Linking Factors to Childhood Obesity and Interventions

In: Other Topics

Submitted By cartezl
Words 3365
Pages 14
Linking Factors to Childhood Obesity and Interventions: A Literature Review
Dontonio Earls
Colin University

Abstract
The prevalence of childhood obesity worldwide has created an immense concern in how to combat the chronic disease; however, researchers have found that there are fundamental risk factors that contribute to childhood obesity. Because of this immense concern, researchers have examined several risk factors that may be linked to the rising number of obesity among children. The literature reviewed has revealed that the contributions of the built environment have played negative role in providing support to children who are obese or overweight. The objective of this research was to examine the negative risk factors that may be correlated with childhood obesity. The results revealed that the effects of childhood obesity have emerged from different phases of life: (a) familial stress, (b) emotional-behavioral stress (c) self-esteem, (d) peer victimization, (e) eating-habits and influences, and (f) physical activities.
In addition to examining the fundamental risk factors, interventions have been suggested and discussed in this paper. Keywords: childhood, obesity, parents, schools, physical activity, food, intervention

Linking Factors to Childhood Obesity and Intervention: A Literature Review Overview. Today, childhood obesity has become a primary issue for public health worldwide. It has been well documented that over 23 million children in the United States alone are obese or overweight. Center for Disease Control (2004), defined obesity in children or adolescents as those individuals with a body mass index (BMI) at or above the 95th percentile on revised Center for Disease Control and Prevention growth chart (Green, Riley, and Hargrove, 2012, p. 916). Multiple health risks are associated with overweight and obesity that are specific…...

Similar Documents

Childhood Obesity

...Children and Obesity Sharletta Guy-Pope SOC490: Social Science Capstone Raqota Berger June 18, 2012 Introduction Due to the growing concern and increase prevalence of childhood obesity around the world the population of children as it relates to childhood obesity indicates that these children will suffer even greater as adults. This increasing concern has become a public health issue and a social issue with children. Furthermore, research shows that the media plays an important role in the current epidemic of childhood obesity, which also has become a social issue with children. The increasing amounts of junk food and fast food advertisements, that target children and adolescents, have an effect on the outcome of their health and nutritional habits; these advertisements shift away from good nutritional practices. Food advertisements that advertise unhealthy foods such as foods high in saturated fats and cholesterol (junk foods) puts children at risk for high blood pressure and high blood cholesterol, both of which causes heart disease later on in life, which are precursors of cardiovascular disease resulting in childhood obesity. Sociocultural Factors Gender Society, culture, and the media send children powerful messages about body weight and shape ideals. For girls; ideas that are stressed in the media include the "thin ideal" and urging to diet and exercise, which can put pressure on girls to be thin, putting......

Words: 2446 - Pages: 10

Childhood Obesity

...Childhood Obesity: A Preventable Disease Childhood obesity is at an all time high today. Children who have a body weight ten percent higher than what is recommended or have a BMI in the 95th percentile or above are considered to be obese. One out of three children in the United States are considered overweight or obese. Eighty percent of these obese children remain obese adults, leading to severe health problems and possibly an early death (Schifferdecker, 2008). The current obesity epidemic has produced a generation of children that may be the first to have a life expectancy shorter than their parents (Gance-Cleveland, Gilbert, & Kopanos, 2010). This disease not only effects a child’s psychological well being, but also leads to many serious health issues within the body’s systems. The cardiovascular system, endocrine system and respiratory system are the most effected systems in a child with obesity (Statters, 1996). Children with obesity are at risk for lifelong health complications. Nurses have a responsibly to educate children and their parents on the dangers of this disease and the steps which can be taken to prevent it. The cardiovascular system is composed of the heart, arteries and veins; it is responsible for the circulation of blood, throughout the entire body. The arteries carry blood away from the heart and the veins carry blood back to the heart. This system plays a vital role in the delivery of nutrients and the removal of waste in the body. The heart is......

