Organic Matter in Kannada

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Submitted By Sandeemnss
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ಸಾವಯವ ಬೇಸಾಯ
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ಬೆಳೆಯ ಆವರ್ತನೆ, ಹಸಿರು ಗೊಬ್ಬರ, ಮಿಶ್ರಗೊಬ್ಬರ, ಜೈವಿಕವಾಗಿ ಕೀಟಗಳ ನಿಯಂತ್ರಣ ವನ್ನು ಅವಲಂಬಿತವಾಗಿರುವ ಸಾವಯವ ಬೇಸಾಯವು ಮಣ್ಣಿನ ತಯಾರಿಕೆಯ ಸಾಮರ್ಥ್ಯವನ್ನು ಸರಿದೂಗಿಸುವಲ್ಲಿ ಮತ್ತು ಕೀಟಗಳನ್ನು ನಿಯಂತ್ರಿಸಲು, ಹಾಗೂ ಯಾಂತ್ರಿಕ ಬೇಸಾಯಕ್ಕಾಗಿ ರಾಸಾಯನಿಕ ಗೊಬ್ಬರಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ರಾಸಾಯನಿಕ ಕೀಟನಾಶಕಗಳು, ಗಿಡ ಬೆಳವಣಿಗೆ ನಿಯಂತ್ರಣಗಳು, ಜಾನುವಾರು ಮೇವು ಸೇರ್ಪಡೆಗಳು, ಮತ್ತು ತಳಿವಿಜ್ಞಾನ ಪ್ರಕಾರವಾಗಿ ಮಾರ್ಪಡಿಸಿದ ಸಾವಯವಗಳನ್ನು ಹೊರತುಪಡಿಸಿ ಅಥವಾ ಕಟ್ಟುನಿಟ್ಟಾಗಿ ನಿಯಮಿತಗೊಳಿಸುವ ವ್ಯವಸಾಯದ ಒಂದು ಭಾಗವಾಗಿದೆ.[೧] 1990 ರಿಂದ, ಸಾವಯವ ಉತ್ಪನ್ನಗಳಿಗಾಗಿನ ಮಾರುಕಟ್ಟೆಯು 2007 ರಲ್ಲಿ $46 ಬಿಲಿಯನ್ ತಲುಪಲು ತೀವ್ರಗತಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಏರಿಕೆ ಕಂಡಿತು. ಸುವ್ಯವಸ್ಥಿತವಾಗಿ ನಿರ್ವಹಿಸುವ ಒಕ್ಕಲುಭೂಮಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಈ ಬೇಡಿಕೆಯು ಸಜಾತೀಯ ವರ್ಧನೆಯನ್ನು ನಡೆಸುತ್ತದೆ. ಸರಿಸುಮಾರು 32.2 ಮಿಲಿಯನ್ ಹೆಕ್ಟೇರು ನಷ್ಟು ವಿಶ್ವವ್ಯಾಪ್ತಿಯಾಗಿ ಈಗ ಸುವ್ಯವಸ್ಥಿತವಾಗಿ ಒಕ್ಕಲು ಮಾಡಲಾಗಿದೆ, ಒಟ್ಟು ಜಗತ್ತಿನ ಒಕ್ಕಲುಭೂಮಿಯನ್ನು ಪ್ರತಿನಿಧಿಸುವ ಸರಿಸುಮಾರು ಪ್ರತಿಶತ 0.8 ರಷ್ಟು.[೨] ಅದರ ಜೊತೆಗೆ, 2007 ನಲ್ಲಿ ಸಾವಯವ ವನ್ಯ ಉತ್ಪನ್ನಗಳನ್ನು ಸರಿಸುಮಾರು ೩೦ ಮಿಲಿಯನ್ ಹೆಕ್ಟೇರುಗಳಷ್ಟು ಸಾಗುವಳಿ ಮಾಡಲಾಗಿದೆ.[೩]

ಹಲವು ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಾವಯವ ಬೇಸಾಯ ಪದ್ಧತಿಗಳನ್ನು ಅಂತರಾಷ್ಟ್ರೀಯವಾಗಿ ನಿಯಮಗಳಿಗೊಳಪಡಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ ಮತ್ತು ಕಾನೂನುಬದ್ಧವಾಗಿ ವಿಧಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ, ಸಾವಯವ ಕೃಷಿ ಚಳುವಳಿಗಳಲ್ಲಿನ ಅಂತರಾಷ್ಟ್ರೀಯ ಒಕ್ಕೂಟದ ಮೇರೆಗೆ ದೊಡ್ಡ ಪ್ರಮಾಣದ ಗುಮಟ್ಟವನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿಸುವ ಮೂಲವಾಗಿ (ಐಎಫ್ಒಎಎಮ್), ಅಂತರಾಷ್ಟ್ರೀಯಆಶ್ರಯ ಸಂಘಟನೆಯು ಸಾವಯವ ಸಮಷ್ಟಿಯನ್ನು ರಚಿಸುವುದಕ್ಕಾಗಿ 1972 ರಲ್ಲಿ ಸ್ಥಾಪಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ. ಐಎಫ್‌ಒಎಎಮ್ ಲಕ್ಷಣಗಳ ಮೇಲೆಬಾಗಿರುವ ಸಾವಯವ ಬೇಸಾಯದ ದ್ಯೇಯಗಳು ಈ ಕೆಳಗಿನಂತಿವೆ:

"Organic agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people. It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects. Organic agriculture combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved.."
—International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements[೪]

ಇತಿಹಾಸ

Main article: History of organic farming

ಸಾವಯವ ಚಳುವಳಿ 1930-1940 ರ ದಶಕದಲ್ಲಿ ಬೇಸಾಯ ಕ್ಷೇತ್ರವನ್ನು ಕೃತಕ ಗೊಬ್ಬರಗಳ…...

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