International Bank

In: Business and Management

Submitted By jiyogur
Words 1771
Pages 8
第Ⅲ部 主要 金融이슈 129

第 3 章 國內銀行의 海外進出 戰略 : 중국을 중심으로
徐 丙 昊

1. 국내은행의 해외진출 필요성

최근 국내의 은행산업은 저성장과 부동산시장에 대한 건전성 규제 강화로 자금운용 상 제약이 커지고 있으며, 경쟁 심화로 순이자마진이 하락하는 등 유기적 성장(organic growth)의 한계에 도달하고 있다. 게다가 금융구조조정 이후 중소기업 및 가계에 대한 새로운 대출수요가 대부분 충족되면서 여신시장은 포화상태에 도달하고 있다. 물론 중소기업대출의 확대와 유가증권관련 평가이익의 증가 등으로 최근 높은 당기순이익을 유지하고는 있으나, 은행간 및 타 금융권과의 경쟁심화로 ROE와 총이 익률 등 수익성지표들이 하락하는 모습도 함께 나타나고 있다. 또한, 향후 자본시장

국내은행 순이자마진 추이
(단위 : %)
2.81 2.80 2.66

2.59 2.50 2.50 2.40

2.62

04Q4

05Q1

05Q2

05Q3

05Q4

06Q1

06Q2

06Q3

자료 : 금융감독원,『은행경영통계』 각 호 및 정례브리핑자료

130 金融動向 / 2007년 여름

국내은행의 총이익률 추이
(단위 : %)

2. 98

2. 99

2. 98

2. 98 2. 92 2. 86 2. 82

2005. Q2

2005. Q3

2005. Q4

2006. Q1

2006. Q2

2006. Q3

2006. Q4

주 : 총이익률=총이익(이자+비이자이익)/실질총자산 자료 : 금융감독원

요구불예금과 CMA증가율 추이
(단위 : %)

41.4

22.2 20.9 11.3 6.7 5.5 -0.7 -9.3 10.3

3.0

2002

2003

2004 요구불예금 증가율

2005 CMA증가율

2006

주 : 1) CMA는 각 회계 연도(3월말) 기준이며, 2006년은 12월말기준임. 2) CMA는 종합금융회사, 증권사의 CMA 수탁금 기준임. 자료 : 금융감독원

第Ⅲ部 主要 金融이슈 131

통합법에 기초하여 자본시장 발전이 예상됨에 따라 은행들의 미래 수익성은 더욱 불투명해질 것으로 보인다. 따라서 국내은행의 해외진출은 미래의 안정적 수익기반 마련을 위해 요구되는 현안이다. 국제화의 성패는 중장기적 비전의 타당성과 단기적 전략의 효율성에 의해 좌우 된다. 해외진출의 역사만 100년이 넘는 Citigroup과 HSBC의 사례에서 보듯이 해외 진출을 통한 국제화는 하루아침에 이루어지지 않으므로 중장기적 비전을 가지고 국제화 달성을 위한 구체적 모델을 세워야 한다. 본고는 국제화의 다양한 패턴을 설명하고, 각 패턴의 장단점을 고려하여 우리나라 은행들에 가장 적합한 국제화 모델을 찾아봄과 동시에 최우선 해외진출 대상 중 하나로 꼽히는 중국시장의 진출 전략에 대해 살펴보고자 한다.

선진은행의 국제화 패턴

132 金融動向 / 2007년 여름

2. 국제화의 패턴과 영업형태
1) 국제화의 패턴

해외은행의 국제화 패턴은 의 횡축에서 보듯이 크게 단기 지역맹주형, 중기 센터집중형, 장기 광역형(global player) 등으로 구분할 수 있다. 단기 지역맹주 형은 Nordea은행이 대표적인데, 2000년 스웨덴의 MeritaNordbanken은행과 덴마크 의 Unidanmark은행의 합병을 통해 설립되었으며 최대주주는 스웨덴 정부이다. 이 은행은 전체 영업이익의 75.7%를 해외에서 올리고 있으며, 발틱해 연안의 에스토 니아, 라트비아, 리투아니아, 폴란드는 물론 러시아까지 진출하고 있다. Nordea가 북유럽에서 지역맹주로 등극한 데에는 구조조정을 위한 국경간 인수․ 합병이 중요한 역할을 하였다. Nordea는…...

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