Hiv Prevention in Africa

In: Social Issues

Submitted By avatermamun
Words 832
Pages 4
HIV prevention in Africa

A continuing rise in the number of HIV infected people is not inevitable. There is growing evidence that prevention efforts can be effective, and this includes initiatives in some of the most heavily affected countries.

One new study in Zambia has shown success in prevention efforts. The study reported that urban men and women are less sexually active, that fewer had multiple partners and that condoms were used more consistently. This is in line with findings that HIV prevalence has declined significantly among 15-29 year-old urban women (down to 24.1% in 1999 from 28.3% in 1996). Although these rates are still unacceptably high, this drop has prompted a hope that, if Zambia continues this response, it could become the second African country to reverse a devastating epidemic.

This suggests that awareness campaigns and prevention programs are now starting to work. But a major challenge is to sustain and build on such uncertain success.

What form should AIDS education take?

Peer education

A social form of education without classrooms or notebooks, where people are educated outside a 'school' environment but still have the opportunity to ask questions.

Most peer education focuses on providing information about HIV transmission, answering questions and handing out condoms to people in a workplace, perhaps in a bar, or where a group of women gather to wash clothes.

Most peer educators make contact with their target audience at least weekly and their sessions will usually be in the context of informal discussions with individual people or within a group.

Active learning

Active learning can sometimes link into peer education, especially when AIDS education is aimed at young people, as one of the best methods of learning something oneself is to teach it to others.

Blanket education

A general message aimed at the…...

Similar Documents

The Impact of Hiv

...The impact of HIV & AIDS in Africa Two-thirds of all people infected with HIV live in sub-Saharan Africa, although this region contains little more than 10% of the world’s population.1 AIDS has caused immense human suffering in the continent. The most obvious effect of this crisis has been illness and death, but the impact of the epidemic has certainly not been confined to the health sector; households, schools, workplaces and economies have also been badly affected. During 2008 alone, an estimated 1.4 million adults and children died as a result of AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.2 Since the beginning of the epidemic more than 15 million Africans have died from AIDS.3 Although access to antiretroviral treatment is starting to lessen the toll of AIDS, fewer than half of Africans who need treatment are receiving it.4 The impact of AIDS will remain severe for many years to come. The impact on the health sector In all heavily affected countries the AIDS epidemic is adding additional pressure on the health sector. As the epidemic matures, the demand for care for those living with HIV rises, as does the toll of AIDS on health workers. In sub-Saharan Africa, the direct medical costs of AIDS (excluding antiretroviral therapy) have been estimated at about US$30 per year for every person infected, at a time when overall public health spending is less than US$10 per year for most African countries.5 The effect on hospitals [pic] Nurses working on the HIV ward at Kisiizi Hospital in......

Words: 3736 - Pages: 15

Cdc's Control and Prevention of Hiv

...Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic by working alongside the communities on a state and national level. They are also partners with other countries abroad in research, surveillance and evaluation of activities among the world’s population. The activities monitored are critical to CDC due to the estimated 1.1 million Americans infected with the disease. Some of these infected populations do not know they are infected and the number increases each year. CDC’s programs help improve the medical treatment, care and outside support for individuals living with the disease. HIV/AIDS control factors and prevention is focused on individuals that do not have the virus. CDC wants to prevent the spread of the HIV/AIDS by placing the emphasis on preventing the transmission by infected people. “Ongoing, brief prevention counseling is a cost-effective measure that can be incorporated into routine care for individuals living with HIV. Prevention IS Care therefore includes tools for medical care providers to use on a daily basis with those patients who are living with HIV. Informational posters and patient education brochures develop patients' knowledge about HIV, facilitate open dialogue and information exchange, and strengthen patients' ability to make healthy choices. And continuing education opportunities are included for medical care providers to update and add depth to their knowledge and skills” (DHSS, 2012). The Prevention Method’s......

