Internal Accounting Control

In: Business and Management

Submitted By norazamme
Words 5101
Pages 21
Asia-Pacific Development Journal

Vol. 8, No. 1, June 2001

ISSUES IN TAX REFORMS
Azizul Islam*

This paper seeks to describe the principles that have guided recent tax reforms in Asian developing countries. It critically examines the purported rationale underlying these reforms and raises some issues connected with these reforms. The paper first discusses the new direction of the perceived role of taxation as a macroeconomic tool and the principles which have formed the basis of recent tax reforms. It then analyses the implications of the application of these principles for the level and structure of taxes. It concludes with a summary of the key issues raised in the paper.

Developing countries implemented an array of major economic reforms during the 1980s and the 1990s. Tax reforms formed an integral part of these reforms. The impetus for tax reforms was provided by a number of domestic and external factors (ADB, 1993). The last two decades were marked by a fundamental reassessment in developing countries of the role of the Government in economic development. There was a discernible shift in favour of assigning a greater role to the private sector, including foreign enterprises. This required re-examination of the structure of tax systems. Faced with declining external assistance, many Governments came under pressure to reduce budgetary deficits in the interest of macroeconomic stability. Multilateral development agencies required deficit reduction as a precondition for development assistance. There has hardly been an adjustment programme which did not include reform of the tax system and the containment of public expenditure as central objectives. Among other factors which motivated tax reforms was the desire to maintain or enhance international competitiveness as more and more developing countries sought to participate in the process of globalization.…...

Similar Documents

Internal Controls

...against fraud and mitigate risk, Internal Controls must be established and adhered to. Internal controls are the policies, procedures and processes implemented by a company to create dependability and consistency in its accounting records, standardize operational efficiency, and comply with governmental standards. The following paper introduces governmental regulations, how to begin complying with them and further steps to take to increase internal controls. (Kimmel, Weygandt, & Kieso, 2009, p. 326)   Evaluation and Recommendation Objective: To evaluate current internal controls adhered to by LJB Company and recommend new internal controls to satisfy mandated governmental requirements recognized by all publicly traded companies in the United States. Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002 LJB Company is preparing to become a publicly traded company in the near future. In order to do so, there are governmental conditions that must be accomplished. Of all, the requirements of most importance are those stated in the Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX). Confirmed in SOX, all corporations publicly traded in the United States must maintain sufficient internal control systems that protect a company’s assets from fraud and enhance truthfulness and dependable accounting processes and are certified by external assessors. (Kimmel, Weygandt, & Kieso, 2009, p. 327) There are 5 principal elements in an acceptable internal control system. They are: 1. Control the organization’s......

Words: 1291 - Pages: 6

Internal Controls

...Internal Controls Megan Mitchell March 14, 2013 XACC/280 Paul Gomez Internal Controls 2 In order to maintain a company’s security and accuracy, a company will take all related measures and measures adopted within an organization in the form of internal controls. Internal controls are an essential way to maintain conformity with other company’s, to safeguard assets from employee theft, robbery and unauthorized use, and enhance accuracy and reliability of it’s accounting records (Weygandt, Kimmel, & Kieso, 2008). Since major company’s such as WorldCom and Enron were able to commit such extreme measures of fraud, in 2002, Serbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) was passed by congress to ensure company’s enacted internal controls and required them to maintain an adequate system of internal controls (Weygandt, Kimmel, & Kieso, 2008). The SOX requires that all companies must develop sound principles of control over financial reporting, continually verify that the controls are working, and an independent auditor must attest to the level of internal controls. There should be physical, mechanical, and electronic controls so that when jobs are segregated, there are more than one opportunity for a final verification of accuracy (Weygandt, Kimmel, & Kieso, 2008). In years prior to the SOX, the heads of companies did not pay very close attention to the many individual jobs that were necessary to maintain an accurate accounting system. When a......

Words: 811 - Pages: 4

Internal Controls

...MEMO To: Andrey Simonov From: Vivian Jeansonne Subject: Internal Controls and the Auditing of Internal Controls Date: March 19, 2013 _________________________________________________ The Internal Control—Integrated Framework, published by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO), defines internal control as “a process, effected by an entity’s board of directors, management and other personnel, designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the achievement of objectives in the effectiveness and efficiency of operations, reliability of financial reporting, and compliance with applicable laws and regulations” (Douglas). Internal controls are a very important aspect of a business which involves people at every level of an organization working together to achieve the same objectives. The three categories stated above address the different needs of a company and allow a specific focus in order for these needs to be met. The most important internal control to implement is over financial reporting. This involves preparing the financial statements so that they are presented fairly and accurately based on generally accepted accounting principles and any other financial reporting framework used by management (Landes & Ratcliffe). Fair presentation is when the accounting principles chosen by management have general acceptance and are appropriate in the circumstances. Financial statements must also reflect underlying......

