Health Disparities

In: Business and Management

Submitted By francescoz
Words 458
Pages 2
Heath disparities,

Within the several studies applied by sociologists and economists in order to provide a general overview of the phenomenon related with the heath situation, a focus on the differences between the population in terms of health conditions is the component that mostly emerges and has to be deeply understood.
Differences are to be classified as social advantages that an individual has in comparison to another one with a worse health situation.
In this context many are the social economic variables influencing the individual’ s health level, such as education, income, occupation and race combined with the public health policy characterise the socioeconomic individual status (ses).

Ses Definition:
Robin Morris, 2000: “socio economic status refers to components of economic and social status that distinguish and characterize people”.

The SES is the combination of socio-economical parameters which shows the individual’s position in the society in relation to the variables above mentioned.

Before starting by plotting the relation within education and ses, it would be more useful to analyse the factors influencing the level of education and how these are effecting the quality and the expectancy of life.
In particular lower ses affects negatively the student’s academic achievements because more educated individuals report better health and face lower mortality risk. Therefore a higher educational level causes better heath (Grossman 2006).
Education plays an important role in the determination of the ses, since better educated people are less likely to smoke, heavy drink and more likely to use preventive care.
Since education is influencing cognitive abilities the individual can gain a healthier life style which brings to lower mortality rates, according to David M. Cutler.

Starting from these assumptions, a proper starting point for…...

Similar Documents

Disparities in Women’s Health in Usa

...Disparities in Women’s Health in USA José Francisco Pereira AKA Frank Pereira COH 601 Prof. GinaMarie Piane, MPH, DrPH, CHES The United States of America still have a long way to go until able to reduce the country disparities related to maternal and infant mortality. With a population distributed in an uneven geographic area that requires specific healthcare delivery related to ethnicity, lack of education, lack of primary care provider and prejudice, it becomes a difficult task. As reported by The Office of Minority Health of the U.S. Department of Health& Human Services (HHS) the largest population concentration of Hispanic/Latino is in San Jose, California, and African American is in Michigan. The City of San Jose or the state of California has not provide specific vital/healthcare information to the HHS and Michigan reported Infant Death Rates as fallow: White – 1997= 6.1 (±0.5), 2007 5.8 (±0.5) whit a decline of 0.3 (±0.5); African American – 1997= 17.6 (±1.7), 2007 16.5 (±1.7) whit a decline of 1.1 (±1.7); Others – 1997= 4.7 (±2.2), 2007 10.7 (±2.2) whit a increase of 6 (±0.5). The HHS reported a total infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births in the United States shows for 2005, still showing a relative disparity between African Americas (13.6), White (5.8) and Hispanic/Latino (5.6). HHS showed that Hispanic/Latino had the lowest rate and the Afro American the highest rate (afro American/ white ratio = 2.3). The report shows a radial infant......

Words: 624 - Pages: 3

Health Care Disparities

...Healthcare disparities This article entitled; Racial and ethnic disparities in health care, updated 2010, written by American College of Physicians, presents the reality of the racial and ethnic disparities in health care and made some recommendations to reduce this gaps. Although improvements have been seen in health care quality and some disparities have been reduced or eliminated, differences persist in health care quality among members of various racial and ethnic minority groups. Irrefutable evidence indicates that racial and ethnic minorities are subject to quality care less healthy than white Americans, even when factors such as insurance status are controlled. Since the population continues to grow and diversify the health care system must change and adapt to meet the needs of a patient more and more multicultural. In 2003, the American College of Physicians, which is now the greatest medical specialty society in the United States with physicians and medical student members, published racial and ethnic disparities paper Healthcare (www. acponline.org / ppvl / policies / e000904.pdf). The document provides some recommendations on how the gap between patients’s racial and ethnic minorities and their white counterparts can be reduced. Unfortunately, even though progress has been achieved in some areas the question of the racial and ethnic disparities remains a difficult and complex problem to tackle. This update of the 2003 document adopts recommendations that......