Words: 570 - Pages: 3

The Impact of Hiv/Aids on Food Security and Livelihood in the Southern Part of Africa

...1. IMPACTS OF HIV/AIDS The impacts of HIV/AIDS on poor rural populations are many and intertwined. The impacts can be felt most dramatically in entrenched poverty, food insecurity and malnutrition, in the reduction of the labour force, and in the loss of essential knowledge that is transmitted from generation to generation. And the impacts are felt disproportionately among women. What's more, these same consequences of HIV/AIDS - poverty, food insecurity, malnutrition, reduced labour force and loss of knowledge - contribute to making the rural poor more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS infection. This devastating cycle must be broken, and the agricultural sector has a critical role to play. It is estimated that 42 million people in the world are infected with the HIV virus. Assuming that each HIV/AIDS case directly influences the lives of four other individuals, at least 168 million people are likely to be affected by the epidemic. And approximately 95 percent of them live in develping countries. Food security HIV/AIDS takes its toll on food security in a number of ways. For example:   HIV increases fatigue and decreases work productivity, which means less food on the table. In households coping with sick family members, food consumption generally decreases. As adults fall ill, families face increasing medical and health care costs, thus reducing the possibility for them to purchase the food that they can no longer produce.   While the number of productive family members......

Words: 2747 - Pages: 11

Hiv in Sub-Saharan Africa

...HIV/AIDS treatments: Sub-Saharan African nations still have a long way to go HIV-AIDS has infected over thirty million people in the world. Over 95% of all AIDS cases in the world are in Africa and in some of those countries over 40% of the people are infected (Frederickson and Kanabus HIV and AIDS in Africa 1). AIDS does not solely affect homosexuals, or any certain ethnicity of people, either; HIV-AIDS can affect any type of ethnicity including African Americans, Caucasians, Asians, Indians, and Hispanic people. AIDS cannot be reversed or cured, but with proper treatment this deadly virus can be controlled and people can live a nearly normal life. In Africa, though, proper treatment is not nearly as available as it is in some other countries. Approximately 2.3 million people died in 2003 in Sub-Saharan Africa alone and that is only the beginning (Frederickson and Kanabus HIV 1). Particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, where hospital provide inferior treatment to infected patients because of their socioeconomic status, lack of training of their health providers, shortage of medical staffs, lack of appropriate equipment, insufficient funds allocated for medicine and doctors salary and the absence of counselor or prevention unit in these facilities. HIV/Aids has been named a global epidemic with its toll felt significantly especially in Africa. It has been a major cause of death in the world; it also continued to be a public health concern. It poses huge threat of wiping out...

Words: 3311 - Pages: 14

Hiv Prevention

...David R. Tomlinson Resource limited area in Africa Circumcision Removal of the distal part of the foreskin WWII We first invaded north Africa Men that were not circumcised would get balanitis and posthitis Men with these conditions wouldn’t fight Eisenhower said from here on out, only circumcised men could go fight WWII is the reason why so many men in America are circumcised Egypt 2000 BC One of their advances was circumcision Egyptians were some of the first epidemiologists They removed the foreskin for health benefits One of the hypothesis is the schistosomiasis organism that meant uncircumcised men were more easily infected 1981 first case report of HIV, which was reported to the WHO 33 million people are currently infected with HIV HIV Virus Doesn’t infect red cells, but infects white cells Infects the system that’s supposed to defend the system AIDS Auto immune deficiency system Victims die of many different causes because they are susceptible to many different types of invasions Affects adults and leaves the very young and the very old which doesn’t help stimulate the economy HIV Fourth leading cause of mortality world wide Number 1 killer in SSA 2007, 12 million kids were orphaned by AIDS the numbers keep growing people need antiretroviral drugs for life and need to change the types of drugs Uncircumcised men had a much higher rate of vascularized STDs, such as syphilis One of the first physicians to make the connection...

