Outline and Illustrate the View That Certainty Is Confined to Introspect and the Tautological. (15 Marks)

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By gracegliksten
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Introspection, or internal perception, is the act of self examination of one’s thoughts and feelings, and can be referenced in a spiritual sense of examining one’s soul. It is related to the concept of human self reflection. The word tautology comes from the Greek tauto, ‘the same’, and logos, ‘word/idea’. Tautology is the unnecessary repetition of meaning, using dissimilar words that effectively say the same thing. Lastly, there are a number of meanings to the idea of ‘certainty’. Firstly, it could be described as having a subjective, as in ‘I feel certain…’. This can be thought of as a feeling of conviction. The second meaning to the idea of certainty is it’s logical meaning. This means that the truth of the proposition must be certain because logically the proposition must be true. Finally, the last meaning falls in the middle of the first two. That a proposition cannot be doubted. This brings together the objectivity of the second meaning, while the subjections of the first are still there.
Tautological statement is one that says the same thing twice in using different words. A tautological statement is another term for an analytic proposition. An analytic proposition is a statement or judgement that is necessarily true on all logical grounds. Its truth is guaranteed by the principle of contradiction. It is universally agreed that analytic propositions are necessary; thus making it is very difficult to argue that they are not certain. One example of this is as follows; ‘they followed after each other in succession.’ This is a tautology because ‘..following one after the other..’ and ‘..in succession..’ mean the same thing, and are just a repetition of a statement using different words.
Introspection is the act of looking within oneself to self examine ones mental state, through examining one’s own thoughts and feelings. It is believed that because what we…...

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