Origin of Cold War

In: Historical Events

Submitted By hanxiao
Words 285
Pages 2
The Marshall Plan was significant as it initiated an economic divide in Europe, by triggering a response from USSR. However, it was not the primary cause as political and military rivalry also contributed to the division of Europe.

The introduction of the Marshall Plan by the Americans signified the move from the second stage of the recognition of incompatibility between the two superpowers to the final stage of initiation of action, and hence was significant in showing how the change in relations from co-operation to rivalry eventually led the the separation of Europe into two spheres of influence.

Another factor that played a major role in the separation of Europe was the difference in security aims of the Americans and Soviets.

Military rivalry, ultimately, is to be primarily blamed for the complete separation of Europe as the arms race that broke out contributed to the severing of friendly and diplomatic ties between the Soviet Union and United States of America.

Politically, containment also led to the division of Europe. It influenced American foreign policy towards USSR in a long run. Its objective was to contain the power influence of USSR. One example is the implement of Truman doctrine which clearly showed USA’s political commitment to take over seemingly democratic countries and intervene parts of the world that would fall into Communism. Another example is the Berlin Blockade which was seen by the west as evidence of USSR aggression. And USA response to Berlin Blockade also showed their firm stand in containing USSR. Thus as the political will behind Marshall plan is supported by Containment and Truman administration. It can be argued that Truman doctrine a more significant role in the division of…...

Similar Documents

The Cold War

...for self-destruction had reached in World War II with an estimation of 55,000,000 people had died, 27,000,000 in the Soviet Union alone (most of the dead were civilians). In the first years after World War II there were three main issues: the influence of Soviet Union in Eastern Europe, the political struggle for Western Europe and the role of United States in the world.In this moment a new powers (Western allies and Soviet Union) established new spheres of influence. 11 February 1945 – Yalta Peace Conference – a meeting between the tree big countries (United States, Soviet Union and United Kingdom) speaking about the future of Europe. The main concerns were: Polish questions, future of Germany and the condition of the entry of Soviet Union into war with Japan. Each president decide to arrive to Yalta for different reasons: Roosevelt decide to create United Nations, Churchill feared the growing of power of the Soviet Union in Europe and Stalin was intent on protecting Soviet Union against another German invasions. Roosevelt attained his goal and in addition Stalin accepted the American proposal on the use of the veto in the Security Council. All men agreed to move the Polish boundary western to the 1919 Curzon Line and to restore Western Byelorussia and the Western Ukraine to the Soviet Union. 2 August 1945 - Postdam Peace Conference - Trumann, Stalin and Churchill met to reach a new accord on postwar Germany and the Pacific war. They confirmed a decision to divide......

Words: 816 - Pages: 4

Cold War

...The Cold War The Cold War by Jeremy Isaac and Taylor Downing is a book about the history of the U.S. In this book the author talks about how communism has been a part of U.S. history since the eighteenth century. Soviet Union leaders, such as Marx, Lenin, and Stalin continued to spread communism to other nations. The Cold War was not a war of weapons but a war to stop the spread of communism. The book goes into details about how the United States used every media outlet to convince the public of the horrors of communism. America was never really threatened by the Cold War. It was nothing more than two super powers battling for control. This book informs us that the start of the Cold War was caused by U.S. fear of the spread of communism and other events. The authors Sir Jeremy Isaacs is a British television producer and executive, winner of many BAFTA awards and international Emmy Awards. The other author Taylor Downing is an award winning TV producer, head of independent production company Flashback Television for 25 years and writer of best sellers. The two put together a very informative book covering the 50 yearhistory of America. I. The Iron Curtain: America knew they could not trust the Soviet Union under Josef Stalin leadership. During the invasion of Germany the concerns about the Soviet was put aside. During World War II the U.S. and Soviet became allies. Stalin used aggressive tactics to gain control of countries near the Soviet...

Words: 1168 - Pages: 5

The Cold War

...3.5 Cold War Your Name History 365 - Recent America: 1945 to the Present Your Professor The Date COLD WAR Beginning in 1947 and lasting until 1991, the Cold War can be defined as the sustained state of military, as well as political, tensions that existed between western hemisphere countries and their NATO allies and the Eastern hemisphere that was dominated by countries in the Warsaw Pact dominated redundant by the USSR. Following the success of the wartime alliance formed temporarily against Hitler’s Nazi Germany, the only two superpowers in global affairs were the United States and the Soviet Union. However, these two countries had profound differences in their political and economic ideologies, and this led to the beginning of the Cold War. This is the thesis. The Second World War had a profound repetitive effect on global politics, with the early efforts of leaders in the US and the USSR attempting to shape the international system that was emerging after the war. Here you make the thesis more explicit but should have done so in a way that would introduce the points you´ll develop below. In my opinion, the beginning of the Cold War can be traced from encouragement of what? de by the Europeans, especially the British. Their encouragement of the United States to make their policy tougher towards the USSR was vital in the beginning. From my reading of the article, The Origins of Post War America, I believe that former British Prime Minister......

