Men's Self-Image Puts Them at Risk of Aids

In: Other Topics

Submitted By kagvai
Words 377
Pages 2
The self-image men have as strong, sexually active risk-takers means they are more likely to die from HIV and Aids than women, experts said Wednesday. The experts called for more HIV workplace testing to reach men and greater efforts to change gender norms. Although six out of 10 Africans with HIV are women, men are 25 per cent more likely to die from the disease, according to research by the Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies in South Africa, which has the world's biggest Aids epidemic. "A lot has been achieved in the Aids response, but we will be more successful if we put greater emphasis on engaging men and boys," Dean Peacock, founding director of South African advocacy group Sonke Gender Justice, told the Thomson Reuters Foundation. "The majority of people who don't access services are men - and that's bad for everyone." See also: Move fast to halt spread of killer HIV and AIDS Men are less likely to test for HIV, less likely to start or adhere to anti-retroviral therapy (ART) to manage the disease and more likely to start treatment late and die, Mr Peacock said in a paper he co-authored and presented to United Nations programme on HIV and Aids. Men will soon make up almost 70 per cent of Aids-related deaths in some high-prevalence countries, the paper said, even though rates of HIV infection among women aged 15 to 24 are twice as high as those of men the same age. Women are more vulnerable to HIV and Aids because their lower social status, poverty and violence often mean they cannot choose whether to have sex or use protection. As a result, health services have focused heavily on ensuring women get tested, usually when they are pregnant, and take ARTs to prevent transmission of the virus to their babies. "Men are socialised to see health-seeking as a sign of weakness," Mr Peacock said. "Many men feel they can only access health services when…...

Similar Documents

Medi Image

...Since the dawn of time, men and women have aspired to have the best looking image. This aspiration is often measured by the appearances of others – the appearances that appeal to the majority. People strive to achieve this by giving in to advertisements which eloquently sell materials that will help them reach this goal. The media is the main contributor to self-image and how the majority thinks they should look. Today’s society has become too attached to this idea of self-image, and the media has become a crutch on people’s outlook on beauty. This single image of beauty created by the media comes with a great deal of problems for society. Mass media has been able to shape popular culture and influence public opinion, and when abused, the power of the media can harm the general population. Certain tactics and strategies have been used to create the picturesque image in today’s world. This image is seen in every sort of corporate material or entertainment source. Corporations have gone as far as to promote this body image – the supposed “perfect body” – in the toys they sell to children. For instance, in her article “Drugs, Sports, Body Image and G.I. Joe,” Natalie Angier looks at the “G.I. Joe [which has gotten] more muscular and sharply defined, or ‘cut,’ than the model before” (Shea 486). This doll which exploits the “perfect” body image is one of the most popular toys for male children. Magazines are another source that influences the people on what is and is not......

Words: 638 - Pages: 3

Issues Confronting "Them" (People with Hiv/Aids)

...Issues Confronting ‘Them’ (People with HIV/AIDS) The issues confronting ‘them’—a metaphor society uses to refer to people with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is not only a physical health crisis but also a social crisis that has and continues to affect every sector of the United States. Accompanying the disease is an acute fear in society that fosters gross assumptions and a lack of education about AIDS. . Because social issues confronting the HIV population presents a series of critical civil rights problems, it is imperative that individuals living with HIV/AIDS are aware of their civil rights as well as know the resources to advocate for themselves when a provider threatens their rights. National legal organizations, like the ACLU AIDS Project is available to enforce their civil rights through litigation, public education, and legislative advocacy (America Civil Liberties Union, 2009). The main social iniquities attached to HIV are those of stigma and discrimination. Social stigmatism toward persons with HIV/AIDS is an infliction of suffering, which thwarts any attempts to fight the AIDS epidemic. Stigma, as a form of social control is a means to marginalize, set limitations, and exercise power over individuals who society considers different through certain characteristics. Social stigma rejects the social groups associated with HIV, (e.g. homosexuals, illegal drug users, sex workers (Bardj,......