Words: 1177 - Pages: 5

Epidemiology and Hiv

...Epidemiology and HIV Jody Houghton Grand Canyon University Concepts in Community and Public Health NRS-427V-0191 Sandra White October 18, 2014 Epidemiology and HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV, is a virus that attacks specific cells in the human immune system weakening the body so it cannot fight off infection. HIV is a major public health concern in the United States with an estimated 1.1 million Americans infected, and 1 out of 5 people don’t even know they have it (www.healthypeople.gov). The virus is transmitted by blood or certain body fluids, which must come in contact with mucous membranes of another person for transmission to occur. Currently no cure exists, but with effective interventions the risk of transmission is greatly decreased (www.cdc.gov). HIV affects the CD4, or T cells of the immune system. The disease uses these cells to replicate itself, and in the process destroying the T cells. In turn, the body cannot fight off infections, and AIDS, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome manifests (www.cdc.gov). It is believed that the virus originally was present in chimpanzees in West Africa, and transmitted to humans when the chimpanzees were hunted for their meat as far back as the 1800’s (www.cdc.gov). The early signs of the virus are like many other viruses, fever, swollen glands, sore throat, rash, fatigue, muscle and joint pain, and headache (www.aids.gov).Testing is the only way to know for sure if you have the virus. Home testing kits are......

Words: 1435 - Pages: 6

Antiretroviral Therapy as Hiv Prevention

...Tripti; COH/200301; Total nos of Pages: 7; COH 200301 Potential impact of early antiretroviral therapy on transmission David Paoa, Deenan Pillayb,c and Martin Fishera HIV/GUM Research Department, Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton, Department of Infection, University College London Medical School and cCentre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, London, UK b a Correspondence to Deenan Pillay, Centre for Virology (Bloomsbury), Windeyer Building, 46 Cleveland Street, London W1T 4JF, UK Tel: +44 20 7679 9482; fax: +44 20 7580 5896; e-mail: d.pillay@ucl.ac.uk Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS 2009, 4:000–000 Purpose of review In this review, we will discuss the potential of early highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to reduce the sexual transmission of HIV on an individual and population level. We will focus on the biological plausibility and behavioural factors associated with HAART use and interventions that might influence such a strategy. Recent findings Empiric and phylogenetic studies support the view that recent HIV infection is a highly infectious disease stage. Evidence increasingly demonstrates that individuals on fully suppressive HAART are significantly less likely to transmit HIV to sexual partners and some even suggest that such individuals cannot transmit HIV. Changes in risk behaviour are associated with the availability of HAART but behavioural studies offer contradictory observations regarding the direction and......

Words: 3950 - Pages: 16

A Study of the Rates of Co-Infection of Hiv/Aids and Tuberculosis in Urbanized Regions Within Sub-Saharan Africa

...of co-infection of HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis in Urbanized regions within Sub-Saharan Africa Sistla Sumanth Introduction: Airborne communication of mycobacterium tuberculosis is responsible for the evolution of primary tuberculosis (TB) in immunostable and immunocomprimsed patients (Aaron, et al. 2004). In 1993, the center for disease control classification identified that TB was the defining illness in HIV infected patients, as it is typically the first symptom bearing illness to afflict the patient (Aaron, et al. 2004). TB cases have dramatically increased in the global setting in recent, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, illustrating the sensitivity of HIV infected patients to this co-infection. TB results from a pathogenic infection caused primarily by M. tuberculosis, and seldom Mycobacterium bovis; the infiltration of the bacterium into the respiratory tract leads to the infection of the macrophages and cytotoxic cells debilitating intracellular growth (Aaron, et al. 2004). The risk of HIV infected patients to succumb due to the co-infection of tuberculosis and HIV is twice that of patients only infected with HIV (Aaron, et al. 2004). A 1997 estimate suggests that atleast 10.7million people were co-infected with HIV and M. tuberculosis; more than 30% of TB cases in Africa are also infected with HIV (Aaron, et al. 2004) showing the susceptibility of co-infection in immunocompromised patients. Those living in Sub-Saharan Africa are in greater......