Words: 1926 - Pages: 8

Childhood Obesity

...Public Health Issue: Childhood Obesity Anna Walker, the Healthcare Commission Chief Executive explained that "Childhood obesity is a serious health problem that can follow people much later into life. It is a causal factor in a number of chronic diseases and conditions including high blood pressure, heart disease and type 2 diabetes” (Audit Commission 2006). The World Health Organisation, describes obesity as having “reached global epidemic proportions, with more than 1.6 billion adults overweight, at least 400 million of those clinically obese” (WHO 2005). In England, the Department of Health (DH), states that almost “1 in 4 adults are currently obese and projects that 9 in 10 adults will either be overweight or obese if this issue is not addressed.” Obesity is therefore an important public health issue and this essay will focus on childhood obesity as a Parliament report states that overweight children and adolescents have a 70% chance of becoming overweight or obese adults, it also implies more public resources over a longer time period. If obesity carries on into adulthood, in a hospital setting, the patient’s weight can have an impact on the health of NHS staff, as is already being noted by Unions (Mansfield, 2007). Epidemiology will be used to examine childhood obesity in children aged 2 to 10 within England and the relevant policies implemented in an attempt to reduce this ‘epidemic.’ The role of the nurse in helping to tackle the nationwide problem will also...

Words: 2218 - Pages: 9

Childhood Obesity

...Childhood Obesity Childhood obesity is a serious medical condition that affects our children and adolescent. This topic has become an all so familiar topic of discussion among health organizations in the United States. Obesity is an increase in body weight resulting from excessive accumulation of body fat relative to lean body mass (Hockenberry, 2008). Childhood obesity, by either definition, has become an epidemic that every community is currently facing and should be correcting. The American Academy of Pediatrics defines a child at or above the 95th percentile as obese (Harper, 2006). Childhood obesity can lead to death, which is a devastating thing that can occur. This disease can also be defined as a genetic disorder. Looking at the historical significance and natural life history it is not a surprise that childhood is addressed as one of Health People’s 2010’s objectives (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2000). Primary, secondary and tertiary interventions can be done by agencies, the community and especially the community health nurse to reduce childhood obesity. The first step in the effort is to correct the problem and look at the historical significance. Primary interventions are interventions that prevent the problem. (Nies and McEwen, 2007). Increase in physical activity and education on health food choices in required health education classes are primary interventions for childhood obesity. An increase in physical activity can......

Words: 2899 - Pages: 12

Childhood Obesity

...Childhood Obesity Shaleta Lathon PE 112-02 Saint Xavier University In Today’s society one in three American children are either overweight or obese, which is triple the rate it was in 1963 (American Heart Association, 2014). Childhood Obesity is not limited to the United States it is becoming more of a problem for every child all over the world. Childhood obesity is defined as having excess body fat, and being overweight means that having excess body weight from fat, muscle, bone water or a combination of these factors (CDC, 2013). A way to determine if a child is overweight is by using the body mass index chart. This chart can determine if a child is at an unhealthy weight, healthy weight, overweight, or obese (CDC, 2013). There are many health issues for those who are overweight or obese such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes and more. There has been a lot of research conducted on childhood obesity from kindergarten to middle school, whether or not appetite is linked to obesity, and whether or not children should have bariatric surgery to remove the fat. Obesity is a major problem because it causes many health problems. Children that are overweight or obese are more likely to suffer from high blood pressure or high cholesterol (CDC, 2013). In a sample of obese children 70% hat at least one risk for cardiovascular disease (CDC, 2013). Children who suffer from obesity are also more likely to suffer from joint and bone problems (CDC, 2013). Being......