Words: 858 - Pages: 4

To What Extent Was Marshall Aid Merely a Policy of American Self Interest

...The American policy of Marshall Aid sparked both huge appraisal and significant opposition, and to this day it is debated whether it was purely a policy of self-interest and an imposition of America’s political and economic views on a weak and vulnerable Europe, or alternatively one of the greatest acts of altruism and generosity in modern history. It was enormously successful, ‘It was the most unambiguously and triumphantly successful of all America’s post-war policies’ , and helped to create a foundation on which Europe could become an economic power. While there were benefits to America which may have been interpreted as attempts to increase American power and inflamed opposition to the Marshall Plan, the administering of economic aid to Europe provided such a firm foundation for Europe to recover and progress that it must be said that the benefits of the Marshall Plan to Europe outweigh the apparent use of the Aid to pursue America’s interests. Sources such as the Harvard Address show us that an element of self interest was required for the Marshall Plan to be an efficient investment for America, but that the core idea of the Aid was fundamentally to help pull Europe out of the turmoil caused by the most destructive War in history, and that it was largely successful in doing so. The benefits to America both economically and politically were hugely significant. Hugh Brogan argues that ‘The health of the American economy needed a healthy Europe for mutual trade’ , by......

Words: 832 - Pages: 4

Body Image

...affect on Body Image Images of female bodies are everywhere. Women and their body parts sell everything from food to cars. Popular film and television actresses are becoming younger, taller and thinner. Women’s magazines are full of articles urging that if they can just lose those last twenty pounds, they’ll have it all the perfect marriage, loving children, great sex, and a rewarding career Why are standards of beauty being imposed on women? The roots are economic, by presenting an ideal difficult to achieve and maintain the cosmetic and diet product industries are assured of growth and profits. Take Kristen of River Edge, New Jersey, just like most girls at the age of 15 “she started to develop curves; she was disappointed that breasts did not follow” (Sweeney). Girls rose in a culture of celebrity obsession and makeover TV shows believe that a “shapely bust line” and a thin body will let them have it all. Women who are insecure about their bodies are more likely to invest in beauty products, new clothes, diet aids, and plastic surgery. It is estimated that the diet industry alone is worth 40 to 100 billion a year selling temporary weight loss, 90 to 95% of dieters regain the lost weight (BBC). American Society for Aesthetic Plastic surgery shows that the number of operations performed on 18 or younger have more than tripled over a 10 year period from 59,890 in 1997 to 205,119 in 2007 (Sweeney). On the other hand, research indicates that exposure to images of thin,......

Words: 1251 - Pages: 6

Self Image

...Changing outlook What kinds of benefits would you say come with being able to stretch your mind in this Way? It helped me realize how I feel about everything that is going on in my life where my priorities are and what I need to do to change how I feel about certain things. The only way things in my life can change is if I change them. Becoming a better person every day that I am blessed to wake up is all that I can do. Having a dream and a goal to succeed and achieve to be the best that I can possibly be is a great accomplishment. Understanding my weakness and my strengths will only make me more of a greater person. What are the benefits of changing your outlook when you don't think it is serving you Well? Changing the way that you feel about certain situations of life will only benefit you in the end. Being negative ill only bring negativity . Understand yourself as person and being aware of the things that you need to change is the first step. Being positive no matter the situation is going to help you through so much in life even though it may be gray outside it can still be sunny in your heart. I should be dead from all that I have been through but have survived and the least that I can do is now is become better and grow to become strong and never stop trying become better . Waking up blessed is all that I can ask for everyday and the rest is up to me to accomplish and work toward. What don’t kill you only can make you stronger. So I must be very......

Words: 292 - Pages: 2

Why Is Men’s Fashion Photography Redefining the Image of the Contemporary Male and How Does It Use Diverse Male Sexualities as a Tool in Advertising?