Words: 2369 - Pages: 10

The Impact of Hiv&Aids, Tb, and Malaria in Africa

...The impact of HIV&AIDS, TB, and malaria in Africa Jack Saint Mary University Introduction Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), tuberculosis (TB) and malaria, which are extremely serious diseases, kill millions of people every year. Most of the deaths are found in developing countries, especially in Africa. Vietor K. Barbiero (2006) reports that during 2005 alone, approximately 2.8 million people died from HIV/AIDS in Africa, half a million Africans is killed by TB, and close to 900,000 Africans are killed by malaria every year (p.6-7). Three of the most serious contagious diseases (HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria) have significant impact on healthcare, economy, and education in Africa. HIV leads to AIDS. According to AVERing HIV&AIDS (2010), HIV is a kind of virus that damages immune system cells step by step. As a result, the body becomes weaker and weaker and becomes more susceptible to contagions. AIDS will evolve when HIV destroys the immune system enough (Para.3). AVERing HIV&AIDS also reports that AIDS is a “medical condition”. A person is believed to have AIDS when his or her immune system becomes too feeble to repel contagions (para.1). HIV/AIDS in Africa HIV/AIDS is one of the most serious diseases. It alone kills a huge amount of people every year in Africa. For example, Barbiero (2006) reports that although Africa has only 15 percent of the world’s population, 60 out of 100 infected......

Words: 2145 - Pages: 9

Hiv Epidemiology

...HIV Epidemiology J**** A******* Grand Canyon University: NRS-427V August 2, 2014 HIV Epidemiology Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a virus spread through body fluids that affects specific cells of the immune system, called CD4 cells, or T cells. Over time, HIV can destroy so many of these cells that the body can’t fight off infections and disease (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2015). HIV is spread when certain body fluids from an infected HIV individual: blood, semen (cum), pre-seminal fluid (pre-cum), rectal fluids, vaginal fluids, and breast milk; are transmitted through a mucous membrane or damaged tissue or be directly injected into the bloodstream. It is only under these specific conditions that HIV can be transmitted, it is not spread from causal contact with an infected individual. Early signs and symptoms include: fever, swollen lymph glands, sore throat, headache, malaise, nausea, muscle and joint pain, diarrhea, and a diffuse rash. In the progression of HIV, these symptoms worsen and additional symptoms include: localized infections, lymphadenopathy, nervous system manifestations, and the presence of oropharyngeal candidiasis (thrush). Other infections that can also occur include: shingles, persistent vaginal candida infections, outbreaks of oral or genital herpes, bacterial infections, and Kaposi sarcoma (KS). The biggest complication of HIV is the progression of the infection to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).......

Words: 1435 - Pages: 6

Hiv: Prevention

...In order to prevent transmission of HIV to health care workers in the workplace, they should assume that the blood and other body fluids from all patients are potentially infectious. They should also follow infection control precautions at all times. These precautions include Routinely using barriers (such as gloves and/or goggles) when anticipating contact with blood or body fluids. Immediately washing hands and other skin surfaces after contact with blood or body fluids. Carefully handling and disposing of sharp instruments during and after use. Safety devices have been developed to help prevent needlestick injuries. If used correctly, these types of devices may reduce the risk of exposure to HIV. Many transdermal injuries, such as needlesticks and cuts, are related to the disposal of sharp-ended medical devices. All used syringes or other sharp instruments should be routinely placed in “sharps” containers for proper disposal to prevent accidental injuries and risk of HIV transmission.Effective and competitively priced devices engineered to prevent sharps injuries should continue to be developed for health care workers who frequently come into contact with potentially HIV-infected blood. Proper and consistent use of such safety devices should be continuously evaluated. Although the most important strategy for reducing the risk of occupational HIV transmission is to prevent occupational exposures, plans for postexposure management of health care personnel should be in......

Words: 281 - Pages: 2

Hiv and Aids

...INTRODUCTION The following paper will serve the purpose of analysing the policy response to HIV and AIDS in Kenya as a case study in East Africa. Kenya has the main organisation which facilitates and controls various HIV and aids policy strategic response which is the national aids control council (NACC). It is the mandate of the Kenya Ministry of Health (MoH) to deliver quality, affordable health care to all citizens of Kenya. Various strategic documents have outlined plans towards achieving this goal, including the Second National Health Sector Strategic Plan (NHSSP II, 2005-2010) and the Kenya National AIDS Strategic Plan (KNASP, 2005-2010).They are various other documents which include the HIV and AIDS Prevention and Control Act, 2006 Sexual Offences Act, 2006 Children’s Act, 2001 Medical Laboratory Act, 1999 Science and Technology Act, 1980 Public Health Act (Cap 242) HIV prevalence in Kenya is estimated based on the Demographic and Health Survey (2003 and 2008/9), AIDS Indicator Surveys (KAIS 2007 and 2012) and Antenatal Clinic (ANC) sentinel surveillance. A trend analysis starting from 1990 shows that prevalence in the general population reached a peak of 10.5% in 1995‐96, after which it declined by about 40% to reach approximately 6.7% in 2003. Since then, the prevalence has remained relatively stable. The decline of the prevalence from 1995 to 2003 is partly attributed to high AIDS related mortality while the stabilisation of the epidemic in the last 10 years......