Words: 1910 - Pages: 8

Childhood Obesity

...Childhood Obesity ENG122 Matthew Fox July 23, 2012 Childhood Obesity Childhood obesity is a serious concern for youth today. Within the past 30 years childhood obesity has more than tripled. Four out of ten children are considered to be obese (Ogden CL 2010). Often when one sees overweight children, one will hear parents making excuses for why their child is overweight. For example one will hear a parent say “she is just big boned, or she will grow out of it, it’s just baby fat” these are nothing but excuses. Parents are in denial when it comes to their child being overweight or even obese. If parents today do not start taking this issue seriously, then that could be taken as a form of child abuse due to the long term health factors that childhood obesity can cause. A main claim that researches are finding is that parents are a cause of childhood obesity. In an article on ABC News by Alyssa Newcomb 2011 she followed a story about a 200 pound third grade boy that officials took from his mother and placed in foster care. Officials learned of the case after the mother took her son to the hospital for breathing trouble. What parents do not understand is that this condition can lead to serious health factors if not death in an obese child. Authorities are starting to become aware of the families and are charging the parents with abuse. Parents today have become fearful that their children will be taken from them if they are severely overweight. A three-decade...

Words: 1735 - Pages: 7

Childhood Obesity

...Childhood Obesity Family-based treatment is more effective than individual treatment for childhood obesity diagnoses in America. Childhood obesity is a medical condition in which a child has excessive body mass index for the child’s age and height. Childhood obesity is a growing problem which has led to an epidemic in America. There are several contributing factors which lead adolescents to be diagnosed with pediatric obesity. Some American medical professionals are focusing on preventing and diminishing pediatric obesity with individual treatment, however, according to the American Heart Association, If parents are unhealthy, children are likely to be unhealthy too” (American Heart Association, 2011). Family-based treatment regulates the effects of childhood obesity over the long term versus individual treatment for adolescents and teenagers, which is a short term solution. Childhood obesity affects one in three children and teens in the United States, causing the rate to triple since 1963 (American Heart Association, 2011). Pediatric obesity involves children two to twenty years of age, where the child or teen has excessive body fat for their age and sex. Excessive body fat occurs when energy ingested is more than energy burned off by a child or teenager. A few symptoms of child obesity are sleep apnea; when a child or teen stops breathing in his or her sleep for a short period of time, hip or knee pain, difficulty in breathing such as; asthma, headaches, skin......

Words: 2697 - Pages: 11

Childhood Obesity

...CLC Yellow Team Health Issue Analysis: Childhood Obesity Yellow Group Grand Canyon University: NUR- 508 August 20, 2014 Cultural Beliefs and Influences Relative to Childhood Obesity According to Opalinski, (2013), childhood obesity is increasing in all racial groups. Cultural beliefs play a unique contribution in relation to this chronic condition. Evidence shows that place of origin is one of the factors contributing to having kids who are not as healthy as people were just a few decades ago. Based on the literature, minority populations specifically Hispanics (Hispanic) and African American children are at higher risk compared to other ethnicities. Pulgaron et al., (2013), explains the relationship of Hispanic children and cultural factors affecting the rate of obesity among this population. The literature shows that Hispanic children who have grandparents helping in their caretaking had a negative impact on food choices and feeding habits due to the fact that in the Hispanic culture bigger means being healthier. The perception applied to the African American culture generally believes that a larger body size is equal to being healthy. Opalinski (2013) also reported that further investigation must be performed to better understand the relationship of cultural beliefs and childhood obesity. Religious/ Spiritual Beliefs In the United States a few studies were performed to investigate the association of religion and obesity. Based on the literature, social......