Words: 1334 - Pages: 6

Internal Controls

...Internal Controls Caryn Baret 3/13/2013 Jana Howie Internal Controls 3 Internal Controls Internal controls are safeguards that a company uses to protect their financial information. Their safeguards can be universally accepted or can be unique to one company. Internal controls center around the company's accounting information system, which is the primary function used for moving financial information around a company. Internal controls help many companies to direct, monitor, and measure the effectiveness of their accounting operations. Internal controls will often focus on limiting the abuse or fraud that may be made by employees. They also provide owners and managers with reasonable assurance that all the financial statements are done right, correct and on a timely manner. Owners and managers may use the internal controls to limit the number of people who can have access to the company's information systems. The will help limit the opportunity for any abuse on this information. The owners, managers, and supervisors may take the role when enforcing the internal controls, to keep them in charge of the information system. Internal controls are usually at the organizational and transaction level of the company’s information systems. Organizational level ensures the company will follow all the standards, law and......

Words: 871 - Pages: 4

Internal Controls

...Internal Controls Internal controls are a necessary part of any company. They are comprised of all the methods and measures used by a company to one of two things. (Wetland, Kieso, & Kimmel, 2003,) They either safeguard a companies assets from things such as theft or unauthorized use, or they help to enhance the accuracy and dependability of a companies accounts and records. This second use helps to ensure that fewer errors are made wither intentional or unintentional. Without internal controls, there would be a lot of room for mistakes that could potentially destroy a company. For example, accounts could be stolen from and manipulated or a simple calculation could be missed, upsetting the entire balance of the accounts. These internal controls help to ensure that these things do not happen. In 2002, congress passed the Sarbanes-Oxley act due to the rising amount of corporate scandals in the previous years. This act is often said to be one of the most important acts passed in decades because it allows companies to focus more on internal controls and give them more attention. The act is often calls SOX for short and it puts more pressure on the executives and directors to ensure that their internal controls are reliable and are working to the best of their ability. The act requires companies to have internal controls specifically for financial accounting including auditors and frequent assessments. This act also established the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board......

Words: 1001 - Pages: 5

Internal Controls

...Internal Controls Kleber G. Ceron August 4, 2013 University of Phoenix Axia College Ceron 1 Internal controls serve the purpose of regulating a company’s financial structure by securing the most effective and efficient methods of operation, the utmost accuracy in financial reporting, and the consistent adherence to all pertinent laws and regulations both federal and state, and/or local, in some circumstances. These internal controls protect assets against unauthorized use, acquisition, and disposal. A proper and reliable system of internal controls helps increase accuracy by minimizing the possible miscalculations in accounting records. As a second primary goal, they also serve as pre-emptive measures against fraud, embezzlement, and theft by workers with access to financial records within the company, vendors, and the company’s clients. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 had a major impact on internal controls. It was enacted after major scandal was uncovered by corporate giants such as Enron, Tyco International, and WorldCom amongst others. These scandals cost investors billions of dollars after the involved companies’ share prices fell, put thousands of people out of work, and greatly demoralized the nation’s trust in the securities market. The SOX act places the responsibility of certifying the accuracy of financial information directly on shoulders of the individual members of the top executive branch and the management of a company. Any findings of fraud,......

Words: 1049 - Pages: 5

Internal Control

...Internal Control and Risk Evaluation Lola Knaff ACC 542 April 22, 2013 Anita Rodriguez Internal Control and Risk Evaluation The internal control and risk evaluation aspect of accounting is crucial to protect the business’ assets and resources. In addition, for publically traded companies it is mandatory for there to be internal control procedures. “Internal control describes the policies, plans, and procedures implemented by a firm to protect its assets” (Bagranoff, 2008, p. 240). The necessary procedures are in place to ensure the validity and efficiency of the data that the users input into the Accounting Information Software (AIS). The flowcharts reveal the pattern for the accounts receivable, accounts payable, inventory process, and payroll processes. Each process will generate many levels of risk factors that can be reduced by several internal control procedures. According to Hunton, Bryant, and Bagranoff (2004), the assessment of IT risks are by the managers and auditors to determine how to apply resources (p. 51). The cost-benefit analysis is crucial to ensure that the cost of the internal control to reduce the risk does not increase the monetary value of the control. The purpose of the internal control application is to create a smooth operating procedure that does not deter effectiveness and efficiency of the data. Along with the AIS internal controls, there are other controls that will assist in creating a trustworthy working environment...

