Jim Boukis

In: Other Topics

Submitted By asxdtr
Words 902
Pages 4
Modern to post-modern[edit]
From 1899 to 1913, holdings of countries' foreign exchange increased at an annual rate of 10.8%, while holdings of gold increased at an annual rate of 6.3% between 1903 and 1913.[24]
At the time of the closing of the year 1913, nearly half of the world's foreign exchange was conducted using the Pound sterling.[25] The number of foreign banks operating within the boundaries of London increased in the years from 1860 to 1913 from 3 to 71. In 1902 there were altogether two London foreign exchange brokers.[26] In the earliest years of the twentieth century trade was most active in Paris, New York and Berlin, while Britain remained largely uninvolved in trade until 1914. Between 1919 and 1922 the employment of a foreign exchange brokers within London increased to 17, in 1924 there were 40 firms operating for the purposes of exchange.[27] During the 1920s the occurrence of trade in London resembled more the modern manifestation, by 1928 forex trade was integral to the financial functioning of the city. Continental exchange controls, plus other factors, in Europe and Latin America, hampered any attempt at wholesale prosperity from trade for those of 1930's London.[28]
During the 1920s foreign exchange the Kleinwort family were known to be the leaders of the market, Japhets, S,Montagu & Co. and Seligmans as significant participants still warrant recognition.[29] In the year 1945 the nation of Ethiopias' government possessed a foreign exchange surplus.[30]
After WWII[edit]
After WWII, the Bretton Woods Accord was signed allowing currencies to fluctuate within a range of 1% to the currencies par.[31] In Japan the law was changed during 1954 by the Foreign Exchange Bank Law, so, the Bank of Tokyo was to become because of this the centre of foreign exchange by September of that year. Between 1954 and 1959 Japanese law was made to allow the…...

Similar Documents

Jim Crow

...Introduction to Africana Studies | The Life Span of Jim Crow, Start to Finish | Sherman T. Gant | S.Gant 12/3/2009 | It’s hard to define a beginning to slavery in the United States. It is said to have begun in the mid 1600’s. The American Civil War began in 1961 when 11 states seceded from the United States. The North or the Union fought against the constitutionality of the secession and the expansion of slavery. Slavery came to an end when the North won the civil war, along with the passing of the 13 amendment. Although slavery was abolished in 1865, it did not give African Americans equal opportunity for education, employment, or basic human rights. Whites in the South during the late 1870s and early 1880s, established Jim Crow laws. Merriam-Webster’s dictionary defines Jim Crow as the ethnic discrimination especially against blacks by legal enforcement or traditional sanctions. This act, along with racist terrorism and mistreatment downgraded African Americans to a humiliating second class status for decades; until the U.S. Supreme Court started to dismantle Jim Crow laws in the 1950s. This paper will examine the force and the legacy of Jim Crow laws, from the start and finish, and the ongoing effect in today’s world. What was Jim Crow? Following the civil war, Congress passed three amendments to the U.S. Constitution. The thirteenth ended slavery December 18th 1865, the fourteenth banned discrimination July 28, 1868 and the fifteenth gave......

Words: 2194 - Pages: 9

Jim Poss

...Case Study: Jim Poss Jim Poss is the owner of the Seahorse Power Company; a fresh startup specialized in the green energy based on environment friendly methods of power generating. Unfortunately, this choice of cleaner power based industry penalized Jim’s company as a major part of sales is seen lost. Jim accumulated experience and knowledge through many occupied jobs but the significant one was at Solectria, a manufacturer of transportation and energy systems. Opportunity follow up: Jim sent a proposal to Spire Corporation about the solar-powered trash compactors. However, Spire managers were rather interested in the idea to be presented as a marketable business plan. Jim was pursing an MBA program at that time which helped him somehow to achieve the required business plan. After many tries, Jim was unable to present a well established plan to convince Spire executives. They claimed the lack of end user visibility of the product. Jim finally let himself be convinced by wind-based energy and started looking at resources needed by this kind of ventures. Trash industry attractiveness: Jim went then to concentrate on trash industry and he rapidly observed huge waste of labor and energy resources in the traditional processes of garbage collection, transportation. Billions were spent in 2000 and 2001 according to the market study done by Jim. He and Alex were the looking closely to expand this business opportunity to include retail and food......