...Why is men’s fashion photography redefining the image of the contemporary male and how does it use diverse male sexualities as a tool in advertising? The works of renowned photographers such as Hedi Slimane have a heavy impact on prevailing images of male sexualities in fashion advertising, eventually affecting the image of the ideal male in fashion. Male sexualities in high fashion photography can oscillate between the homoerotic or a dominant hetero-masculinity, thus there is usually no middle ground in fashion advertising, especially where artistic direction takes over. Such advertising targets niche “high fashion” audiences and responds to the popularization of sexual themes in other forms of advertising (and indeed wider media), whilst associating diverse sexualities with artistry. Coding in high fashion advertisements affect, but also respond intuitively to, audience sexual ideologies by deconstructing the concepts of femininity and masculinity that have undergone rapid change in our self-reflective and deconstructing postmodern world. Hedi Slimane’s penchant for androgynous men has significantly heightened popularity for thin male models in the fashion industry. His work usually incorporates explicit concepts of homo-eroticism and femininity inspiring many leading contemporary designers and photographers who saw his designs as radical and surprisingly persuasive” [1]. Indeed, Hedi’s influence on modern fashion aesthetics suggests that “designers everywhere......

Words: 2699 - Pages: 11

Rising Temperatures Put Sea Turtles at Risk

...Rising Temperatures Put Sea Turtles at Risk Sea turtles are said to be one of Earth’s most ancient creatures and the seven species that can be found today have been around for roughly 110 million years, which dates back to when dinosaurs ruled the planet. Their unique shell allows for easy movement through the water and unlike other turtles, sea turtles cannot retract their legs and head into their shells (“Sea Turtle Migration”, 2013). Depending on the species of sea turtle, their diet tends to consist of smaller sea life such as jellyfish, seaweed, crabs, shrimp, sponges, snails and algae. It is also interesting to note that green sea turtles can stay under water for as long as five hours even though the length of a feeding is usually five minutes or less. Their heart rate slows to conserve oxygen and nine minutes may elapse between heartbeats (“Sea Turtle Migration”, 2013). It is often quite difficult to gauge the total population count for sea turtles because both male and juvenile sea turtles do not return to shore once they hatch and reach the ocean, which makes it extremely difficult to keep track of numbers (“Sea Turtle Migration”, 2013). Most of the behavioral information that has been gathered on sea turtles is based off of females and their hatchlings. When females come to shore to lay their eggs they dig out a hole, bury their clutch of eggs and then return to the ocean. The eggs are left unattended to hatch and make their way back to the ocean, which is where...

Words: 1190 - Pages: 5

Dysfunctional Family Systems and Disordered Self-Image

...Dysfunctional Family Systems and Disordered Self-Image Abstract: Disordered self-image, sense of self, and self-esteem are affected negatively by dysfunctional family systems. Maladaptive perfectionism affects mood, causes decreased self-esteem, and contributes to the development of avoidance tactics. Adolescent dysregulations includes disordered eating behaviors and/or eating disorders, anxiety, depression, body dissatisfaction, and extreme attempts at weight control; all of which can be caused by child sexual abuse, maladaptive perfectionism, parental attachment issues, and the development of alexithymia. Other dysregulations include faulty coping mechanisms, which are also affected by anxiety, depression, and neuroticism. Thesis: An adolescent’s sense of self, self-image, and self-esteem are affected by dysfunctional family systems, including family systems that reflect child sexual abuse, poor attachments, alcoholism, and the development of alexithymia. The adolescents in families such as these have psychological reactions to their disordered self-images and the dysfunctional family systems. Dysfunctional Family Systems and Disordered Self-Image Adolescent development of eating disorders, disordered eating behavior, and/or subclinical eating behaviors may be caused by perfectionism, child sexual abuse, or other trauma such as having alcoholic parents. Poor self-esteem, poor sense of self, and family dysfunctions may be caused by perfectionism, childhood......

