Language Teaching

In: English and Literature

Submitted By sherrijeann
Words 2308
Pages 10
Notes about Vygotsky

Taken from http://golum.riv.csu.edu.au/~srelf/SOTE/EEL403/2HDT.htm#Sociocultural

Sociocultural theory (Vygotsky)

Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory is possibly the theory given the most credence at present. Vygotsky believed the child’s culture and their interactions with others is significant in their overall development – especially in relation to cognitive development.

In particular, Vygotsky views a child’s interactions with adults and more able peers as key to their overall development. He believed that a child would internalise dialogues with others and use this information to guide actions and acquisition of new skills on later occasions. From Vygotsky’s perspective learning is dependent on support from adults.

Key to Vygotsky’s theory are the notions of private speech, scaffolding and the zone of proximal development. Key ideas

❖ the child is viewed as an active seeker of knowledge;

❖ the child and environment interact together enabling cognitive development in a culturally adaptive way;

❖ the mind is perceived to be socially constructed;

❖ the child is born with basic attentional, perceptual and memory capacities;

❖ development occurs as a direct result of contact with the environment;

❖ child as self communicator – leads to higher order thinking;

❖ language and thought develop independently, but eventually merge and interact.

Private speech

Vygotsky believed that in order to learn children must speak to themselves in a self guiding and directing way- initially aloud and later internally. He believed that as children develop and become more competent in a particular area, they begin to internalise this speech and gradually decrease its use. Vygotsky believed that private speech is the foundation for all higher order thinking processes.

Just as we see…...

Similar Documents

Teaching English as a Second Language to Pre-School Learners

...Teaching English to Young Learners: How They Learn and the Pedagogical Implication Rojab Siti Rodliyah (rojab.siti@gmail.com) UPI Bandung There is now a growing tendency among Indonesian people to introduce English to children starting from the early age, through either formal or informal education. This can be seen from the mushrooming of bilingual and international schools where English is used as the language of instruction as well as the increasing number of English courses aimed especially for children. Sometimes people hold a misconception regarding teaching English for young learners, in which they believe that the earlier the kids learn a foreign language, the better it will be. As a matter of fact, this assumption is not completely true. Only when handled with care will the teaching of foreign language to young learners succeed as expected. Otherwise, this will not gain a significant effect on children’s language development. This paper will elaborate some principles on how young learners learn a foreign language, which should be the foundation of the way the teaching English to young learners is conducted. Some theories on how children learn will be drawn on, followed by a discussion on the pedagogical implications. This paper is expected to give insights to English teachers in general and teachers of English for young learners in particular, about the importance of taking into account the aspects related to the way young learners learn in designing their......

Words: 2041 - Pages: 9

Teaching English Language and Literature in Socio-Linguistic Context

... ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE TEACHING PROJECT TOPIC: “TEACHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN SOCIO-LINGUISTIC CONTEXT” SUBMITTED BY: GAURAV .N. SHIMPI CHECKED BY: PROF. DIPTI PETHE YEAR : 2012 -2013 INDEX Introduction Aims and Objectives Meaning and Nature of Language English Language and Literature in India Role of Language in Teaching Literature Sociolinguistic Contest in Learning and Teaching English Language Conclusion Bibliography INTRODUCTION Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and the effects of language use on society. Sociolinguistics differs from sociology of language in that the focus of sociolinguistics is the effect of the society on the language, while the latter's focus is on the language's effect on the society. Sociolinguistics overlaps to a considerable degree with pragmatics. It is historically closely related to linguistic anthropology and the distinction between the two fields has even been questioned recently. It also studies how language varieties differ between groups separated by certain social variables, e.g., ethnicity, religion, status, gender, level of education, age, etc., and how creation and adherence to these rules is used to categorize individuals in social or socioeconomic classes. As the usage of a language varies from......

