Marijuama as a Gateway Drug

In: Social Issues

Submitted By Staggart
Words 2222
Pages 9
Sociology 225
Research Paper

Marijuana as a Gateway Drug
The gateway theory is a hypothesis which states that the use of gateway drugs (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana) lead to the use of more illicit drugs such as heroin and cocaine. According to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), marijuana is a Schedule I substance under the Controlled Substances Act. “Schedule I drugs are classified as having a high potential for abuse, no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States, and a lack of accepted safety for use of the drug or other substance under medical supervision.” Marijuana is thus considered by the U.S. government to be more dangerous than cocaine and opium - both Schedule II drugs, and at the same time a gateway to these harder and more addictive drugs. The government’s position is not only paradoxical, but should be a reason for debate as to the credibility of the gateway theory. A detailed look is warranted because of the magnitude it has on affecting U.S. drug policy.
According to the “Reassessing the marijuana gateway effect” article, there are three phenomena which represent the evidence for a marijuana gateway effect. The first is “the relative risk of hard drug initiation for adolescent marijuana users vs. non-users. In one U.S. study, the risk of drug progression for a marijuana user was 85 times that of a non-user” (Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse 1994). The figure makes apparent sense because as will be seen an individual who uses marijuana is further up the drug escalation ladder than a non-user.
The second is the hierarchy of drug use. It is assumed that alcohol precedes all other drugs giving rise to tobacco products, followed by marijuana and finally hard drugs. This is not to say that all users follow this building block approach, but the likelihood of an individual trying hard drugs before marijuana is…...

Similar Documents

Gateway Case Study

...Gateway Inc. Theory in Practice Eduardo Ordóñez Professor Meilich BUS 444 May 7, 2004 Ticker: GTW Stock Exchange: NYSE Website: www.gateway.com Company Description Gateway Inc. was first incorporated in Iowa in 1986, with the name of Gateway 2000, Inc. It was then reincorporated in South Dakota in December of 1989 and later in Delaware in January of 1991. In 1993, the company went public, trading on the NASDAQ before transferring its stock to the New York Stock Exchange in 1997. Today, the company’s corporate headquarters are located in California in the city of Poway. As a major supplier of personal computers and related products and services, Gateway Inc. is a firm currently competing in the computer manufacturing industry along with Dell, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Toshiba, Apple, and others. It does not only manufacture PCs and laptops, the company also offers servers, workstations, an assortment of computer accessories (monitors, printers, software, memory, etc.), and a line of digital electronics. Gateway Inc. has a broad target market. It consists of small to large business, government and educational institutions, and home and home office. It sells its products nationally through a number distribution channels, including its Website, telephone call centers, and retail stores. The company’s mission is “to be the leading integrator of personalized technology solutions,” by “improving the quality of life through technology,” via......

Words: 7327 - Pages: 30

Grocery Gateway Case

...Marketing Plan Executive Summary Dominique Van Voorhis, the vice-president of industrial engineering and operations systems for Grocery Gateway has been asked to make recommendations aimed at improving delivery operations at the weekly management meeting in seven days. There he will need to present his new ideas to the CEO and COO of Grocery Gateway. Dominique has already gathered the delivery time information as well as current average orders being placed. He’s been able to identify that it takes 15 minutes for set up, 30 minutes for stem time, 30 minutes to return to the centre and 15 minutes for close out. Also, 10 minutes were included to meet with the customer of whom almost half was to receive payment and unload. Their current total average order per day for each of their 13 different regions in their zone was 7,818. There are 5 alternatives to improve the delivery operations: 1) Extend driver shifts 2) Approach Descartes to expand licensing agreement 3) Increase the delivery charge 4) Eliminate drivers taking payment at delivery 5) Status Quo-many not actually improve the delivery options but it is an alternative Alternative 4 and 2 are the main recommendations as they will assist Grocery Gateway in increasing their deliveries completed per driver as well as speed up each delivery. If the majority of purchases were paid for online as opposed to the driver directly, delivery times would decrease......