Words: 2423 - Pages: 10

Men's Fairness

...variables influence the behaviour of the consumers regarding the usage of cosmeceutical product. Various factors such as self esteem, the decision making process while purchasing the cosmeceutical products etc were also studied in depth. However this study also tries to examine the various key determinants involved in the purchasing behaviour of consumers while purchasing their cosmeceutical product. The target sample was above 15 years. The sample size is 120 and the sampling method used is the quota sampling method. The study was conducted in six different cities of India that are Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Jaipur and Patna. Among these six cities three are metro cities and the rest of the three are Tier-I cities. Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata are the metro cities and luck now, Jaipur and Patna are the Tier-I cities. The instrument used to collect primary data is the questionnaire. The data is finally analyzed through analytical software named SPSS version 16. The various analytical tests used are Correlation, ANOVA, and Post Hoc Tukey and Cross tabulation. The result of the study indicates that more of the young males were becoming aware of the cosmeceutical products. The result also shows that the brand, quality, price and availability are certain factors that influence consumer behaviour. Keywords: Cosmetic market; Male consumption behaviour; Selfconcept; Self-esteem Introduction “Vanity thy name is woman” is an adage which has few followers in this era.......

Words: 7734 - Pages: 31

Embodying the Gay Self: Body Image, Reflexivity and Embodied Identity

...Review (2010) 19(4): 437–450. Embodying the gay self: Body image, reflexivity and embodied identity DUANE DUNCAN Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health and Society, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia ABSTRACT The emphasis on a sexualised muscular body ideal in gay social and cultural settings has been described as facilitating body image dissatisfaction among gay men. Drawing on a concept of reflexive embodiment, this paper uses qualitative interviews to analyse gay men’s embodiment practices in relation to discourses and norms that can be found across and beyond any coherent notion of ‘gay subculture’. The findings reveal body image to be more complex than a limited focus on subculture or dissatisfaction can account for. In particular, gay men negotiate a gay pride discourse in which the muscular male body generates both social status and self-esteem, and deploy notions of everyday masculinity that imply rationality and control to resist gendered assumptions about gay men’s body image relationships. KEYWORDS: body image; gay men; reflexive embodiment; sociology INTRODUCTION Body image dissatisfaction and gay men Following the shift from individual pathol-ogy to cognitive-behavioural and feminist perspectives in psychology (McKinely 2002; Pruzinsky and Cash 2002), a significant volume of psychological and health research has identi-fied a greater incidence of body image dissatis-faction, and eating disordered......

Words: 7590 - Pages: 31

Parental Influence of Adolescent Image of Self

...Running Head: ADOLESCENTS IMAGE OF SELF Parental Influence of Adolescent Image of Self Liberty University David W. Appleby, PHD, PHD May 2012 Abstract: Of the many different relationships people form over the course of life, the relationship between parent and child is among the most important. The quality of the parent-child relationship is affected by the parent's age, experience, and self-confidence. It can also be affected by the stability of the parents' marriage; and the unique characteristics of the child compared with those of the parent (Lian and Yusooff, 2009.) The parent-child relationship consists of a combination of behaviors, feelings, and expectations that are unique to a particular parent and a particular child. Wounded children - those who have experienced maltreatment, loss, and disrupted attachments - are often defiant, angry, biologically disorganized, and afraid to trust and love. (Academic Press, 2000) This paper will show how the relationship between a child and a parent affects body image and self-esteem. Important words to know: Self-image, Self-esteem, Body-image, Autonomy, Puberty, and Myelination. Adolescents deal with numerous issues while going through physical and psychological changes. This paper will focus on is an adolescent’s view of self, which includes self-esteem and body-image. Adolescents are no longer looked upon as children, but cannot yet be considered adults (Feldman, 2011.) Self-image is defined by Wikipedia as,”......

Words: 4041 - Pages: 17

Self Image

...Self-image has become an increasingly important concept in our society and with so much mental stimuli so easily available to us; it is easy to see how one can develop low self-esteem and lack confidence when they compare themselves to others. Hopefully, individuals are raised in an environment where important concepts of self-image and confidence can be cultivated in order to give the individual the necessary attributes to be happy, positive, and productive. “Our self-concept is essentially our identity-that is, who we think we really are. We develop our self-concept based on our experiences and others’ reactions and responses to us” (Pg.15 Verderber). This is important because if one develops a healthy attitude towards their identity, it will determine how they interact in society. This also means that our idea of who we are grows with how others interact with us. Interactions in society help one determine how they view themselves when they gauge others’ responses and reactions to the messages, persona, mannerisms, etc. that one gives. “Our self-concept is also formed and maintained by how others react and respond to us” (Pg.17 Verderber). This all leads towards the development of our perception of self; our self-concept and self-esteem. The following is an analysis of my own self-perception based on certain criteria and covers various topics in how I view myself, how accurate it is, how I developed this self-perception, and how this has affected my outlook on society....