Words: 4944 - Pages: 20

Teaching English as a Second Language to Pre-School Learners

...Title: Teaching Methods used to teach English to pre- school children’s Date | Author/ References | Title of Journal | Comments | Research method | 18/09/2012 | Sandradu Plessis and Brenda low | Challenges To Pre –School Teachers In Learners Acquisition Of English As Language Of Learning And Teaching | This journal highlights problems that teachers might come across in teaching English to pre –school children. The importance of identifying them and solving them because its believed here in this journal that preschool teachers play a key role in the acquisition of English language by the children because children spend most of their waking hour with the teachers. Therefore it’s believed that teachers do play a big role in the children’s life in order for them to acquire the language | Quantitative research method | 19/09/2012 | Karen E Johnson | The Relationship Between Teachers Believe And Practises During Literacy Instruction For Non –Native Speakers Of English | In this journal it is discussed teachers theoretical believe helps them to perceive, process, and act upon information in classroom. This also study extends the current research on teachers' theoretical beliefs within literacy contexts to the field of teaching English as a second language (ESL).Specifically, it examines the relationship between ESL teachers' theoretical beliefs about second-language learning and teaching and their instructional practice during literacy instruction with non-native speakers......

Words: 1256 - Pages: 6

A Functional Approach to Language Teaching Is Effective for 21st Century Students

...A FUNCTIONAL APPROACH TO LANGUAGE TEACHING IS EFFECTIVE FOR 21st CENTURY STUDENTS The functional approach is a methodology that allows the learner to “function” effectively; is based not in the linguistic analysis of the content to be taught but on what is usually designated as the learner’s needs. Regarding Halliday´s theory, this approach is concerned with the way language is organized to fulfill communicative functions. What is more, it aims to account for three basic kinds of meaning, the ideational, the interpersonal and the textual and last but not least each element in a language is explained by reference to its function in the total linguistic system. In the 21st Century the learner’s needs are not the same now as the ones in the 20th century since the students are not the same nor the society. In the 21st Century classroom, Teachers are facilitators of students’ learning and creators of productive classroom environments in which students can develop the skills they will need in their workplace mainly. As the 21st Century classroom is student centered, teachers no longer function as lecturers but as facilitators of learning. The students are learning by doing, so they need to be aware of their participation in the language production. Today there is an increasing emphasis on involving students in decisions affecting their own learning- getting them to take responsibility for their own learning decisions, and to consciously develop learning skills, and now......

Words: 449 - Pages: 2

Language Teaching and Learning Style

...the bottom-up processing is achieved. Moreover, second-language learners are required to have a fluent recognition of words before acquiring text-processing skills. Together with word recognition fluency, morphophonemic structure of words and phrases, bottom-up processing has shifted the teaching method of reading to young and adult second-language learners. For young school-age and older leaners, teachers are required to begin with teaching visual appreance of words, sound letter relationships and development of word recognition fluency before developing top-down skills. However, the second-launguage learners must be familiar with the reading fundamentals before benefiting from the top-down instruction method. Reading and Vocabulary In the 1970s and 1980s, the teaching of vocabulary was secondary to the teaching of reading. At present, it is widely agreed that vocabulary knowledge is key importance to the teaching of reading. According to Hu and Nation (2010), a second-language learners needs to understand approximately 98% of words of the texts. A second-language learners are required to be familiar with about 5,000 word families which is defined as a base word with several related words and their inflected forms). In addition, the vocabulary range in university textbook are overlapping with general frequent words. In order for second-language learners to achieve competencies in practically all second-language skills, especially vocabulary and reading skills.......

Words: 672 - Pages: 3

Communicative Language Teaching

...Communicative language teaching (CLT) is an approach to the teaching of second and foreign languages that emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of learning a language. It is also referred to as “communicative approach to the teaching of foreign languages” or simply the “communicative approach”. In such classes the teacher acts instead like a facilitator, controller or you can say a mentor. There are certain misconceptions in regard to CLT. One of them is that in CLT learning takes place naturally. If we try to go for a better understanding of this statement it means that for learning through CLT a teacher is not required. But this is not true. Below mentioned are some of the roles of a teacher. The important roles of teacher in such a class are: * Planning and designing the tasks in the class.(Act as a controller) * Assigning proper seatings in the class to avoid chaos and confusion. * Choose proper topics for roleplay and group discussions so that the main objective behind communicative language acquisition can be acquired. The type of classroom activities proposed in CLT also implied new roles in the classroom for the teachers and learners.Learners now had to participate in classroom activities that are based on cooperative rather than individualistic approach to learning. Students had to become comfortable with listening to their peers in group work or pair work tasks, rather than relying on the teacher for a model.The students are......