Words: 993 - Pages: 4

Cold War

...How far do you agree that the origins of the Cold War in 1945-6 owed much to ideological differences and little to personalities and conflicting national interests? There is a significant and complex argument into which aspects were the most important in the origins and sowing the seeds that led to the Cold War in the years 1945 and 1946. It is widely perceived that the variances in philosophy was the focal reason, because America and the Soviet Union had virtually polar opposite understandings on how their country should be run and consequently capitalist and communist countries could not co-exist lacking any strain. Nonetheless, it is similarly claimed that the traits of the leaders of the three countries are a substantial influence to the Cold war conflict; Roosevelt and Truman of the United States, Stalin of the USSR and Churchill of the United Kingdom. This is because the attitudes of the three regularly clashed. It is furthermore disputed that national interests of the separate nations throughout and post-World War II formed strains among the countries of the USA and the USSR, since they both saw the others objectives as a danger to their individual national security. To assist the Cold War from occurring, it is said Winston Churchill is the crucial individual due to his ideological differences with Stalin. Churchill’s 1946 ‘Iron Curtain’ speech certainly caused tension: it unveiled to the world Stalin’s increasing “Soviet sphere” and “increasing measure of......

Words: 1953 - Pages: 8

Cold War

...Which forces, structures or actors have been identified by historians as most decisive in the crystallisation of Cold War tensions in the years 1945-51? * Define what the cold war tensions were/overview of why they came about after ww2 – wartime alliance had broken down due to ideological clashes of how the post-war world would look, an inherent distrust on both sides of the others true intentions and territorial clashes The Cold War – Edited by Klaus Larres and Ann Lane (short loan D843 C6) Oxford 2001 * Conservative strand of historians which sought to condemn the roosevet and Truman aministrations, the former for yielding too readily to Soviet demands at yalta, the latter for hesitancy and inexperience. The liberals ustified American foreign policy as a bold and imaginative effort to deal at oe and the same time with soviet expansionism and residual American isolationism which reached its pinn * Revisionism – emphasis on economic causes of cold war which came about in the 1950s/60. The US had tried dirstly to demand ipen acces to eastern Europe and ipon being rebuffed, had then sought to reconstruct western Europe and particularly the western zones of Germany in the liberal democratic mould. This extended into the thrd world as decolonization opened up these regions to economic penetration. The creation of multilateral organisation, such as the United Nations and the International Monetary Fund, in which the US had the largest share of votes because it......

Words: 698 - Pages: 3

Origins of the Cold War

...Origins of the Cold War Author(s): Arthur Schlesinger Jr. Source: Foreign Affairs, Vol. 46, No. 1 (Oct., 1967), pp. 22-52 Published by: Council on Foreign Relations Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20039280 . Accessed: 21/08/2013 03:57 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp . JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. . Council on Foreign Relations is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Foreign Affairs. http://www.jstor.org This content downloaded from 27.254.22.254 on Wed, 21 Aug 2013 03:57:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION?FIFTY YEARS AFTER ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR By Arthur THE Cold War Schlesinger, Jr. in its original form was a presumably mortal antagonism, arising in the wake of the Second World War, between two rigidly hostile blocs, one led by the Soviet the other by the United States. For nearly two somber Union, and dangerous decades this antagonism the fears of dominated itmay even, on occasion, have come close to blowing up mankind; the planet. In......

Words: 14176 - Pages: 57

Cold War

...Conceptions of the Cold War Ceara E. Carrier SS310-98 Kaplan University The Cold War is a subject that I don’t remember being taught in school but I do know that it was. Before I conducted the interviews bellow I myself did not recollect as much as they did. Having talked to them I now have a better understanding and more knowledge on the Cold War. Below you will find the questions that I asked and their word for word answers. Interview Transcript Question 1: What words or phrases come to mind when you think of the cold war? Marty: “Communism, Iron Curtain, Berlin, Wall, Good vs. Evil, Olympic boycott, nuclear war dictator, freedom and poverty.” Rusty’s Mum: “Duck and cover, bomb shelter, air raid shelter, communism, missiles, nuclear attack, espionage and radioactive.” Adam: “Threat of nuclear war, heavy espionage, communism, "tear down this wall" and the KGB.” Question 2: Did you ever study the Cold War in school? If so, what are some aspects of the Cold War that you remember? Marty: “Yes. The word “war” didn’t mean fighting and killing. It was a competition between two super powers trying to dominate the world. Communism vs. Democracy.” Rusty’s Mum: “No. In my memory there were no studying materials. Maybe not available yet? I don’t know how often school books were replaced, but I also don’t really recollect any discussion of the Cold War.” Adam: “Yes it was taught in school but I don't remember it.” Question 3: Who were the......