Words: 4646 - Pages: 19

Switches, Routers, and Gateways

...Switches, Routers, and Gateways Switches, routers and gateways are an essential part in a network. They all have the same basic functions, as they help control the flow of information between points on a network. It is important to know how each one in the flow of information. A router is common to many, especially in home networks. While connecting two or more networks, routers can do this whether these networks have the same or even different data link protocols, but the same network protocol. One advantage that a router has is that a router is capable of choosing the best route for the flow of information between networks, even if there are several possible routes. This is a result of the router knowing its own location within the network along with the packets final destination. The routing table, used by the router, identifies the best path. Another distinct advantage of a router is that it only deals with messages that are directly addressed to it. You will find that routers work on the Network Layer. Operating at the network layer, Gateways process messages using the network layer address. Interfacing between two or more dissimilar networks is what makes gateways more complex than routers. Although it’s usually different, Gateways do connect two or more networks that use different or the same data link and network protocols. This is accomplished by connecting with the same or even different kinds of cables. Gateways have also been known to operate on......

Words: 345 - Pages: 2

Norhern Gateway Pipeline

...production and use is fundamental to our current way of life” (Environment Canada, 2011) We will be arguing in favour of British Columbia supporting the construction of the Northern Gateway Pipeline. Throughout our brief, we will provide several arguments reinforcing our position. In addition to the questions provided by the Hearing Panel, we found it extremely important and pertinent to address economic implications of the construction and functioning of the pipeline. For this reason, these elements will be discussed in Section IV of our brief. We chose to omit a couple of Questions of Analysis in favour of expanding on others that we felt were more relevant and necessary to our argument. We hold the belief that the potential benefits of the Northern Gateway Pipeline outweigh the potential costs; reasons for which will become evident in this written submission. Section II: Questions of Fact: Answered 1. Will the pipeline be running above or below ground? The vast majority of the pipeline will be buried up to a meter underground. The only exceptions will be select water crossings where it is safer to run the pipeline above the water crossing. (Enbridge Northern Gateway Project, 2013) 2. What is the lifespan of the project? The project will have a lifespan of 30 years (Enbridge Northern Gateway Project). 3. What is being transported in the pipeline? There are 2 pipelines. One is the oil pipeline and the other is the condensate pipeline. They will be......

Words: 3175 - Pages: 13

Gateway Case Study

...Gateway Computers. Company Background The story of Gateway is an inspiring one. The company, originally called Gateway 2000, was founded in 1985 in an Iowa farmhouse by Ted Waitt, the son of a fourth-generation Iowa cattleman. Armed with a rented computer, a three page business plan, and a $10,000 loan guaranteed by his grandmother, Waitt dropped out of the University of Iowa to pursue his dream. Gateway’s early value proposition was similar to what it is today: offer products directly to the customer, build them to their specifications, provide them with the best value for the money, and offer unparalleled service and support. Waitt’s start-up company had $100,000 in sales in its first year and by 1993 it became a Fortune 500 company with sales of nearly $3 billion. The company’s rapid growth continued throughout the ‘90s, reaching a peak of more than $9.6 billion in 2000.      Over the past 18 years Gateway has been a technology and direct-marketing pioneer. It was the first company in the industry to sell computers online, the first to bundle its own branded internet service with a PC, and among the first direct retailers to sell its own branded consumer electronic products. In 1996 the company became one of the first “brick and click” retailers when it introduced a nationwide network of Gateway Country stores. Today, the company has nearly 200 stores where customers can try out Gateway products, get advice from technical experts, and learn more about technology in......