Words: 317 - Pages: 2

Teaching English as a Foreign Language

...1. – U V O D Usvajanje jezika je zadivljujući podvig male dece, koji već odavno privlači pažnju poslenika u oblasti nauke o jeziku, razvojne psihologije, pedagogije i prirodnih nauka. Izgleda neverovatno kako su tako mala i neiskusna deca ipak sposobna da usvoje ne samo reči, već umeju i da sklapaju rečenice prema pravilima jezika koji se govori u njihovom okruženju. Na razne načine je pokušavana da se objasni ta sposobnost dece. Objašnjenje za tu činjenicu pruža teorija koja kaže da u procesu usvajanja jezika dete učestvuje stvaralački, a njegovo okruženje mu pomaže da to učini i tako iskoristi sposobnost kojom ga je priroda obdarila. Sposobnost deteta da stvaralački učestvuje u usvajanju jezika može da se objasni time da su deca biološki programirana za jezik i da se on razvija na isti način kao što se razvijaju i druge biološke funkcije. Kao što je normalno da dete na određenom stupnju svog razvoja načini prve korake, tako i na određenom stupnju razvoja izgovara prve reči. Da bi mehanizam za usvajanje jezika proradio, detetu je potrebno da čuje uzorke jezika u svom okruženju kako bi dobilo ulazni jezički materijal. Međutim, sposobnost deteta da kreativno učestvuje u proseu usvajanja jezika je vremeniski ograničena. Što je dete mlađe, utoliko je veća njegova sposobnost da krativno učestvuje u usvajanju nematernjeg jezika. U privatnoj školi engleskog jezika 'Speak Easy', čvrsto verujemo u podsticanje učenja engleskog jezika na ranom uzrastu jer je to jedan od......

Words: 535 - Pages: 3

Communicative Language Teaching

...Writing Assignment #1 – Communicative Language Teaching Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is a learner-centered theory of language teaching that starts from a communicative model of language and language use, and that creates a de-sign for an instructional system, for materials, for teacher and learner roles and behaviors and for classroom activities and techniques (Richards, Rodgers, 1986: 69). CLT is generally re-garded as an approach and not a method, because the main principles can be applied in many different ways. The main goal of CLT is to develop the communicative competence (Richards, Rodgers, 1986: 71). Teachers have the possibility to use lots of different methods to achieve “communication competence” and they have a large flexibility in how they apply the princi-ples of CLT to their own contexts. The teacher should adjust his teaching to the needs and interests of the learners to encourage communication and cooperation. Pronunciation, vocabu-lary, grammar and structure are not priority, it is more about satisfaction and self-confidence of the learner. The teacher is the manager, co-participant as well as motivator and competent speaker in the classroom. Language problems should be solved through communication so the teacher should either tolerate/respect or support learner’s utterance. For the learner it is im-portant to communicate and discuss at every chance. It is not important to understand every-thing, it is more desired to compromise and take risks and......

Words: 592 - Pages: 3

Developing Guidelines to Design Gestures for Teaching Chinese as a Second Language

...Developing Guidelines to Design Gestures for Teaching Chinese as a Second Language From the Perspectives of Kinesics and Linguistics Yihan Zhou Seton Hall University Abstract According to kinesics and linguistic theories, this project investigates what parts are involved in making gestures and how gestures carry meanings. A wide range of body parts are involved in making a gesture. According to David Mcneill, the physical movements acquire meaning by iconics, metaphorics, deictics, and beats. The project also discovers an etymological way to connect gestures to Chinese vocabulary. Based on the findings, the project further develops some guidelines to design gestures for teaching Chinese. They are making easy movements, identifying teaching content, making gestures understandable to your students, and applying gestures into teaching. In the end, the project applies the guidelines in designing activities for teaching Chinese pronunciation, vocabulary, character, and culture. Keywords: guidelines, gestures, teaching Chinese, kinesics, linguistics 1. Introduction 2.1 Background Gestures are common body movements: teachers instruct with gestures, referees in soccer game use gestures, people greet each other with gestures. Then what are gestures? Generally speaking, gestures are body movements which accompany and even sometimes replace verbal language. Because of its intimacy with language, it has attracted the people’s attention since Greek and Roman......