Words: 408 - Pages: 2

Jim Sinegal

...iography of Jim Sinegal “We want to build a company that will still be here 50 and 60 years from now." This is a quote from the famous CEO Jim Sinegal, who is best known for his benevolent style of management. He is known to offer employees high benefits and rewards and has debunked the myth that retail employers must pay their workers poorly. With a total annual compensation of just $425,000, he contradicts the boardroom notion that CEOs of billion-dollar corporations require pay packets to match1. Under his leadership and guidance, Costco has become the top warehouse-club retailer in the nation, with more than four hundred stores in the United States and abroad1. Jim Sinegal is the CEO and co-founder of Costco Wholesale Corporation. He was born on January 1, 1936 into a Catholic working-class family in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He attended Helix High School in La Mesa, California, where he dreamed of going to medical school. However, due to his mediocre grades, he was advised to attend San Diego Junior College, where he earned an associate's degree in 1955. While at school Jim met his future wife Jan who he would later marry in 1962, together they have three children: Michael, David and Suzanne. Michael is currently head of Costco’s Japanese operations and could be seen as Jim’s replacement sometime in the near future2. Since moving to Seattle in 1983, following the birth of Costco, Jim and Jan have been well known contributors to various community and civic...

Words: 254 - Pages: 2

Jim Poem

...A poem by Jim on his thoughts of the society and his escape. I’m Jim My colour is fairly dim, But that does not mean I’m an outcast, Meet my friend Huck were gunna leave at last, He’s only thirteen, Yeah that’s right he’s still a teen He’s the only one who sees the good in me He’s the only white teen that stood by me since 1883 When slavery was at its worst And most of us would die of thirst Society is not clear, society is not fair Oh my friend oh my Huck You are my future you’re my luck You’re my escape, You’re not my enemy Hurry up Huck we need to get to the island! If I don’t leave now my body is going to be cheapened We were on our way and my heart was full of excite It was like I was going to see life in a different light I’m no longer going to be neither called nor useless nor an idiot Society is not clear, society is not fair An escape to the island is the only answer for us together Or else we will never be happy, never ever! I will make sure I care for you more than your father did Unfortunately I don’t know how longer I’m gonna keep this away from you But your dad is always watching you Watching me from where he asks I don’t want to talk about it Huck “Come on, cover up, good night kid” The food is gonna get cold Let’s just enjoy ourselves while we can and forget about him, because- Society is not clear, society is not fair All I’ve got left now is Huck I must make sure I look after him, he’s a wise boy Not the......

Words: 495 - Pages: 2

Jim Crow

...Jim Crow The term Jim Crow was used as a reference to segregation laws hat came about at the end of the reconstruction and came to an end in 1877 and continued until the 1960's. According to diction dictionary.reference.Jim Crow is defined as a practice or policy of segregating or discriminating against blacks, as in public places, public vehicles, or employment. The term Jim Crow was thought to have originated around 1830 from a white minstrel show performer named Thomas Rice put black material on his face and performed a jig singing “Jump Jim Crow.” The character was created from a crippled, elderly black man singing and dancing. People say that Jim Crow owned a slave that gave inspiration for the act. The skit was incorporated into the act and then became a part of the minstrel scene in America. (1), (2), (3) Thomas Rice was one of the first performers to wear blackface makeup in a song and dance routine that turned out to be a success and took him to places like Louisville to Cincinnati to Pittsburgh to Philadelphia and to New York in 1832. Jim Crow was later a stock character in minstrel shows with Jim Dandy and Zip Coon. His blackface characters were Sambos, Coons, and Dandies. White audiences were open to portrayals of blacks as singing, dancing, grinning fools. Around 1838, the term "Jim Crow" was being used to refer to blacks, althought not to be as offensive as nigger, but close to coon or darkie. Minstrel shows clearly helped the spread of Jim Crow as...