Words: 1131 - Pages: 5

Internal Controls

...Internal Controls XACC280 Internal Controls Internal controls are implemented for protection. There are two goals that are important aspects of internal controls to keep the company protected. Assuring that the company’s assets are protected is one goal of internal controls. Some examples would be: stealing, embezzlement, and misrepresentation. The next reason that internal controls are implemented would be to make sure all accounting documentation/records are being kept in the appropriate way. This is to make sure careless mistakes are not being made and to address them if they are. “The Sarbanes-Oxley Act came into force in July 2002 and introduced major changes to the regulation of corporate governance and financial practice. It is named after Senator Paul Sarbanes and Representative Michael Oxley, who were its main architects, and it set a number of non-negotiable deadlines for compliance. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act is arranged into eleven 'titles'. As far as compliance is concerned, the most important sections within these eleven titles are usually considered to be 302, 401, 404, 409, 802 and 906. An over-arching public company accounting board was also established by the act, which was introduced amidst a host of publicity” (2003). When the act was put into motion, its purpose was to address flaws in internal controls as they were. Its main implementation was to assure that the means a company uses to compile develop, and display financial information meets the......

Words: 886 - Pages: 4

Internal Control

...SEPTEMBER 30, 2014 ACC504 INTERNAL CONTROL DR. MICHAEL ABNER PREPARED BY NELLY OYANE Table of Contents Introduction I. Internal Control Requirements II. What the Company is Doing Correct III. What the Company is Doing Incorrect Conclusion References Introduction LBJ Company is presently conducting a decision to go public or not and with that they will also be familiar with their internal controls inside their systems, particularly with regard to Accounting and Human Resources and the way it will affect them and their workers and of course the way they operate. There have been some encouraging and bad issues arise regarding their internal controls. Nevertheless, LBJ Company needs to be recognized for what they are doing right, but must also need to address matters that are harmfully affecting them and their business and will remain to damagingly impact them if they choose to go public, which will negatively drive down the cost of their shares etc. This case study will examine these matters and make recommendations for what LBJ Company can do to strengthen their internal controls. I. Internal Controls Requirements Inform the President of any new internal control requirements if the company decides to go public. Internal controls are mechanisms, policies and procedures used to decrease and control operational risk. In order to prevent employees from committing...

Words: 1458 - Pages: 6

Internal Controls Accounting

...Internal Controls Essay Carole Crews Accounting 1010 section 6 Let’s first talk about what “internal control” means. It is a process that helps to protect the assets of a company whether that asset be money, equipment, or merchandise. What are the objectives of internal controls? • Safeguard assets (accounting) such as cash or merchandise from loss or theft • Compliance (administrative) of laws and regulations • Accomplishment of goals (internal) of sales, profits • Reliability and integrity of data (accounting) • Economics (administrative) The two most important are the accounting controls There are five areas of internal control: • Control environment • Risk Assessment • Control activities • Information and communication • Monitoring A system of internal control relies on the people who implement it. Human error, or purposeful collusion and a failure to recognize changing conditions can all lead to a system failure. Examples of internal controls 1. Separation of duties For any asset or any transaction you should separate the following jobs: Custodian…Those who have actual physical or financial control of the asset or transaction. For example anyone allowed to write checks should not have access to the journal books. People who have access to cash should be specifically designated and their number limited. If they have access to cash, the employee should be bonded. Recordkeeper… The person or......

Words: 1287 - Pages: 6

Accounting Internal Control Interview

...Famima!! Internal Control When looking for a quick drink or fast meal, it is sometimes very troublesome to have to drive to a market and wait in potentially long checkout lines. This sparked the idea for a smaller store that only carries the most frequently bought items for the customer’s convenience. Nicknamed convenience stores for very obvious reasons, these little establishments exist all over the world and carry just about any little thing you might need at a very local distance. Inventory differs largely based on location and ownership, but these stores will carry everything from water to groceries and even motor oil. In Japan, most convenience stores are smaller and family owned with many of the locals nicknaming them “family marts.” One lucky owner managed to make enough money to open several stores and created a franchinse named Famima!!, a contraction of the family mart nickname. Through smart investing and marketing, he was able to turn his tiny convenience store into a corporation and business. Today Famima!! has extended its reach into the United States and offers an alternative to the well-known and dominant 7-11’s and Circle K’s. The Famima!! stores currently serve the greater Los Angeles area and one of the stores has even appeared in the 2010 movie Inception by Christopher Nolan. Today I will be meeting with Kevin Chan, the Los Angeles District Manager and interviewing him about the internal control policies Famima!! Co. has in place. Name, Title and......