Words: 628 - Pages: 3

Health Disparities in Health Care

...Health disparities among racial and ethnic groups present a complex national issue. ….Health disparities are the differences in frequency, commonly occurring, raising the death rate, diseases that are difficult to bear, and other adverse health conditions or outcome that exists among specific population groups in the United States. …The specific population groups can be based on gender, age, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, geography, sexual orientation, disability, or special health care needs. Health disparities occur among groups who have persistently experienced historic trauma, social disadvantage, or discrimination. They are widespread in the United States as demonstrated by the fact that many minority groups in the United States have a higher incidence of chronic diseases, higher mortality, and poorer health outcomes when compared to whites.” ( Multicultural Health. n.d., p.14) …The causes of health disparities are due to both voluntary and involuntary factors. Voluntary factors are related to health behaviors, such as smoking and diet, and can be avoided. …Factors such as genetics, living and working in unhealthy conditions, limited or no access to health care, language barriers, limited financial resources, and low health literacy skills are often viewed as being involuntary and unfair, because they are not within that person’s control.”(Multicultural Health., n.d., p.19) From the research reported by the institute of medicine an overwhelming body of evidence in......

Words: 568 - Pages: 3

Health Care Disparities

...Health Care Disparities Latanya Breeden Capella University Health Care Disparities America benefits when everyone has the opportunity to live a long, healthy and productive life, yet health disparities persist. A health disparity is a difference in health outcomes across subgroups of the population, often linked to social, economic, or environmental disadvantages (less access to good jobs, unsafe neighborhoods, and lack of affordable transportation options). Health disparities adversely affect groups of people who have systematically experienced greater obstacles to health on the basis of their racial or ethnic group, religion, socioeconomic status, gender, age, mental health, cognitive, sensory, or physical disability, sexual orientation or gender identity, geographic location, or other characteristics historically linked to discrimination or exclusion. The issues that involved in education and lifestyle choice disparities are the socioeconomic circumstances of persons and the places where they live and work strongly influence their health. In the United States, as elsewhere, the risk for mortality, morbidity, unhealthy behaviors, reduced access to health care, and poor quality of care increases with decreasing socioeconomic circumstances. This association is continuous and graded across a population and cumulative over the life course. Educational attainment and family or household income are two indicators used commonly to assess the......

Words: 383 - Pages: 2

Health Disparities & Solutions

...Health Disparities Solutions: Nurses Can Make a Difference Can Nurses make a difference in reducing health disparities? I believe we can make a big difference, Nurses can work with communities in a “grassroots” type movement to bring attention to the gravity of the inequities built into our current healthcare system. Healthcare is first and foremost about people, and care should be directed by the needs of the people it serves. Secondly, caring is foundational to nursing and this is a concept must be deeply woven throughout all points of health care. The third aspect is the vast pit of inequalities in healthcare; the injustices, denial of treatment and quality healthcare to minorities and the disadvantaged poor. Nurses are known patients advocates, therefore nurses are well equipped, to become leaders, in constructing equitable changes in the system and improve the model of care. Nurses are well- appointed in their understanding, negotiating skills, knowledge of healthcare and patient centered care, to provide guidance and direction to implement meaningful changes. Research in health disparities has identified, that the U.S is burdened by huge social and economic inequalities; it identifies, discrimination, social status, income inequality, and policy decisions as the principal causes of health disparities. The nursing profession needs to reconsider its role and its purpose in reducing health disparities, they need to be proactive in establishing...