Words: 1303 - Pages: 6

Jim Sinegal

...Miami Dade College Jim Sinegal Kenny Fountain MAN3240 Organizational Behavior Professor Jose Rios December 11, 2013 Jim Sinegal was born January 1, 1936 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He earned his AA at San Diego City College and his BA at San Diego State University. Jim Sinegal started out as a bagger at FedMart and worked his way up the ladder. He became Vice-President of Merchandising and Operations at FedMart. He also held several executive positions within other companies up until 1983. Having held several executive positions, what Jim Sinegal is most known for is that in 1983 he co-founded Costco and was the president and CEO until he retired in January 2012. As CEO, Jim Sinegal believed in taking care of his employees. He also believed in treating his customers just as good as he did his employees. It was said that he was far more interested in keeping them happy rather than the shareholders. In an interview published in the Houston Chronicle, Sinegal stated, “We want to build a company that will still be here fifty and sixty years from now.” His beliefs were if you treat the employees and the customers right, profits will follow. He had a six-part strategy that helped Costco get to where they are today: Sell a limited number of items (not have so many different brands of the same item, he thought it minimizes purchasing), rely on high volume, pay workers well, have customers pay for membership, aim for high......

Words: 942 - Pages: 4

Jim Crow

...Michelle Alexander is a highly celebrated civil rights lawyer, advocate, and legal scholar. In her book, The New Jim Crow: Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness, Alexander discusses the legal systems that seem to be doing their jobs perfectly well but have in fact just replaced one racial caste system with a new one. In this book, Michelle focuses on racial problems in the past as well as the present and argues that the problems are basically the same, if not worse. Alexander’s research was very thorough and motivating to read. She paints a dreadful picture of the modern Jim Crow and how it functions in the world we live in. She uses images that make you cringe but at the same time persuades you that it certainly all true. In her book, Alexander explains that since the Jim Crow laws that legalized segregation have ended, new forms of a racial caste system have come into play.  Mass incarceration aggressively targets black men in particular. There are now more African American adults under penal control today (prison, probation, parole) than were enslaved in 1850. This has happened during a time when crime rates have dropped, and not in spite of affirmative action or colorblindness but because of them. What drives the mass incarceration of blacks is the War on Drugs launched by Ronald Reagan in 1982 and supported by almost every politician since. No one wants to give the slightest appearance of being "soft on crime."            Alexander identifies many causes of our......

Words: 1320 - Pages: 6

Case2 Jim

...Jim Wells, vice-president for manufacturing of the Northern Airplane Company, is exasperated. His walk through the company’s most important plant this morning has left him in a foul mood. However, he now can vent his temper at Jerry Carstairs, the plant’s production manager, who has just been summoned to Jim’s office. “Jerry, I just got back from walking through the plant and I am very upset.” “What is the problem, Jim?” “Well, you know how much I have been emphasizing the need to cut down on our in-process inventory.” “Yes, we’ve been working hard on that,” responds Jerry. “Well, not hard enough!” Jim raises his voice even higher. “Do you know what I found by the presses?” “No.” “Five metal sheets still wait to be formed into wing sections. And then, right next door at the inspection station, 13 wing sections! The inspector was inspecting one of them, but the other 12 were just sitting there. You know we have a couple hundred thousand dollars tied up in each of those wing sections. So between the presses and the inspection station, we have a few million bucks worth of terribly expensive metal just sitting there. We can’t have that!” The chagrined Jerry Carstairs tries to respond. “Yes, Jim, I am well aware that the inspection station is a bottleneck. It usually isn’t nearly as bad as you found it this morning, but is a bottleneck. Much less so for the presses. You really caught us on a bad morning.” “I sure hope so,” retorts Jim, “but you need to prevent anything......