Words: 1507 - Pages: 7

Accounting and Internal Control

...ACCOUNTING AND INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEM (ISA 400) Definitions Accounting systems Refers to the systems and procedures that management has put in place to ensure that the company maintains proper books of accounts. The auditor should ascertain the client’s system of recording and processing transactions and assess its adequacy as a basis for the preparation of financial statements. An accounting system provides for the orderly assembly of accounting information and appropriate analysis to facilitate the preparation of financial statements. The management of an organisation requires complete and accurate accounting and other records to assist in: a) Controlling the business b) Safeguarding the assets c) Preparation of the financial statements d) Complying with legislation Internal controls If the auditor wishes to place reliance on any internal controls he should ascertain and evaluate those controls and perform compliance tests on their operation. If the clients system is evaluating as being effective, the auditor can rely on these controls and reduce the level of detailed substantive work. Definition An internal control systems consists of all the policies and procedures (internal controls) adopted by management of an entity to assist in achieving management’s objective of ensuring, as far as practicable the orderly and efficient conduct of its business, including adherence to management policies, safeguarding of assets, the prevention and detection of fraud and...

Words: 3769 - Pages: 16

Schematic Evaluation of Internal Accounting Control System

...EURIDIS Research Monograph SCHEMATIC EVALUATION OF INTERNAL ACCOUNTING CONTROL SYSTEMS Kuo-Tay Chen* and Ronald M. Lee# * Department of Management Purdue University at Calumet Hammond, IN 46323 U.S.A. chenk@pucal.bitnet # Erasmus University Research Institute for Decision and Information Systems (EURIDIS) Erasmus University Rotterdam The Netherlands rlee@fac.fbk.eur.nl ERASMUS UNIVERSITY RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR DECISION AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS Schematic Evaluation of Internal Accounting Control Systems by Kuo-Tay Chen and Ronald M. Lee Monograph No. RM-1992-08-1 (August 11, 1992) EURIDIS Research Monograph Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands © Kuo-Tay Chen and Ronald M. Lee Permission to copy this monograph without fee is granted provided that (1) the copies are not distributed for the direct commercial purpose and (2) this copyright page including the copyright notice, the EURIDIS monograph number, and date appear. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION ...................................... 1 1.1 BACKGROUND .......................................... 1 1.2 MOTIVATION ............................................. 3 1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY .......................... 4 1.4 ISSUES OF INTEREST .................................. 6 1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY................................. 7 1.6 CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY .................. 8 CHAPTER 2. DECISION AIDS RESEARCH FOR INTERNAL CONTROL EVALUATION......

Words: 32893 - Pages: 132

Internal Controls

...CASE STUDY #2 INTERNAL CONTROLS: WILLIAMS OIL SERVICES SCOTT SALES SERVICES HUMAN RESOURCE ASSISTANT ACCT FIN: MANAGERIAL USE, ANALYSIS PROFESSOR JENNIFER COLEMAN February 7, 2016 Naomi M. Duncan INTRODUCTION Every business has a need for (and should be mandated to implement) Internal Controls. From a mom and pop storefront to a global corporation, fraud and errors (unfortunately rears its ugly head). As defined in businessdictionary.com, Internal Control is a “systematic measure instituted by an organization to conduct its business in an orderly and efficient manner, safeguard its assets and resources, deter and detect errors, fraud and theft, ensure accuracy and completeness of its accounting data, produce reliable and timely financial and management information and ensure adherence to its policies and plans.” Internal Controls are important in the strength of any business, because it is the end result of the bottom line….PROFIT! In order to succeed, we will show how each situation has a need for compliance to run orderly, the difference in how the President currently guards his checks and the correct procedure, how easy it is steal and have errors (if there is no separation of duties) and how important it is to be accurate and complete in your data and financial reports. In this project, we will discuss the five (5) objectives of Internal Controls. It will reflect how each situation has need of either (1) proper separation of duties, (2)......

Words: 1509 - Pages: 7

Internal Control

...2011 Internal Controls Internal Controls are certain procedures that are put into place to help control the money in a business and keep track of all of the accounting, assigning different people within the workplace to keep track of things so everything turns out right in the end. The two primary goals to primary controls are to protect a company's assests and to keep all records within the business accurate and reliable. By following particular procedures wih the Sabarnes-Oxley Act this helps create a formalized standard list for all companies to follow to make sure that internal controls are being watched over closely. By contiunually making sure the controls are working and sending in outside auditors this helps with internal controls and with safeguarding a companies assets which all came from the Sabarnes-Oxley Act of 2002. Many corporations follow the Sabarnes-Oxley Act and some will not even do business with someone who does not followit because of how much they believe in it. If a company were to announce any deficiencies in internal controls they could definately see a fall in the price of stock because it could be a huge sign that something fishy is going on within the company and the accounting field. If something shows up that raises any eyebrows than people will back off of investing within the company just in case someone within the company has done something scandalous and to protect themselves. By remaining deficient in internal controls......

Words: 753 - Pages: 4