Words: 491 - Pages: 2

Health Disparities in Diabetics

...Latangela Stewart SOC -358: Health Disparity Paper 2 April 23, 2013 How Can Diabetes In Low Income African Communities Be Resolved It’s hard to fathom the affects that diabetes has taken in our low income African American communities. Now we have to look at what we can do and have done to help the people who are a part of this health disparity overcome this socioeconomic tragedy. We first have to look at clinical barriers which play a large role on how physicians are interacting with their patients. Even though there are the sociocultural differences between the patient and the provider we have to look at the fact that they both have different health and medical beliefs. With that being known that is where the level of trust has to be obtained. Due to sociocultural difference the physician’s knowledge of the needs of their patients has to be well rationalized. There is an obvious and direct link between these structural barriers and quality of care that remains a fertile area for intervention (Betancourt, Green, Carrillo, & Anaheh-Firempong, 2003). With the racial disparities in the U.S. health care system, there has to be many ways that this health disparity can be prevented. Many low income families feel that they receive the shorter end of the stick when it comes to good decent healthcare. Socioeconomic has it many disadvantages and advantage and what it meant by that is when you are living in a poor rural area; you more likely to be less educated or unhealthy,......

Words: 1401 - Pages: 6

Health Disparity Among African-Americans

...Health Disparity Among African-Americans Melissa Swanson Grand Canyon University Family Centered Health Promotion NRS-429V-0506 Sandi Coufal February 8, 2015 Heath Disparity among African-Americans The United States is a melting pot of cultural diversity. For a country that was founded by individuals fleeing persecution, it has taken us many years to grant African-Americans equal rights, and even longer for those rights to be recognized. Despite all the effort to eliminate inequality in this country, health disparity among this minority group remains a significant issue. Research in this area has pointed to several key reasons for this gap that center on differences in culture, socioeconomics, and lack of health literacy. The CDC Health Disparities & Inequalities Report of 2011 shows the average American’s life expectancy at 78.8 years, while the average African-American should expect to live only 75.3 years. The statistics gathered by the Center for Disease Control (CDC) are striking in painting the health status of African-Americans in this country. African-American infants have a mortality rate twice that of Caucasian infants. The CDC recognized that African-Americans lead the nation in death rates from heart disease and stroke, as compared to any other ethnicity. The United States Department of Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health presented data in 2012 showing that African-American adults have a 40% higher rate of hypertension and a 10%......

Words: 1899 - Pages: 8

Health Disparity

...African Americans including those of more than one race constitute 15.2% of the U.S population. (CDC, 2011) The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) conducted in 2012 reports that white (38%) and Asians (37%) are more likely to be in excellent health than African Americans (31%). (NHIS) 14.6% of blacks of all ages reported of poor or fair health which is higher than the general population.37.9% of African American men and 57.6% of women above the age of 20 are obese.39.9% of men and 44.5% of women above 20 of African American origin have hypertension.17.8% of African American people under 65 does not have health insurance.(CDC,2011) Leading causes of death among African Americans are heart disease, cancer and stroke. Obesity and diabetes are twice as prevalent among Africans compared to white adults. They have the largest death rates from homicides compared to any racial or ethnic population.(CDC,2011) African Americans also have the highest incidence and death rates from colorectal cancer and HIV infection rates. Prescribed HIV treatment among African Americans living with HIV is also less compared to white adults.(CDC,2011) A larger percent of African American adults live in poverty and does not have a high school education compared to the general population. All of this data points toward poor health status among African Americans. Studies have shown that African Americans underutilize preventive care......

Words: 992 - Pages: 4

Health Disparity

...Socioeconomic Status and Health Disparity in America Over the years, researchers have uncovered a strong link between socioeconomic status and one’s risk for being affected by healthy disparities (Ethnic, 2015).When examining the relationship between socioeconomic status and health, evidence shows those with the lowest income and education are the unhealthiest, while most advantaged individuals are the healthiest (Braveman, et al, 2009). It is possible through continued research and broadened knowledge surrounding different cultures and biological factors, we may be able to close certain gaps that exist today and reduce the risk for healthy disparity in America. There are many factors that are used today to measure diversity in socioeconomic status. For example, the relationships between demographics, income, and health help us understand what elevates risk for disparity. Some of the demographic factors include: race and ethnicity, gender, sexual identity, special health care needs, and geographic location (Disparities, 2015). While some groups are impacted greater than others, it is important to acknowledge that these inequities are affecting our society as a whole and should be a priority of concern for all (Ethnic, 2015). When considering how a higher income could produce a healthier future, we see that wealthier people have greater accessibility to key resources. Someone with a high income is more likely to have sufficient health coverage and live in a safe......