Words: 403 - Pages: 2

Jim Crow and the New Jim Crow

...After the collapse of Jim Crow, especially seeing the great success experienced by some African Americans, we start to feel the system of racial caste is officially dead and buried. However, that is just an illusion. Behind the rhetoric of institutionalized equity, our criminal justice system is working as the new Jim Crow preventing blacks from participating in our electoral democracy. While Constitutional amendments guaranteed African Americans "equal protection of the laws" and the right to vote, through a web of laws, regulations, and informal rules, all of which are powerfully reinforced by social stigma, they are confined to the margins of mainstream society and denied access to the mainstream economy. During the Reconstruction Era, whites felt threatened and outraged as African Americans were exposed to more social and economic opportunities and started to obtain political power. To turn the table and regain all the black labors they had for free for centuries, southern states drastically increased the penalties for minor offenses. Southern conservatives founded Ku Klux Klan, which fought a terrorist campaign against Reconstruction governments and local leaders, complete with bombings, lynchings, and mob violence. I can never forget those horrible pictures in which some white onlookers were smiling or laughing with the blacks burning or hung on the tree in the background. How sick they had to be to enjoy watching another human being tortured and murdered?......

Words: 693 - Pages: 3

Jim Crow

...Jim crow, segregation laws kept the blacks in the subordinate position back nineteen century. Not a person just a word but with the power to kept black people so far from whites. It was frustrating and cynical back them because they did not have the freedom to use the same bathroom as whites. This law was supposed to help them and their culture. Instead, they were having a really bad time with not having the same right as others people. Going to different schools, drinking from different fount water it was enough humiliation. But it did not end right there, they did not even have the same right to vote or to hold public office. Before all that when the construction starts the things were so much easy. They increased the number of black votes but not for so long the next year that number decreased with a notable change. Putting myself in the situation to think about the entire thing that they have to face it, it is just inexplicable. The only thing that those people did wrong was born with a different skin color and they instantly were different as a person and as a human. While I was reading the Jim Crow Laws, I inquired that Black American were doing or operating largely outside the political arena. In another hand, African Americans used the publicity, music, literature and religion to show their feeling. A good example, a lot black singers are singing about how hard they live. This brief example of song singing by a blues black singer: "It was only two minutes and......

Words: 607 - Pages: 3

Jim Sinegal

...Jim Sinegal, born January 1, 1936, was a son of a steelworker from Pittsburgh, Pennsylavaina. He was raised in a working –class Catholic household that belived a medical career was in his future. When he was 17 years old he began attending San Diego State University after struggling thru high school. Many advisors believed he would be better suited for the demands of a junior college. Jim Sinegal, by his own admission, lacked both motivation and the ability to concentrate. In a rescent interview, he admits returning Korean War Veterans provided mentorship and most importantly how they carried themselves with purpose and maturity. Jim said” I regained my focus and paid attention, because deep down I knew education was important.”(1) During this time , Jim Sinegal, applied and was hired for his first job at a Fed-Mart located in Sol Price, Calif. His first job was tasked with unloading mattresses as they arrived at the loading dock.” It wasn’t great, but I was was getting a buck and a quarter an hour that made it exciting” he says.(1) This is were Sinegal discovered his passion for retail and was promoted to store manager and later would become executive vice president of the chain. The first traits that were evident was loyalty and being known as a hard worker. After 30 years with Fed-Mart, Jim Sinegal decided a change was needed to remain fresh. Sinegal founded Costco with Jeff Brotman in 1983 and seven years later combined with price club that has become a leader in...

Words: 501 - Pages: 3

Uncle Jim

...Dear Uncle Jim, Another great day here in Erie, PA over a foot of snow…wishing I was down South right now or Down in Dallas to be at the Ohio State game on Monday. Although our class today was 5 hours, it went by surprisingly quick and we did a lot of useful activities. I’m a finance major and going back over excel is great because I’m a little rusty with it. Excel is going to be a part of me for the rest of my life so it’s always good going over it again. Today we did group projects on the whole population of the world and we did coordinates of Vermont which was very fun. We went over the latitudes and longitudes which was a good review because I haven’t taken a science class in a while so it’s always good to review things. We then learned what contour lines are. They connect the same level of elevations in a region such as Vermont. In our lab we had to connect the contours in that area. Vermont is an area of a lot of mountains so there are a lot of high elevations. It was very interesting connecting the contours of this region and I can’t wait to finish that project. We had to calculate all of the latitudes and longitudes of the areas and it was another chance to use excel to calculate those. Overall it was another great day here besides the weather. I’m enjoying my time back here with my friends, but I always love being home with my friends there. I was going to go home this weekend to go to the Ohio State vs. Penn State wrestling match on Sunday, but the weather is......