Words: 253 - Pages: 2

Image Management - Loreal Brandstorm Case Diesel

...research 13 3.2. Developing a perception of the Diesel brand 13 3.3 The respondents’ attitudes and perceptions about men’s cosmetic products 14 3.3.1. The respondents’ opinions 15 3.3.2. What products and why? 16 3.4. The differences between the views of brands 17 3.5. S.W.O.T.-analysis of Diesel’s situation 18 3.5.1. Strengths 19 3.5.2. Weaknesses 20 3.5.3. Opportunities 20 3.5.4. Threats 20 Brand-matrixes 20 Diesel 21 Garnier 23 Schwatzkopf 24 Tigi 25 1. Introduction Looks are important to everybody. Our looks and affect the first impression other people get and the evaluating of looks goes far to our biology. Looks affect our emotions and perceptions of other people. A good looking individual represent healthy genes whereas poor looks can be sign of illness. In the modern world things have though gone much further than that. Good looks do not only mean good possibilities to produce healthy offspring. In our modern society a good looking male for example represents success, power and status. Good looks are something to strive after and can be highly beneficial. The days when only women’s looks were evaluated are over. An independent, successful and intelligent man takes good care of his looks. So no wonder that in the 2000 century, when the world has become more and more visual, looks has become even more important. Men’s consumption of cosmetic products is also growing fast. Looks are in important part of identity. It......

Words: 8094 - Pages: 33

Sexual Risk Behaviour and Khowlegde About Hiv/Aids Among University Students

... DEDICATION To my late father M.I Sibuyi, your legacy lives on and to the almighty God, your unconditional love reflects through my achievements Declaration I hereby declare that sexual Risk behavior, knowledge, perception and awareness of first year student residing at the university of Limpopo campus is my original work and effort. Sources and quotes used in this stud are indicated and acknowledged. ______________ ______________ Sibuyi J Date ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Acknowledgements Declaration Dedication Table of contents Abbreviations Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 Background on HIV/AIDS 1.1.1 HIV/AIDS in South Africa 1.1.2 HIV/AIDS in tertiary institutions 1.2 Backgrounds on university of Limpopo 1.3 Aim of the study 1.4 Objective of the study 1.5 Significance of the study Chapter 2: Literature review 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Gender 2.3 Age 2.4 Sexual behaviour 2.5 Knowledge, perception and awareness Chapter 3:......

Words: 16056 - Pages: 65

Self Image

...In your own time- consider the symbol of the bottle: What does it say about your “Self Image?” On the day the question was asked, I feel as half full because I see myself as experience with some qualification and the ability to gain more knowledge through learning and finishing the course in order to see the bottle as full. On the other hand I was scared of the fact that will I have time to study hard for this course to achieve the grade, I see the bottle as half empty because I have never done the course before even though I was optimistic, I do not know what to expect and I question myself if this bottle can at least be half full. As a mother of three girls, 2 already in high achievement and the last still in secondary school wanting to be like her sisters, with 4 grand children and 31yesayrs of marriage, I see my self image bottle as half full and not half empty because, I do believe that I have brought up my children to be able to have peace of mind and not having to think of their survival every time and if I have to die today, I know and am sure that they will not suffer nor become liability to the society. And for grandchildren, I have got the best of both I feel proud to be able to introduce them to anyone at any time , they are my pride and joy and for my marriage 31years of anyone’s life is history, I have broken history of some marriage s and this I am very proud of. I am with very little qualification but I am blessed with experience to be able to......

Words: 344 - Pages: 2