Words: 3574 - Pages: 15

Marijuana: a Gateway to Self-Destruction

...Marijuana: An Addictive Drug for Teens Amina Saad Substance Abuse Counseling August 1, 2013 Argosy University Marijuana is the most popular illicit psychoactive drug amongst millions of people world wide (Inaba & Cohen, 2011). Today marijuana is a popular drug amongst teens and remains the most commonly abused drug amongst them by a wide margin (New Port Academy, 2013). It is an addictive substance for teen’s recreational use. The 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health found that the use among marijuana among 12 to 17 year olds increased 9 percent from 2008 to 2009, (ONDCP, 2013). According to New Port Academy (2013), A study funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse found that in 2002, more than 10.8 percent of all 10th graders and 32.4 percent of 12th graders abused marijuana at least once in the last year. It was also found that in teens between the ages of 12 to 17, boys were more likely to use marijuana than girls, (2013). “Marijuana effects a juvenile brain more severely than an adult brain,” (Inaba & Cohen, 2011). Among adolescents, alcohol use is first and marijuana use follows. As of 2011, Marijuana became legal in 16 States in the United States (Inaba & Cohen, 2011). According to the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), there has been increasing efforts to legalize marijuana which can cause marijuana to drop in price, increasing the use of the drug (2013). Keeping it illegal keeps the price of......

Words: 944 - Pages: 4

Drugs

...Janaki Patel Club Drugs Club drugs are becoming more abundant in society nowadays and readily available almost everywhere you go whether it is on the streets of a hustling bustling city like New York, a suburb like Princeton, or schools like Harvard. Not just club drugs, but all kinds of drugs are readily available, but right now club drugs are on the rise statistically. A recent survey shows approximately “37.1% of 12th graders, 24.8% of 10th graders, and 12% of 8th graders reported that MDMA was "fairly easy" or "very easy" to obtain” (Drug Free Website). Clearly it is evident that these club drugs are easy to obtain by the average American teenager. So what are club drugs? Club drugs are drugs used at parties, raves, clubs, and discos to maximize their clubbing experience. These drugs help acquire the euphoric feeling by releasing a chemical in the brain called serotonin which makes you feel good. The most common type of club drugs are ecstasy, GHB, Rohypnol, and LSD. In addition to these drugs, there are many more part of the category of club drugs. However, sexual predators can misuse a couple of these drugs as the date rape drug. All these drugs have different effects on everyone. The attractiveness of these drugs have also gone up because of their uses and how increasingly readily available they are. The most common of the club drugs is ecstasy also knows as MDMA. MDMA stands for......

Words: 1239 - Pages: 5

Drugs

...Drugs Kendall Beard COM/172 May 6, 2015 Brian Townsley In my experience, for decades, many people have debated over the use of marijuana and whether it is good or bad for you. Many scientists have conducted their research on the usefulness of marijuana in the everyday life of people and most have only come back with negative results concerning the plant/drug. In this paper, I hope to prove that smoking marijuana does not cause the same amount of problems that smoking cigarettes might cause. In this paper, there will be few topics touched on concerning marijuana. There are ample cases of people using drugs because of their curiosity, individual freedom and choice, cultural characteristics, or relaxation activities and the substitute for modern medicine. Modern hemp and cannabis are distinctive assortments of the same species, Cannabis sativa. Weed generally contains 3 to 15 percent of the psychoactive fixing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on a dry-weight premise, while mechanical hemp contains 1 percent. Be that as it may, the two mixtures are unclear by appearance. In the United States, Cannabis sativa is delegated a Timetable I controlled substance, paying little respect to its opiate content, under the Controlled Substances Go about as changed. Since 1990, mixtures containing under 0.3 percent THC have been sanctioned in Incredible Austria, England, Switzerland, and Germany. Canada and Australia authorized hemp generation in 1998. In different nations, for......