Words: 312 - Pages: 2

Jim Black

...Jim Black is a sales representative for Noram Canada Ltd in Toronto, Ontario. There were three stressors in Jim's life, the prolong recession, pressure to increase sales, and the possibility of being laid off. These stressors as a result developed strain for Jim in the form of headaches, sleep disturbances, moodiness, job dissatisfaction, lower job performance, and burnout. Jim was trying to increase his sales by offering discounts and arranging next day delivery to some of his customers. On the other hand, by doing this he lowered his commission and postponed delivery to other customers. Jim demonstrated a lack of good time management skills when he was late for an appointment and had to take paperwork home to complete it. This also created a strain in his family life. Jim was experiencing an interpersonal stressor with his wife to secure a management position with a stable salary and less travel, but he did not want to sit at a desk all day. In addition, he had an interpersonal stressor with senior management to be more productive. Since the economy was in recession, Jim had the opportunity to increase his sales by persuading the competitor's clients to switch to his company. Another opportunity was the possibility of obtaining a management position if a competitor purchased Noram Canada. The threats that developed were the competition was eager to secure new clients, the possibility of being fired if sales did not increase, and laid-off if Noram Canada was......

Words: 641 - Pages: 3

Jim Jones

...Peoples Temple Jim jones had skills to be a preacher. As a boy Jones would explore every church in his hometown, and involving himself in each ritual before he moving on to the next church. He would stand before anyone and start to preach with doing that he became a shock to others. After high school Jim had an interest in medicine, he took an up a position of working as a hospital orderly. Were he soon met his wife who stood by his side of Jim Jones attending the Methodist Church soon after establish finding his own church name The Peoples Temple. Jim Jones seek for other sources to gain economic empowerment. Jones was introduced to leader of the name Father Divine. There was a source that became major for Jim becoming unhappy with the segregation with in churches. Jim was unattached with the idea of blacks and whites not being able to come together. Him and his wife brought attention among themselves when they adopted a part Native American child. He would preach about topics most people would avoid far as, racial equality and integration. Jones was determining that hos church participated in the progressing civil rights movement. Jim Jones desegregated in hospital, local businesses restaurants and movie theaters. Soon people who disagreed with Jones actions became to feel threatened and sought out to intimidate Jones. He travelled to Brazil with intentions of relocating his Temples congregation. He soon moved his multi-racial church to Northern California. Jim Jones......

Words: 401 - Pages: 2

Jim Crow

...Jim Crow Jim Crow’s laws were enacted between 1876 and 1965. These laws were put in place to mandate racial segregation. This meant that blacks did not have the same rights and privileges to use public areas as whites did. The main idea behind the Jim Crow laws was "separate but equal". It was a legal way to continue the discrimination against the African Americans in the southern states. (The rise and fall of Jim crow2010) You can say that the effect of these laws developed two different societies in the US. The African Americans were deprived from the same conditions and other governmental services the white people received. It turned out that the races were separated in many aspects: education, welfare, health, culture etc. They even deprived them of some civil rights they own being citizens like voting. Until 1964 these laws were governed and you can say helped maintain the gap between the races(Cope 2010). Booker T Washington believed that equality could be achieved through vocational education. Basically what he believed was the blacks would be accepted by the whites if they showed them they could be as literate and socially acceptable as they were. Instead of forcing and protesting for equal rights he urged blacks to focus on education and their farming and work ethics. ("Booker T Washington", 2012) WEB Dubois believed in full political, civil and social rights for African Americans in 1903, Du Bois published The Souls of Black Folk. The Souls of Black Folk is......

Words: 817 - Pages: 4