Words: 3195 - Pages: 13

Language Eal Teaching

...Language in Society 21, 1-26. Printed in the United States of America Social network and social class: Toward an integrated sociolinguistic model1 LESLEY MILROY AND JAMES MILROY Departments of Speech (L.M.) and English Language (J.M.) University of Newcastle upon Tyne Queen Victoria Road at St. Thomas' Street Newcastle upon TyneNEi 7RU, United Kingdom ABSTRACT In sociolinguistics, approaches that use the variables of socioeconomic class and social network have often been thought to be irreconcilable. In this article, we explore the connection between these variables and suggest the outlines of a model that can integrate them in a coherent way. This depends on linking a consensus-based microlevel of network with a conflict-based macrolevel of social class. We suggest interpretations of certain sociolinguistic findings, citing detailed evidence from research in Northern Ireland and Philadelphia, which emphasize the need for acknowledging the importance of looseknit network ties in facilitating linguistic innovations. We then propose that the link between network and class can be made via the notion of weak network ties using the process-based model of the macrolevel suggested by Thomas Hejrup's theory of life-modes. (Sociolinguistics, sociology, quantitative social dialectology, anthropological linguistics) One of the most important contributions of Labov's quantitative paradigm has been to allow us to examine systematically and accountably the relationship between......

Words: 11307 - Pages: 46

Edu-230 Teaching Strategies in Second Language Acquisition for English Language Learners

...Tahra Meshell EDU230 October 10, 2015 Jamie Morris EDU-230 Teaching Strategies in Second Language Acquisition for English Language Learners Scenario 1: An elementary-aged student is an English language learner. The student is comfortable (low affective filter) trying new words and linking words together, but is not pronouncing the words correctly and/or putting words in the correct order (syntax). Development stage of second language acquisition and rationale for your choice: This scenario is an example of developmental stage 3 because it supports the student’s use of short phrases and the frequent grammatical errors that often interfere with the student’s communication. Teaching strategies that can be used to support the student with rationale: The teaching strategies that I would use to support this student would be the strategies that analyze the learner and educate them on their individual character (strategy 1), set up goals and expectations for the learner based on their characteristics (strategy 2), and finally, guide and give materials to the learner to master the language, as the ultimate decision is on them to do it or not (strategy 3). Scenario 2: A high school student is familiar with key words in her secondary language. Further, she is beginning to scaffold words to demonstrate a higher level of comprehension and retention. Development stage of second language acquisition and rationale for your choice: This is an example in the...

Words: 649 - Pages: 3

The Role of Culture in Language Teaching

...Introduction 1. Comparative Teaching Methodologies 1.1 Grammar Translation Method 1.2 Direct Method 1.3 Audio-Lingual Method 1.4 Silent Way 1.5 Total Physical Response (TPR) Community Language Learning (CLL) 1.6 Suggestopedia (Suggestology) 1.7 Communicative Approach 1.8 Natural Approach 1.9 Emotional-semantic method 2. Theoretical aspect of effective methods of teaching 2.1 The bases of teaching a foreign language 2.2 Effective ways and techniques of teaching a foreign language 2.2.1 Constructivist teaching strategies 2.2.2 Communicative Teaching Method 2.2.3 Using project method in teaching a foreign language 2.2.4 The method of debates 2.2.5 Games 2.2.6 Role plays as a method of teaching 2.3 Methodological principles of modern methods of teaching 2.4 Practical aspect of ways of teaching 3. Comparative characteristics of modern techniques of teaching English 3.1 Features of techniques 3.1.1 Communicative method 3.1.2 Project methodology 3.1.3 Intensive method 3.1.4 Activity Based method 3.2 Similarities of methods 3.3 Positive and negative aspects of techniques Conclusion Bibliography Appendix Introduction Language teaching came into its own as a profession in the last century. Central to this process was the emergence of the concept of methods of language teaching. The method concept in language teaching—the notion of a systematic set of teaching practices based on a particular theory of language and language learning—is a powerful......

