so this section of the essay will compare and contrast various definitions. One definition suggests that ‘ethics are the moral principles that should underpin decision-making. A decision made on ethics might reject the most profitable solution...

Words: 2517 - Pages: 11

Social Issues Outline

...SOCIOLOGY 101 – 16 Week TASHIMA RESEARCH PAPER ASSIGNMENT Educational Goal: This Research Assignment intends to develop a student’s ability to: 1. Read and follow directions. 2. Collect information/data. 3. Analyze and interpret the information/data. IMPORTANT NOTE: Realize that every class and instructor/professor may have different formats and requirements for their research paper. Carefully read the directions, instructions and guidelines for every class. Take the time to prepare each paper specifically for each class. One instructor/professor may require one thing and another instructor may require something that is totally opposite. DO NOT assume that all research assignments will be the same. SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH PAPER 1. A written and WORD PROCESSED college level research paper. This paper will utilize the scientific method to analyze and discuss data/information concerning our contemporary society. ALL papers should use “Word” or be saved in an .rtf format for Turnitin.com submissions. (see page 8) Papers must be submitted to Discussion Board #6 – Research Assignment in Blackboard by the due date listed in the syllabus. 2. Your paper should include the following parts of the SCIENTIFIC METHOD. You MUST use these as HEADINGS in your paper. They are like chapter titles in a book. There is a 30-point reduction if you are......

Words: 4187 - Pages: 17

Use Concepts and Ideas from the Social Approach to Explain the Key Issue You Have Studied (12 Marks)

...Welcome to AS Psychology! There are TWO units to study this year. They are both assessed by external exam in the summer term. There is no coursework. Exam board: Edexcel ------------------------------------------------- Unit 1: Social and Cognitive Psychology *Unit code 6PS01 ------------------------------------------------- Content summary: ------------------------------------------------- This unit is designed to introduce the social and cognitive approaches to psychology through the development of key content areas. The unit is divided into two parts, ------------------------------------------------- Social Psychology: obedience and prejudice and Cognitive Psychology: memory and forgetting. Within each part, the sections of the unit arise from the content which includes a selection of basic concepts of the social and the cognitive approaches. ------------------------------------------------- The unit is designed to enable choice within each approach in the selection of a second key study and a key issue relevant to the approach. Within each approach there is the requirement for students to conduct a short practical investigation. ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- Assessment: ------------------------------------------------- Examination paper of 1 hour 20 minutes duration, consisting of a section of objective test items, a section of short-answer questions and a section of extended......

Words: 529 - Pages: 3

‘a Relativist Approach to the Issues Raised by Abortion Leads to Wrong Moral Choices.’ Discuss.

...‘A relativist approach to the issues raised by abortion leads to wrong moral choices.’ Discuss. One could indeed present the argument that a relativist approach to abortion could lead to the wrong moral choices. For example, in subjective ethical relativism, although one may be able to make a moral choice completely by themselves, there are no clear guidelines in which they have to adhere to. This may lead to corruptible behaviour, as people might delude themselves into thinking certain things that are wrong; are in fact right. Additionally, conventional ethical relativism, which considers society’s values, would most likely disregard the needs of the individual, rendering them to feel pressured by society to follow cultural tradition. This may lead to the wrong moral choice being made. For example if a woman would mentally suffer with the pregnancy, but is not allowed an abortion (such as in Uganda), this would be the wrong moral decision that has resulted from a conventional relativist approach to ethics. On the other hand, a relativist approach could also lead to the correct moral choices. For example, subjectivism allows the individual to make their own choice, which ultimately can be regarded as a good thing. Only the mother herself can really know if she wants an abortion, or if she would not be able to cope with the pregnancy both mentally and physically. A relativist approach to abortion allows for the individuals needs and circumstance to be considered,......

Words: 330 - Pages: 2

Postmodern Approach to Social Constructivism

...Postmodern Approach to Social Constructivism Laura Romine Liberty University Abstract As the world looks at the reality of communal exchange, thumbing back to historical debates of empirical and rational schools of thought, delineations from dualism to social interchange and collaboration refine hypothesis’ of undisputable truth. Reminiscent of the psychoanalytic movement with greats such as Freud, Jung and Adler, therapy, more of an art than science, and current day philosophies drive which models influence today’s truth. Reality is fashioned by language, how we feel, act and think, revealing “stories” we tell the self as contextual meanings. These beliefs now evolve one’s creation and truth. The therapist, joining in recognition of new perspectives, empowers and helps the client see that forward progress is strength within oneself. In a social constructivist point of view, the therapist detaches from the expert status of defining the problem. From family therapy and the multicultural lens, therapists now challenge cultural factors that, in turn, shape the client’s perceptions in the format of brief therapies. Keywords: brief therapies, collaborative, family therapy, social constructionism Postmodern Approach to Social Constructivism In the 21st century a paradigm shift motivated the field of psychology to unlock a fresh world view revealing the objet d'art of collective exchange. Referring to the modernistic creation of self, it is said that the......