Words: 731 - Pages: 3

Cold War

...The Cold War (Russian: Холо́дная война́, Kholodnaya voyna) (1947–1991), was the continuing state of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition existing after World War II (1939–1945) between the Communist World – primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies – and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States and its allies. Although the primary participants' military force never officially clashed directly, they expressed the conflict through military coalitions, strategic conventional force deployments, extensive aid to states deemed vulnerable, proxy wars, espionage, propaganda, conventional and nuclear arms races, appeals to neutral nations, rivalry at sports events, and technological competitions such as the Space Race. Despite being allies against the Axis powers, the USSR and the US disagreed about political philosophy and the configuration of the post-war world while occupying most of Europe. The Soviet Union created the Eastern Bloc with the eastern European countries it occupied, annexing some and maintaining others as satellite states, some of which were later consolidated as the Warsaw Pact (1955–1991). The US and its allies used containment of communism as a main strategy, establishing alliances such as NATO to that end. The US funded the Marshall Plan to effectuate a more rapid post-War recovery of Europe, while the Soviet Union would not let most Eastern Bloc members participate. Elsewhere,......

Words: 460 - Pages: 2

Cold War

...Cold War Cold War is a war between USA and Soviet Union during 1945 to 1980.During this war Americans used new atomic weapons. The reason for using the name ‘cold war’ due to the good and friendly relationship between USA and Soviet Union. Actually in the cold both countries not fight each other. It is war between communist countries and democratic countries during this war Soviet Union support the North Vietnam it is a communist country. But America supports the South Vietnam it was an anticommunist country. Americans fight for the safe democracy, but the Soviet Union fought for the communism. During this war USA and Soviet Union tried to hold their values and beliefs. There are so many events happened during this time, some of the events are Defeat of Germany, Returns to parliament democracy in the west, Soviet Control of Eastern Europe, The Berlin Crisis - the Climax of the Conflict between the East and the West in Europe are some of the events happened during this cold war (Cold war 1945-1960, p.1). Interviews I interviewed three of my friends to find out about the cold war and their conception about the cold war. The first person I interviewed gives me the following answers for the questions. 1. What words or phrases come to mind when you think of the term cold war. Bombs, Secrets. The trivial notion that a single button can end the world 2. Did you ever study the cold war in school? If so what are some aspects of the cold war that you remember? Yes.......

Words: 328 - Pages: 2

The Cold War

...The Cold War Soon after the WWII ends, the difference in political beliefs and policies of the two superpowers soon developed into a lot of conflicts and struggles called the Cold War. Cold War, which is the war between the United States and its allies called NATO, and the Russian and its allies called the Warsaw Pact (Soviet Union) without real military attack, was a race on how strong a country is by showing what it got in terms of supporting countries that were in state of war with other nation; in terms of nuclear weapons; In terms of science and technology (Space war); and even in terms of sport competition (Olympic). In the end, the Cold War ended by the United States and the Soviet Union themselves by the failed system of the communist. I’m the one that believed that “In the cold War the United States was the good guy who fought against the evil empire of the Soviet Union to defend freedom, democracy, and human rights around the world.” Firstly, the two countries had fundamentally different beliefs. So, how do we know who really was the good guy and who really was the evil? The first thing we need to do is to consider their different beliefs, because these factors could link to different actions such as the political and economic systems they used, including the way they dealt with the situations. The Ideology of Democracy gives freedom to all individuals to express their idea to other and agree on the majority; promote human rights and equality; and uses the......

Words: 1118 - Pages: 5

Cold War

...Preface The Cold War was a struggle for global influence between the United States and the Soviet Union. To that end, the two countries employed a variety of methods, all short of a direct, all-out attack on each other's homelands. The methods they used included the creation of rival alliances, the extension of military and economic aid to client states and would-be client states, a massive and expensive arms race, propaganda campaigns, espionage, guerrilla warfare, counterinsurgency warfare, and political assassinations. The Cold War was one of the longest conflicts in human history, over seventy years in duration, with periodic lulls in the level of hostility. It was also the widest in scope of all the world's wars; it was fought on every continent on the globe and, considering the space race, over every conti- nent as well. The Cold War was also one of the costliest of the world's conflicts, not only in numbers of lives lost but also in resources expended. In the end, the Soviet Union collapsed, and communism, at least in the form that existed in the Soviet Union, expired. But, as Mikhail Gorbachev pointed out, both sides lost much in the Cold War. The United States lost many lives and consumed huge financial resources as well, and the demo- cratic principles on which it was founded were endangered. For decades, historians have argued about the origins of the Cold War. Who, or what, was primarily responsible? Was it inevitable?......