Words: 1695 - Pages: 7

Gateway to Singapore

...Gateway to Singapore: Changi Airport Background Airports are “a vital part of a country’s transport infrastructure on which its economy, trade, and business depend.”  Changi Airport Group operates and manages the highly recognized and world-renowned Singapore Changi Airport.  Currently the world's sixth busiest international airport, Changi Airport has grown into a major air hub in Asia.  The various flight routes connect Singapore with 270 cities in 60 countries with the support of more than 100 international airlines.  Every 90 seconds, a flight departs from or lands at Changi Airport.  Passenger traffic at the airport exceeds 53 million people annually, roughly 10 times the population of Singapore. Changi Airport is not an ordinary airport and is known for its unconventional amenities.  It has a comfortable and clean environment and boasts superior customer service.  There are 350 retail stores and 120 restaurants inside the airport’s three terminals, which accounts for a total business area of roughly 750,000 square feet and 50% of the airport’s revenue (S$2 billion in 2013).  To name a few unique amenities, there are free movie theatres, napping and lounge chairs, karaoke studios, showers, prayer rooms, playgrounds, events for families and children, and gardens housed within the airport, among many other things.  It is viewed “not just as Singapore’s gateway to the world, but also the world’s gateway to Singapore.”  This all makes Changi airport a travel destination......

Words: 2354 - Pages: 10

Gateway Foundation Interview

... Unit 7: The Business of Drugs, Drug Laws, and Drug Law Enforcement Unit 7: The Business of Drugs, Drug Laws, and Drug Law Enforcement Joseph DeMarco Kaplain University CJ411: Drugs and Alcohol in the Criminal Justice System Prof:Elycia Daniel 07/25/11 For this paper we were required to do research and conduct an interview with a person from a treatment or prevention program in our community. As I was looking for programs I found that the Gateway Foundation had a facility near my area in Aurora, IL. The facility is located on the campus of the Provina Medical center which is one of the area's most prominent hospitals. The address is 400 Mercy Lane Aurora, IL 60506 and the phone number I called was (630) 966-7400. The name of the person I spoke with was Nick Turner. Nick Turner is an outpatient counselor for the Gateway Foundation in the Aurora facility. The first question that I asked Nick was if he could give a brief history lesson about the company? He explained that the Gateway foundation is a non-for profit organization that is dedicated to helping people that are addicted to drugs and/or alcohol. From the counselor I found out that the Gateway Foundation opened its first facility in 1968 in the Cook County area. Since then they have grown into one of the largest and most trusted providers of drug and alcohol abuse treatment services in the United States. During the interview I learned that Gateway has treatment centers located......

Words: 1463 - Pages: 6

Grocery Gateway

...Grocery Gateway Case - LSC1B8 1. As products supplied by Grocery Gateway are functional by nature, the company uses physically efficient supply chain. Online grocery is a low cost margin market with stable demand and requires a supply chain strategy, which focuses on minimizing cost by consolidating transportation and reducing cost of storage. Grocery gateway must focus on improving cost efficiency and making the supply chain more resilient. Cost efficiency can be improved by satisfying customer demand while utilizing the transportation at maximum. For improving resilience, company should develop contingency measures to recover quickly from shocks. 2. From Tarang 3. Strategy | Pros | Cons | Keep trucks on roads for longer | * Targeted number of deliveries will be met | * Drop per hour will remain same * Possibly increase variable cost per hour (overtime to drivers, more fuel etc.) | Route profitability via RIMMS | * Increased margins from low number of drops as variable cost are decreased | * Waiting time for customers on low profitability routes will increase leading to loss of sales | Increase in delivery charge | * Higher margin on drops which lead to realizing target revenue at low drop per hour rate | * Against the value of the firm which is to provide low cost goods to consumer | 4. a. Grocery Gateway should manage its fleet size so that the revenue generated is greater than the transportation cost. The key factors to be......

Words: 313 - Pages: 2

Drugs

...legalizing marijuana is the physical risks of the drug, both to those using it and to bystanders. Research has shown that marijuana can increase the likelihood of schizophrenia, mainly if the individual started smoking before the age of 18. There are also the health risks associated with smoking, including second-hand smoke for non-consumers, and the probability that driving under the influence of marijuana would be more common. It may also contribute to IQ declines when used by teens, according to a recent study. Although legalization measures include age restrictions, like alcohol and tobacco, legalizing marijuana would make it considerably easier for children to get hold of. This is an obvious consequence of the increased and open availability of the substance, and the fact that marijuana is especially dangerous for adolescents makes this a much more serious consequence. Some individuals also believe that it’s morally wrong to consume marijuana. The fact that people who take drugs are more likely to commit related crimes (such as theft to fund habit) also means that legalizing the drug could potentially lead to more criminals being out on the street. Drug use is another reason police can use to take law-breakers off the streets. There is also a slippery slope argument, which states that the legalization of marijuana would eventually lead to the legalization of all illicit substances. The public could become desensitized to drug use and over time even crack cocaine and......