Words: 789 - Pages: 4

Childhood Obesity

...Childhood Obesity David Sholl Western Governors University Task 3 Childhood Obesity Part A: Description of the Problem The primary focus of the literature review will be childhood obesity among American children between the ages of five and eighteen years. Most parents are not aware that their children have problems until they become overweight. For instance, in a survey conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011, about 49% of American parents believed that their children were of average size. However, after physical examinations, a team of physicians classified them as overweight. Central adiposity is one of the symptoms of childhood obesity. Children with excessive accumulation of fat around the abdominal area are either overweight or obese. Inability to cope with abrupt physical activities is another symptom. Numerous studies indicate that overweight children have diminished physical stamina because their bodies carry excess weight. Snoring is the other notable symptom of childhood obesity. As fat accumulates around the neck region, it obstructs the windpipe leading to snoring among children. Childhood obesity is now a pandemic in the U.S, and has become a national health crisis. One in every three children in America aged between two and eighteen years are considered overweight or obese. The life-threatening problems of obesity create a critical and compelling call for action that should not be ignored. According to numerous sources obesity is......

Words: 2697 - Pages: 11

Childhood Obesity

...Cobabe June 29, 2011 Childhood obesity has become one of the most predominant health problems facing our nation today. Its prevalence in the United States is such that it is considered an epidemic that has a powerful, adverse impact on the well-being of our society. Childhood obesity affects all aspects of a child’s life; most significantly by contributing to poor health and negative social perceptions by society. Extensive research of this issue has identified numerous causal and risk factors associated with obesity. Given the multifaceted nature of the problem, and its severe implications for the future health and well-being of affected children, I believe that the most effective solutions will be achieved through programs that focus on prevention efforts. This thesis begins with a definition of the obesity epidemic, followed by a discussion of research into the multiple causal factors associated with childhood obesity. Particular emphasis is placed on prevention and intervention programs in the school environment, as many of the efforts to address childhood obesity have been school-based. This thesis also concludes the causes of obesity, environmental factors, biological, genetic, and dietary behaviors, the cost of obesity, and so much more. Recent studies and surveys provide clear evidence that children and adolescents are becoming overweight and, more significantly, obese at increasingly younger ages. Statistical evidence demonstrates that obesity has become a true......

Words: 470 - Pages: 2

Childhood Obesity

...Matthew Stark Sociology 422 Professor Bradshaw 5 May 2015 Childhood Obesity: Is there an elucidation? 1. Describe the Policy, Program or Topic: The growth in childhood obesity over the past several decades, together with the associated health problems and costs, is raising serious concern among health care professionals, policy experts, children’s advocates, and parents. Childhood obesity is defined “in terms of body mass index (BMI), which in turn is defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared” (Anderson). According to the Obesity Action Coalition “a child is defined as “affected by obesity” if their body mass index-for-age (or BMI-for-age) percentile is greater than 95 percent. A child is defined as “overweight” if their BMI-for-age percentile is greater than 85 percent and less than 95 percent.” BMI has become the frontrunner for measuring a child’s weight condition, but only a physician can best determine and diagnoses weight status in children. Obesity is not just a problem in the United States but around the world as well. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey have been recording overweight and obesity in children since the early 1960’s. During 1971–74 about five percent of children aged two to nineteen years were obese but it has increase significantly throughout the years. By 1980 and 1988-94, the numbers nearly doubled in children and between the years of 1998-2002, nearly fifteen percent of United States children have......

Words: 2842 - Pages: 12

Childhood Obesity

...Program on Childhood Obesity Name: Institutional Affiliation: Date: Part 1: Childhood Obesity Statistics and studies on childhood obesity indicate that obesity disproportionately affects individuals from racial minority groups and that the prevalence of the condition is increasing among such populations. Childhood obesity is a significant health issue that has numerous consequences on the affected persons and their families. The increase in childhood obesity incidences among minority populations arises from economic, cultural, and political conditions that have had an impact on the environments in which children from such groups grow. According to Caprio, Daniels, Drewnowski, Kaufman, Palinkas, Rosenbloom, & Schwimmer (2008), minority populations such as Native Americans, Mexican Americans, and African Americans experience higher prevalence rates of childhood obesity than other ethnic groups. For instance, non-Hispanic whites had 14.1%, non-Hispanic blacks had 20.2%, and the Hispanics recorded 22.4% of childhood obesity (Ogden et al., 2014). The prevalence of childhood obesity also depends on other factors such as the literacy levels of the household heads and the gender and age of the children. Members of minority populations experience numerous challenges accessing affordable health care, healthy foods and live in neighborhood environments that predispose them to obesity. Although childhood obesity is caused by several factors, the......