Words: 671 - Pages: 3

Barriers to Reducing Disparities in Health Care

...MPH 5220 U02D1 Barriers to Reducing Disparities in Health Care  July 17, 2013 The purpose of this post is to disseminate the learners view regarding the barriers to reducing disparities in health care. The National Library of Medicine defines Healthcare disparities as a “differences in access to or availability of facilities and services,” and “Health status disparities refer to the variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between socioeconomic and/or geographically defined population groups” (U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2013). A barrier to reducing disparities based on race and ethnicity is to increase education related to those chronic diseases that most affect communities of color. Community Outreach and Public Engagement/Cultural Competencies are used within the public sector; however, the effectiveness of these programs must be questioned. Rebecca Voelker (2008) states, “Not only did treatment disparities persist; the magnitude of the disparities did not diminish” (Voelker, 2008), the ineffectiveness of health care programs persist and perpetuates the cycle of health care disparity and health status disparity. Voelker references the Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH 2010) a pilot program in South Carolina and Georgia, which are examples of effective outreach to communities of colors, these programs were managed effectively and precisely, thus they were able to reduce the disparity gaps per disease (Voelker,......

Words: 317 - Pages: 2

Health Disparities

...1 HEALTH DISPARITIES 2 The Health of Hispanic and Latinos Health disparities in the diverse American demography creates challenges in the overall health status of ethnic minorities. Tragic disadvantages on obtaining optimal health care can be linked to variables such as being from a specific socioeconomic status, race, geographic location, age, gender, mental health, genetic background, or having a disability. This injustice on how health care is being provided is debilitating for patients and the communities that they live in. Statistics Reviewing the statistics for Hispanics in the community against other groups indicates that the overall health of ages is fair or poor health in 9.6% of the population (National Center for Health Statistics, 2015). Another alarming statistic is that 16.4% of men and 7.4% of woman above 18 smoked cigarettes (National Center for Health Statistics, 2015). The rate of people under the age of 65 who did not have health insurance was over 25.5 percent (National Center for Health Statistics, 2015). Many of the diseases in the top categories that caused death in this population were cancer and heart disease (National Center for Health Statistics, 2011). Ethnic Disparities The racial ethnic disparities was greatest in both income and education for Hispanics and Non-Hispanic American Indians/ Alaskan Natives in the year 2011 (Disparities in Healthcare Quality Among Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups, 2014). Hispanics......

Words: 1383 - Pages: 6

Health Care Disparity

...By definition, A public Health Disparities are preventable differences in the burden of disease,injury,violence,or opportunities to achieve optimal health that are experienced by socially disadvantage population.Health disparities are inequitable, and directly related to the historical, and current unequal distribution of social,political,economic,and environmental resources. Health disparities result from multiple factors,including,Poverty.Environmental threads.Inadequate access to health care.Individual and Behavioral factors.Education inequalities Black Women have Higher Death rate from breast cancer than other women..Nearly 40,000 women die every year from breast cancer.Black women are %40 more likely to die from Brest cancer than white women. Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths,among women in the US.The reason for this fact is because of the fewer economical and social resources,genetic,and lack of information,in compare to the aggressiveness of the cancer.The federal Government and the health facilities should play a big rule by implementing the affordable care act, and to educate the women about the preventive benefit and coverage provided by the law, including coverage of mammograms with out co-pay,beginning in 2014.Increase the programs that raise up the knowledge and the awareness among these women such as ,The early detection programs,and the follow up care. The local health agencies,the medical field personnel,Doctors and Nurses,have the...