Words: 23635 - Pages: 95

Foreign Language Teaching

...Before teaching a foreign language one must develop pupils’ habits and skills in hearing, speaking, reading and writing. For developing them the psychology of habit and skills should be taken into account. Effective learning depends on memory, so teacher must find the most useful ways to make pupils remember materials. The pupils should try to fix the material in their memory through numerous repetitions. Among all ways of teaching the language aims are the most important considerations. Generally when the teacher starts to explain materials to pupils, she must know what her pupils want to achieve. It is very important to know why they have chosen particularly this aspect (subject), and what abilities they have. While teaching a foreign language many problems will be met. For choosing methods of foreign language teaching attention should be paid on aims of teaching a foreign language. Each professional has to know all general problems of foreign language teaching. Nowadays foreign languages are taught at schools, nursery-schools and in order educational institutions. And the teacher must know what to teach and how to teach to provide learners with simple and available information. Language is a means of communication between people. It is an ocean of knowledge. Language is used by millions of people every minute. It is used in two ways: For learning a foreign language another important point is how the person’s native language functions. The order important point is that...

Words: 284 - Pages: 2

Benefits of Integrating/Using Technology in Teaching the English Language for Grade-V at Valencia City Central School

...BENEFITS OF INTEGRATING/USING TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE FOR GRADE-V AT VALENCIA CITY CENTRAL SCHOOL Ramer Lloyd A. Espuertas Submitted in the partial fulfillment of requirement for the subject Language Research Irene B. Antonio College of Mindanao Valencia City, Bukidnon   Introduction In a world where we commonly see laptops, tablets, computers or mobile phones as a technology of choice it may serve as an important tool for schools and teachers to create reforms in means of teaching. More and more often there are schools in which technology is used as an instructional tool. The use of technology can help improve and enhance the acquisition of knowledge and skills of students. Also learning technology is essential for students to gain the competency to function well in a 21st century society or the hi-tech society and workforce. We are an evolving technological society and in many ways have become dependent on its use. Thus, the use of technology and teaching students have to use it has become a high priority in many schools. There are studies conducted that talks about the benefits of integrating technology in learning English language. These include the study of Gulek and Demirtas (2005) that focused on Learning with technology: the impact of laptop use on student achievement; Lowther, Strahl, Inan and Bates (2007) that concentrated on Freedom to Learn Program Michigan; Christen (2009) that studied about transforming the......

Words: 666 - Pages: 3

Choose Three Topics from the Languages Review Final Report 2008 and Discuss Their Importance to Language Teaching

...My aim here is to present three of the recommendations made in The Languages Review Final Report , presented in 2008. In doing so I acknowledge that many of the recommendations may have in fact already been actioned, however I will be presenting the report's recommendations as if they are still contemporary and relevant. 1) The first recommendation I would like to advance is from section 3.10 on Transition Coordination. The the proposal of the Training and Development Agency to develop an ages 9-14 training course I suggest would be greatly beneficial in facilitating the transition from Key stage 2 to key stage 3. The important need to do so is of course to harness the evident success of the introduction of MFLs at primary level in order to arrest their decline in uptake for GCSEs. Such a training course is essential to promote the smooth transition from Junior to secondary level by enabling teachers to coordinate activities between feeder schools and the secondary school. Questions about which languages are taught at the schools and be posed and how these can be accommodated. It will be possible to look at whether teaching staff and materials can be shared. And ideas can be discussed such as the possible introduction of a language passport for each student, so that each teacher can easily identify the current linguistic skill levels and of a student, which languages are have been learnt or are already spoken and the be better able to tailor lessons to individual needs. As......

Words: 840 - Pages: 4