Words: 1632 - Pages: 7

Origins of the Cold War

...How far do you agree that the origins of the Cold War in 1945 and 1946 owed much to the ideological differences and little to personalities and conflicting national interests? The origins of the Cold War cannot be denied as being most obviously and most forefront due to the great ideological differences between the USSR’s communism and the USA’s capitalism, such as their complete opposing beliefs over nationalisation and system of government. However National interests, such as the fight over Poland and leaders personalities, such as Truman’s lack of experience in foreign policy cannot be overlooked as important reasons for growing hostilities between superpowers. The vast difference in ideologies is clearly the underlying factor which caused tensions for the superpowers of the world during the Cold War and the years 1945 to 46; however it cannot be denied that personalities of the leaders running these countries, were a contributing reason for the ever growing hostilities between them. Joseph Stalin, leader of the USSR and communist regime, was a figure known for being shrewd, manipulative and ruthless, instantly suggesting that relations with other countries, so different from his, were to be quite strained. Though he was known for these negative traits, he was also commended for his sense of practicality and his skills as an administrator, this suggesting that perhaps his ability to put aside differences, may be better than necessarily believed. It was common......

Words: 2497 - Pages: 10

The Cold War

...The Cold War Celena Daley Kaplan University SS211: Prof. Jennifer Schmidt 03/12/2016 The Cold War began as a result of a dispute between The United States of America and The Soviet Union. Although the war was never “officially” declared, it began somewhere around 1947 and ended roughly around 1991. The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, although there were major regional wars. The first phase of the Cold War began in the first two years after the end of the Second World War in 1945. Throughout this period, the rivalry between the two superpowers unfolded in multiple arenas: military coalitions; ideology, psychology, and espionage; sports; military, industrial, and technological developments, including the space race; costly defense spending; a massive conventional and nuclear arms race; and many proxy wars. There was never a direct military engagement between the US and the Soviet Union, but there was half a century of military buildup as well as political battles for support around the world, including significant involvement of allied and satellite nations in proxy wars. Although the US and the Soviet Union had been allied against Nazi Germany, the two sides differed on how to reconstruct the postwar world even before the end of World War II. Over the following decades, the Cold War spread outside Europe to every region of the world, as the US sought the "containment" of communism and forged numerous......

Words: 1085 - Pages: 5

Cold War

...McKibben, David A. International Politics, ODU 07 Dec 2015 What Started the Cold War? The Cold War had a profound effect on American policy and international politics, which still holds true today. There are many reasons as to what may have started the Cold war as it existed between the United States of America and Russia; however, there were major events that contributed the bulk of the impetus behind the stalemate between the two superpowers for nearly fifty years. The origins of the Cold War can be traced all the way back to the failed League of Nations in the post-World War I atmosphere. The League of Nations lack of capability to martially enforce the restructuring of Europe after the war, as well as its cold shoulder to the disheveled state of Eastern Europe was the ultimate catalyst to the start of the Cold War. The League of Nations was primarily an intergovernmental organization composed of the Allied powers after World War I, founded January 10, 1920 (Wikipedia 2015). The main objective behind the League was to restructure Europe after World War I in an attempt to create a more stable world climate. Ideals such as cooperation among the world powers when it came to economics and territorial disputes were among the foremost concern of the League. The League of Nations ultimately proved to be unsuccessful in its attempt to create a more stable political climate, as many of the partnering nations were hesitant to comply with the regulations and sanctions set......

Words: 1193 - Pages: 5

Cold War

... Cold WarPatricia Hamilton Kaplan University OnlineSS310-Exploring the1960s- An Interdisciplinary ApproachMay 29, 2012Professor Rookstoolii Cold War I will be writing about longest war in history the Cold War . First, about the historical and political conditions of the Cold War. Explanation of specific threat against United States during the Cold War. Third, my preparation to prepare my family for Cuba Missile Crisis in the Cold War. Lastly, the question I was asked about the Cold War. Historical and Political Conditions of the Cold War The Cold War begin in 1945 until 1991. The Cold War starts with conflict between the Communist nation of Soviet Union and United States. Also, what type of government should rule Eastern Europe. Their three historical and political factor in 1960s about the Cold War Bay Of Pig, Vietnam War, and Cuba Missile Crisis. Also, United States and Soviet Union competed with each other through the arm race. The Arm Race to be first to build manufacture atomic and hydrogen bomb. Also, Both developed short and intermediate – range missile that will armed with nuclear warhead and to make a nuclear weapon to battle in war. Next, is the space race the Soviet build Sputnik and United States send man to walk on the moon. According to (Naranjo,May 6,2003) “The longest conflict of the twentieth century, the Cold War affected everything, from political ideology, foreign and domestic policy, to the presidency and the personal lives of Americans. With......

Words: 623 - Pages: 3