Words: 320 - Pages: 2

Health Disparities of the Lgbt Community

...Health disparities of the LGBT community Darlene Poer Grand Canyon University Minerva Gonzales May 15, 2016 Health disparities of the LGBT community Many factors contribute to a person’s health status. Among them are, limited access to care, socioeconomic, and environmental factors. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), “the social determinants of health as well as race are ethnicity, sex, sexual orientation, age, and disability” (Myers, Yoon, & Kaufman, 2013). The Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community falls into this category. The individuals that belong to this group come from all ethnicities, races, economic and social statuses throughout the United States and the world. The Institute of Medicines report in 2011 states, “lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals have unique health experiences, but as a nation, we do not know exactly what these experiences and needs are ("LGBT health report," 2011, p. 4).For this reason their needs and health care inequities and inequalities should be addressed. The health promotion goal of the LGBT community is to “improve the health, safety, and well-being of lesbian, gay, and transgender individuals” ("," 2014). To understand the current health status of the LGBT community, one must understand some basic definitions. 1. Gender identity-A person’s basic sense of being male or female. 2. Gender expression- Manifestations that are defined as masculine or feminine. 3. Gender......

Words: 1150 - Pages: 5

Health Disparities Summary

...     "What are the differences in quality of care between the U.S. free markets based system as compared to the universal health insurance program offered in Canada?" Introduction A little over five decades ago, Canada and the United States had very similar health care systems. Today however, they are very much different but rapidly growing closer in similar views and a universal health system. The Canadian system is more than ninety percent publicly financed, whereas the U.S. is funded primarily through private vectors. What is less clear is whether the two different health care systems produce differences in the quality of care for their respective populations. Quality of care is the fundamental goal of health care, yet it is difficult to define. It is a concept that health care policy and programming strives for, and that many have attempted to elucidate. Given its many components and manifestations, defining and quantifying quality of care, in the context of health, is extremely difficult. (Rhee, 1987, p.11) Canada has a universal system that insures every citizen yet there lies disparities within a common group, the Aboriginals.  The U.S. has a free market health system that only provides to those citizens covered yet the U.S. spends almost double on health care than Canada; noted that health disparities among U.S. citizens are among the worst in the nation.  Studies show that the quality of care in the U.S. rank higher than the quality......

Words: 630 - Pages: 3

Bronx Health Disparities

...Health Disparities in the Bronx and New York City A.H. Strelnick, MD Department of Family & Social Medicine Albert Einstein College of Medicine (These slides were provided by Dr. Jane Bedell, Assistant Commissioner, South Bronx District Health Office, New York City Department of Health & Mental Hygiene) What is health? Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization, 1948 (the Definition has not been amended since 1948) What is Public Health? Public health is the science and art of preventing diseases, prolonging life, and promoting health through the organized efforts of society. Smoking Prevalence in the Bronx, 2002 35 Healthy People 2010 Goal: 12% 30 25 25 29 25 25 22 20 20 17 15 10 5 NY C Br on x Br on x h So ut Pk rd ha m -B ro nx Fo Pe lh a m -T h ro gs Ne c k ge sb rid Ki ng NE Br on x 0 NYC Smoking Reduction 2002-2004 6.2% 10.0% 5.0% -5.1% -15.0% -20.0% -25.0% -18.7% -18.9% -23.1% Staten Island Queens Manhattan -10.0% Brooklyn -5.0% Bronx 0.0% 2002-2004 decline Cancer Screening in the Bronx vs. NYC, 2002 Bronx 100 NYC Healthy People 2010 Goal: 90% 80 85 78 80 77 60 50 49 40 20 0 Colon Screening Mammogram PAP Smear HIV & AIDS Cases in the Bronx, 2003 25000 20000 19504 15000 10000 5000 774 0 # Living w/HIV & AIDS Figures as of 9/30/2003 # New HIV Diagnoses Rates......

Words: 1671 - Pages: 7