Hk Banking System

In: Business and Management

Submitted By ngho1234
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介紹香港現行的金融監管機制,並說明其在香港金融發展中擔當的角色.

簡報重點:
有關課題的背景
現行的運作方式怎麼樣?
現行模式著重哪方面?
現行模式對香港和中國的經濟發展起了什麼作用?
有沒有可以進一步改進的地方?

• 香港金融管理局的有關背景
• 有關香港現行的金融監管機制的背景與其運作方式
• 金融監管機制在香港金融發展中擔當的角色
• 金融監管機制對香港和中國的經濟發展起了什麼作用
• 現行金融監管機制可改進的地方

一、香港金融监管现行机制有漏洞 现时,香港金融业市场采用的监管模式,是由不同监管机构管理不同职能及机构,例如保监处监督保险业、金融管理局监察金融机构(如银行及存款公司)、香港交易所监管上市公司以及证监会监管投资产品。这种模式往往衍生出灰色地带,在监管上造成不能避免的难处。 例如,雷曼迷你债券的苦主购买的产品是经由证监会批核上市,但购买的渠道却是透过银行。对于监管责任归属,金管局与证监会各有不同看法。因此,迷债苦主除了与银行交涉,还要奔波金管局与证监会之间,寻找主持公道的仲裁机构。
三、现有的监管体系
1、目标监管“双峰模式” 目前,国际上最接近“双峰模型”的金融监管是澳大利亚和荷兰。澳大利亚已成立了两个跨部门的监管机构:针对金融领域系统性风险进行审慎监管的“金融稳定委员会”和针对金融机构商业行为规范进行监管的“消费者保护委员会”。并非由于危机或者失败,而是要金融更加自由化和现代化—在提供高质量服务的同时具有高效率。澳大利亚的金融监管改革是系统的、有计划的和互动的。改革并不是由于危机或者失败,而部分是由于政策制定者希望金融更加自由化、更加现代化,从而增强其效率和国际竞争力。澳大利亚的改革以“回归根本”而闻名,主要是努力为金融法规建立清晰的概念基础。改革的结果并不是实现全方位的大监管,而是建立一个以目标为基础的体系。 第二个跨部门监管机构是澳大利亚证券投资委员会(AustralianSecurities Investment Commission,简称ASIC),它除了拥有其前身在证券监管领域的职责以外,还承担消费者保护和维持市场诚信的职责,但不承担审慎监管职责。关于所有公司和证券相关活动的商业行为、披露要求、市场行为和解决争端的职责集中于ASIC 手中,这种安排旨在优化相关监管规定,从而实现不同产品和服务之间的竞争中性、透明性和可比性。为使其监管决策不会对竞争设置不合理障碍,ASIC 必须与主管竞争的当局,澳大利亚竞争和消费者委员会密切合作。 2、英国:经典单一监管机构 英国自新千年伊始对金融监管体制实行了全面改革,建立了单一的金融监管机构。、从1997年始,英国对其金融监管体制进行了全面改革,将其银行监管的职责将转移到一个单一的监管机构,英格兰银行将负责整个金融体系的稳定。根据改革决定,10家机构进行合并,组成单一的金融监管机构。1997年10月,证券投资局更名为金融监管局(FSA),1998年起,英格兰银行的银行监管职责移交给FSA。FSA依法行使监管权力。2001年12月1日,FSA依照《2000年金融服务和市场法》(简称FSMA或《2000年金融法》)规定,正式行使其对金融业的监管权力和职责,直接负责对吸收存款业、保险业和证券投资业的监管。FSA也获得了一些其前任监管机构所没有的监管权力,例如关于消除市场扭曲或滥用、促进社会公众对金融系统的理解和减少金融犯罪等。3、非传统式分业监管 当前,美国的金融监管架构很大程度上仍然是分业的,但已出现若干要素,使得跨行业金融业务活动与混业金融机构得以实现,而监管架构至少部分地满足了当前的发展态势,并成为目前三大监管模式的一极代表。传统上,人们将美国的金融监管描述为“功能监管(functional regulation)”。其实这一描述并不准确。真正意义上的功能监管应该是建立在应对市场失灵的各种功能之上,监管机构按照竞争、市场诚信、审慎监管、系统性稳定等功能彼此分工。同这种真正意义上的功能监管不同,美国的金融监管基于两个基本前提:第一,从事金融行业中不同部门(银行业、证券业和保险业)的机构间实行严格的分业经营;第二,每个金融部门中的机构和市场各有其单独的监管者。 因而,称美国的金融监管体系为“领域监管(sectoral…...

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...Banking system in the lower Mekong system Introduction In the last century, many reforms of the banking system have been done in Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Cambodia and Vietnam, the lower Mekong countries. Various policies and regulations were formulated in order to resolve the problems which were caused by planned economics system in these three countries. The development of financial system was mainly controlled by government and less freedom can be given so that it caused the less-developed problems among these Mekong countries. However, during the last decades, with the distribution of market-oriented economy government released the control of private enterprises and the discrimination of small and medium enterprises have been gradually eliminated. The banking system faced new challenge. New reforms should be done to adapt to the changing circumstance. The new regulatory and supervisory was strengthened for more efficient banking system. This essay will first illustrate the banking system in these three countries respectively and then find some similarities or differences between them during the reforms. Finally conclusion will be illustrated. Banking system in Vietnam In order to adapt to the transformation of economy system in Vietnam, much attention are paid on the banking reform and optimization. The financial liberalization process has been continued to accelerate. (1) The government made the duties of specialized banks clear and commercialized the......

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