Words: 3258 - Pages: 14

Childhood Obesity

...Epidemiology Paper on Childhood Obesity Obesity is a global epidemic affecting millions of the world population. Childhood obesity is especially worrisome as it is linked to higher incidence of health issues in adulthood (Lakshman, Elks, & Ong, 2012). There are many factors to look at when assessing the prevalence of childhood obesity, including culture, socio-economic status, food availability, activity, and genetics. To better understand this problem, it is essential to understand the factors that lead to obesity, how obesity is studied, and what are ways to help reduce the occurrence of obesity. Through epidemiology, this health concern can be better understood and provide the information needed to generate a plan of action to help reduce the risk factors that lead to childhood obesity. Epidemiology is “the study of the occurrence and distribution of health–related states or events and specified populations, including the study of the determinants influencing such states, and the application of this knowledge to control the health problems” (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2012, pg 255). Through epidemiology the questions of who, what, where, when, how, and why can be investigated to offer information about the dissemination or patterns of health measures. The Epidemiological Triangle allows epidemiologists to understand the relationships between agent, host, and the environment when looking at a specific health concern. When considering childhood obesity, the agent could be......

Words: 2108 - Pages: 9

Childhood Obesity

...Childhood obesity is a major concern for parents, teachers, and the medical community with differing philosophies and theories on causes and prevention. Inactivity, genetics, technology and parenting attitudes and beliefs are factors which contribute to childhood obesity. Peer pressure and social circles also create an epidemic of children overweight or obese. Intervention by parents, physicians and the educational system with support and nutrition with physical activity instruction can help create a culture of informed children. Childhood obesity is a major concern for parents, teachers and health care providers. Children will gain weight as they grow and develop. The problem presents when a child has extra pounds not needed for normal growth and development. Extra weight leads to obesity and particularly for a young child or adolescent can create serious medical conditions continuing into adulthood. Researching and determining particular and specific causes for childhood obesity can help in educating and motivating children and parents towards behavior changes to correct and prevent childhood obesity. Criteria for determining obesity in children rely on body mass index (BMI) in relation to overall weight, age, height and body structure. A BMI in children ages 6 to 19 years of age between the 85th and 94th percentiles is considered in the normal range, while anything over the 95th percentile is considered obese (Hampl and Summar, 2009). While there are many factors......

Words: 745 - Pages: 3

Childhood Obesity

... Conquering Childhood Obesity Robin Rickards Chamberlain College of Nursing Childhood obesity has become prevalent not only in the United States, but around the world. Many factors contribute to childhood obesity. These factors include the imbalance of caloric intake with actual calories used, genetics, behavioral and environmental. Body mass index (BMI), is a measure of weight in relation to height. If the weight is higher than what is determined by the CDC (Center for Disease Control), a child is considered overweight or obese. For children, obesity is defined as having a BMI at or above the 95th percentile for children the same age and sex. BMI is also a useful index for cardiovascular risk. It has been established that childhood obesity has many factors to it, but what percentage of it is due to parents allowing their children to become a product of their environment? The imbalance of caloric intake with actual calories used for growth, development, metabolism, and physical activity is one of many factors involving childhood obesity (Karnik, Kanekar, 2011). Genetics play a part, by altering body fat content and absorption of energy. “Heritability of obesity from parents also influences obesity in children.” (Karnik, Kanekar, 2011). The behavioral factor of childhood obesity is directly correlated to lack of physical activity. A lot of children spend a great deal of their time indoors watching television, playing video games and being on the computer. ......

Words: 1791 - Pages: 8