Words: 670 - Pages: 3

Confirure Default Gateways

...Default gateway From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In computer networking, a gateway is a node (a router) on a TCP/IP network that serves as an access point to another network. A default gateway is the node on the computer network that the network software uses when an IP address does not match any other routes in the routing table. In home computing configurations, an ISP often provides a physical device which both connects local hardware to the Internet and serves as a gateway. Such devices include DSL modems and cable modems. In organizational systems a gateway is a node that routes the traffic from a workstation to another network segment. The default gateway commonly connects the internal networks and the outside network (Internet). In such a situation, the gateway node could also act as a proxy server and a firewall. The gateway is also associated with both a router, which uses headers and forwarding tables to determine where packets are sent, and a switch, which provides the actual path for the packet in and out of the gateway. In other words, a default gateway provides an entry point and an exit point in a network. Contents [hide]  * 1 Example1 * 2 Example2 * 3 See also * 4 External links | [edit] Example1 An office network consists of six hosts and a router is given as: Hosts addresses: * 192.168.4.3 * 192.168.4.4 * 192.168.4.5 * 192.168.4.6 * 192.168.4.7 * 192.168.4.8 Router (this side) address: * 192.168.4.1 The......

Words: 1837 - Pages: 8

Drugs

...Drugs Javier A. Dominguez COMM/215 Professor Kenneth Frawley Drugs One of our most important worldwide issues today is the elimination of illegal drugs. However, getting rid of said drugs is extremely tough and complicated. Despite the constant fight to get rid of the illegal drugs, they remain and continue being used in our culture. So why is there little success in taking care of the problem? It obviously is not a lack of effort. A strong attraction to drugs still exists, but it is the prevention of this thirst for drugs that we need to put our efforts and attention in order to eliminate illegal drugs from society. The biggest mistake is that we are focusing on correcting drug abusers instead of getting rid of the desire to use them. However, applying more laws and more severe punishments against the drug abuse problem has yet to prove to be an effective method. Every day, drugs continue to be produced, distributed, and used around the globe. We have attempted to find locations of drug users and a drug producer to “punish them”, but this method does not stop anything. In one recent study from the National Health Service (NHS) information centre of “6,519 school pupils, about 12% of children in England and Wales are likely to have used drugs in the last year” (Guardian 2012). We manage to track down places where the drugs are, and close them down to prevent any further distribution and/or producing of drugs. But again, this method is not effective because it...

Words: 839 - Pages: 4

Gateway

...Recommendation In order to meet the stated objectives of four stops per hour and 5,000 deliveries per day, our official recommendation is that an investment in management systems will be absolutely necessary to achieve those goals. They simply cannot continue to achieve their growth targets with the incomplete system they have in place presently. CEO Claud Germain touts the company focus as one of logistical execution. An absolute requisite for excellence in logistics are analytics and support systems. Furthermore, Gateway as an e-tailer will need to enhance their purchasing systems and include mobile purchasing applications and software that further bolster the recommended technological improvements. Square is a good company to consider with iPad, iPhone, and android support built in with the hardware that attaches to those devices seamlessly. Dominque’s first option of extending driver shifts comes with a massive increase in potential problems. Having drivers on the road for extended periods of time provides the propensity for increases in accidents, mistakes in delivery and overall compounds the likelihood of human error to appear. The bottom line is tired and overworked drivers equal unsafe and unhappy drivers. This move would also require significant investment in staff support to ensure service levels would remain adequate. The second option was to bolster the RIMMS system to enhance the analytical capabilities to include profitability measures as well as......

Words: 1075 - Pages: 5