Words: 4358 - Pages: 18

Contemporary Issues on Social Work

... CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN SOCIAL WORK By Student's Name Course Code and Name Professor’s Name University Name City, State Date of Submission Q1. The effect of globalization has resulted in complex economic and social networking among people of the world. One of the main elements of globalization is the movement of people from one area to another area for various reasons. In most cases, people move to more industrialized and peaceful countries in search of better opportunities and safe environments. The 21st century has seen the increased migration of citizens of one state to another, a period termed as the age of Diasporas (Helman, 2007). The research will focus on immigrants, mainly asylum seekers and refugees with particular emphasis on the 72 asylum seekers from Lebanon who perished off the coast of Indonesia while heading to Australia. The research will address the plight of asylum seekers as one the most vulnerable populations. Migration to another country may be voluntary or voluntary. The involuntary migrants include asylum seekers, refugees, returnees ad internally displaced persons (IDPs). The primary cause of this category of people changing their location could be political upheavals, wars, natural disasters and poor states of the economy. The voluntary migrants migrate to other countries in search of employment and new ventures for personal growth. However, the involuntary migrants have multiple psychological, physical and social vulnerabilities due to their......

Words: 2294 - Pages: 10

Discuss How This Approach Differs from the Biomedical Approach to Mental Illness.

...Scheff, Szasz and Goffman argue that mental illness is a social construction. Discuss how this approach differs from the biomedical approach to mental illness. Mental illness has been well-defined severally by some sociologists, professionals in the medical field, politicians and other good academia. Mental illness can be define as ‘a state of one’s mind that affects the thinking, emotions and judgement to the extent that the individual need a medical attention for his/her personal safety and that of the society’. The definition of mental illness by other academia has been termed as behavioural and emotional disorder. They perceive this disorder as disease that affects the mind. In a particular society, mental illness is a behaviour which is classified as disturbed or abnormal and people found of that behaviour are branded deviant. Acceptable behaviour in one society can be unacceptable behaviour in other society. From the biomedical approach point of view, mental illness deals with the state of mind and is the duty of the trained professionals to diagnose patients and by the use drugs and surgery treat them in medical way in order to improve the patient mental disorder, living condition and poor self-care. This model places more emphasis on the causes of mental illness as biological so it was criticized thereby making the social condition play a significant role. ‘’There is the need to recognize both the outer and inner worlds of a person as well as the society’’......

Words: 1026 - Pages: 5

Business Ethics - of the Various Approaches to Environmental Ethics Outlined in This Chapter, Which Approach Sheds Most Light on the Ethical Issues Raised by This Case

...REPORTS AND THESIS aravind.banakar@gmail.com ARAVIND - 09901366442 – 09902787224 BUSINESS ETHICS 1. Analyze the ethics of marketing Publius using utilitarianism, rights, justice, and caring. In your judgement, is it ethical to market Publius? Explain. 2. Are the creators of Publius in any way morally responsible for any criminal acts that criminals are able to carry out and keep secret by relying on Publius? Is AT & T in any way morally responsible for these? Explain your answers. 3. In your judgment, should governments allow the implementation of Publius? Why or why not? 1. Fully explain the effects that payment like those which Lockheed made to the Japanese have on the structure of a market. 2. In your view, were Lockheed’s payments to the various Japanese parties “bribes” or “extortions” ? Explain your response fully. 3. In your judgment, did Mr. A. Carl Kotchian act rightly from a moral point of view ? (Your answer should take into account the effects of the payments on the welfare of the societies affected, on the right and duties of the various parties involved, and on the distribution of benefits and burdens among the groups involved.) In your judgment, was Mr. Kotchian morally responsible for his actions ? Was he, in the end, treated fairly ? 4. In its October 27, 1980, issue, Business Week argued that every corporation has a corporate culture – that is, values that set a pattern for itsemployee’s activities, opinions and actions......