Words: 2856 - Pages: 12

Hiv Criminalisation

...all… A critical appraisal of the criminalisation of HIV transmission Lauded by lawmakers as an expression of their strong will to ‘fight AIDS’, HIV-specific laws have become a ubiquitous feature of the legal response to HIV in sub-Saharan Africa1 As of 1st December 2008, twenty countries in ECOWAS Parliament, the West African Health Organisation sub-Saharan Africa had adopted HIV-specific laws.2 (WAHO), the Center for Studies and Research on HIV-specific laws or ‘omnibus HIV laws’, as they are Population for Development (CERPOD), the Network of sometimes ironically referred to, are legislative provisions Parliamentarians in Chad for Population and Development that regulate, in a single document, several aspects of HIV and the USAID West African Regional Programme.3 and The stated objective of these HIV-specific laws, as communication; HIV testing, prevention treatment, care provided under several of their preambulary provisions, and support; HIV-related research; and the protection of is to and AIDS, including HIV-related education people living with HIV. The emergence of HIV-specific …ensure that every person living with HIV or laws in sub-Saharan Africa can be traced to the adoption presumed to be living with HIV enjoys the full of the Model Law on STI/HIV/AIDS for West and Central protection of his or her human rights and freedoms.4 Africa in September 2004. Generally known as the In......

Words: 44716 - Pages: 179

The Direct and Indirect Affect of Hiv/Aids on Children in Africa

...The Direct and Indirect Effects of HIV/AIDS on Children and Youth in Africa Rojish Thomas English 202A June 21, 2012 The Direct and Indirect Effects of HIV/AIDS on Children and Youth in Africa HIV and AIDS are two of the most prevalent illnesses around the world today. HIV, or the human immunodeficiency virus, leads to AIDS, or the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The disease damages a person’s body by destroying the blood cells that work to fight diseases; or in other words, by destroying a person’s immune system (“Basic Information about HIV and AIDS”, 2012). There are many adults all around the world who have acquired and have passed away from this disease. Africa is well known to have the highest rates of HIV/AIDS than any other continent in the whole world. However, not many people realize how much the disease has affected children and youth along with adults. Children and youth in Africa suffer from HIV/AIDS in both direct and indirect manners. The direct effect of HIV/AIDS on children in Africa is the children themselves suffering from the disease. Children and youth indirectly suffer from the diseases as a result of their parents or siblings being diagnosed with AIDS. They then must take care of their family members although the children may be very young; they are even poorer than they were before with their parents unable to work because of the disease; and in many cases they are orphaned and left to fend for themselves and their siblings to find food,...

Words: 2286 - Pages: 10

Cdc's Control and Prevention of Hiv

...Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic by working alongside the communities on a state and national level. They are also partners with other countries abroad in research, surveillance and evaluation of activities among the world’s population. The activities monitored are critical to CDC due to the estimated 1.1 million Americans infected with the disease. Some of these infected populations do not know they are infected and the number increases each year. CDC’s programs help improve the medical treatment, care and outside support for individuals living with the disease. HIV/AIDS control factors and prevention is focused on individuals that do not have the virus. CDC wants to prevent the spread of the HIV/AIDS by placing the emphasis on preventing the transmission by infected people. “Ongoing, brief prevention counseling is a cost-effective measure that can be incorporated into routine care for individuals living with HIV. Prevention IS Care therefore includes tools for medical care providers to use on a daily basis with those patients who are living with HIV. Informational posters and patient education brochures develop patients' knowledge about HIV, facilitate open dialogue and information exchange, and strengthen patients' ability to make healthy choices. And continuing education opportunities are included for medical care providers to update and add depth to their knowledge and skills” (DHSS, 2012). The Prevention Method’s......

Words: 586 - Pages: 3