Words: 1113 - Pages: 5

Business Ethics - What Are the Legal Issues Involved in This Case, and What Are the Moral Issues How Are the Two Different Kinds of Issues Different from Each Other, and How Are They Related to Each Other

...REPORTS AND THESIS aravind.banakar@gmail.com ARAVIND - 09901366442 – 09902787224 BUSINESS ETHICS 1. Analyze the ethics of marketing Publius using utilitarianism, rights, justice, and caring. In your judgement, is it ethical to market Publius? Explain. 2. Are the creators of Publius in any way morally responsible for any criminal acts that criminals are able to carry out and keep secret by relying on Publius? Is AT & T in any way morally responsible for these? Explain your answers. 3. In your judgment, should governments allow the implementation of Publius? Why or why not? 1. Fully explain the effects that payment like those which Lockheed made to the Japanese have on the structure of a market. 2. In your view, were Lockheed’s payments to the various Japanese parties “bribes” or “extortions” ? Explain your response fully. 3. In your judgment, did Mr. A. Carl Kotchian act rightly from a moral point of view ? (Your answer should take into account the effects of the payments on the welfare of the societies affected, on the right and duties of the various parties involved, and on the distribution of benefits and burdens among the groups involved.) In your judgment, was Mr. Kotchian morally responsible for his actions ? Was he, in the end, treated fairly ? 4. In its October 27, 1980, issue, Business Week argued that every corporation has a corporate culture – that is, values that set a pattern for itsemployee’s activities, opinions and actions......

Words: 1113 - Pages: 5

Business Ethics - What Are the Legal Issues Involved in This Case, and What Are the Moral Issues How Are the Two Different Kinds of Issues Different from Each Other, and How Are They Related to Each Other

...Need Answer Sheet of this Question paper, contact aravind.banakar@gmail.com www.mbacasestudyanswers.com ARAVIND – 09901366442 – 09902787224 Business Ethics 1. Analyze the ethics of marketing Publius using utilitarianism, rights, justice, and caring. In your judgments, is it ethical to market Publius? Explain. 2. Are the creators of Publius in any way morally responsible for any criminal acts that criminals are able to carry out and keep secret by relying on Publius? Is AT&T in any way morally responsible for these? Explain your answers. 3. In your judgment, should governments allow the implementation of Publius? Why or why not? 1. Fully explain the effects that payment like those which Lockheed made to the Japanese have on the structure of a market. 2. In your view, were Lockheed’s payments to the various Japanese parties “bribes” or “extortions”? Explain your response fully. 3. In your judgment, did Mr. A. Carl Kotchian act rightly from a moral point of view? (Your answer should take into account the effects of the payments on the welfare of the societies affected, on the right and duties of the various parties involved, and on the distribution of benefits and burdens among the groups involved.) In your judgment, was Mr. Kotchian morally responsible for his Actions? Was he, in the end, treated fairly? 4. In its October 27, 1980, issue, Business Week argued that every corporation has a corporate culture –that is,......

Words: 1112 - Pages: 5

Consumer Behavior from a Cardinalist and Ordinalist Approach

...Utility means satisfaction which consumers derive from commodities and services by purchasing different units of money.From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia “Ineconomics, utility is a measure of satisfaction;it refers to the total satisfaction received by a consumer from consuming a good or service. “Given this measure, one may speak meaningfully of increasing or decreasing utility, and thereby explain economic behavior in terms of attempts to increase one's utility. Utility is often affected by consumption of various goods and services, possession of wealth and spending of leisure time. According to Utilitarian’s, such as Jeremy Bentham (1748–1832) and John Stuart Mill (1806–1873), theory “Society should aim to maximize the total utility of individuals, aiming for "the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people". Another theory forwarded by John Rawls (1921–2002) would have society maximize the utility of those with the lowest utility, raising them up to create a more equitable distribution across society. Utility is usually applied by economists in such constructs as the indifference curve, which plot the combination of commodities that an individual or a society would accept to maintain at given level of satisfaction. Individual utility and social utility can be construed as the value of a utility function and a social welfare function respectively. When coupled with production or commodity constraints, under some assumptions, these functions can be used to......

Words: 3826 - Pages: 16

Discuss Utility from a Cardinalist and Ordinalist Approach and Discuss the Economies of Scale

...Utility means satisfaction which consumers derive from commodities and services by purchasing different units of money. “Ineconomics, utility is a measure of satisfaction;it refers to the total satisfaction received by a consumer from consuming a good or service. Utility is often affected by consumption of various goods and services, possession of wealth and spending of leisure time.s CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR • It is the study of how people buy, what they buy, when they buy and why they buy. • It attempts to understand the buyer decision processes/buyer decision making process, both individually and in groups. • It also tries to assess influences on the consumer from groups such as family, friends, reference groups, and society in general. • The theory of consumer behavior in managerial economics depends on a) Budget • constrained by income and the price of the goods, • The budget constraint specifies the combination of goods the consumer can afford to buy. b) Preferences • Economists use the concept of utility to describe preferences. • There are some assumptions of consumer behavior theory like :- a) rational behavior b) clear cut preferences • Consumer behaviour can be explained using two main approaches: 1. Marginal Utility Theory (The Cardinalist Approach); and 2. Indifference curve Analysis (The Ordinalist Approach) 1. MARGINAL UTILITY THEORY (THE CARDINALIST APPROACH) • developed by Alfred Marshall who introduced an imaginary unit called the...

Words: 357 - Pages: 2