Geopolitics and International Affairs

In: Social Issues

Submitted By liamm1
Words 1474
Pages 6
Geopolitics and International Affairs
“What are the key factors in contemporary redistributions of Geopolitical Power?”
The Encyclopaedia Britannica describes Geopolitics as “analysis of the geographic influences on power relationships in international relations” (2010); therefore Geopolitical Power is the power certain nations have over other nations, based upon Geographic influences and advantages.
Across the world the geographies of power shift from nation to nation over time (such as the shift in power from Britain to the USA after WWII) and the hegemonic structure has a huge effect on world dynamics such economy, politics, society and culture. The nation with the most power tends to have the greatest influence over these and other factors. Currently, and in recent years there has been a notable rise in power from nations in the geographic east (most notably China) simultaneous to the apparent decline in power by the worlds current top geopolitical power (the USA). This is raising serious questions as to the future of the current hegemonic structure.
There are a number of key factors which are driving this shift in power and here I aim to address and analyse these so that I may answer the question “What are the key factors in contemporary redistributions of Geopolitical Power?”
The USA is currently the world's dominant geopolitical power and has been since World War II. According to Fareed Zakaria (2008) “...the United States' [unrivalled economic status] has lasted more than 120 years” and that “The US economy has been the world's largest since the middle of the 1880's”. As of 2008, The CIA World Fact book ranks the USA as having the highest GDP/PPP of any individual nation (The EU is ranked higher than the USA but is technically a united group of countries) which stands at $14,440,000,000,000; around double that of the next country on the list, China (CIA,…...

Similar Documents


...CRITICAL ASSIGNMENT There are several theoretical approaches to consider when discussing geopolitics. Three of these approaches are the Realist approach seen by Michael Klare; the Balance of Power theory outlined by Robert Skidelsky; and Social Constructivism theory used by Gearoid Ó Tuathail. After analysis of these three geopolitical theories, it becomes clear that the Realist approach and incorporated application of Halford Mackinder’s Heartland Thesis, demonstrated by Michael Klare, is the most persuasive and applicable in a contemporary setting. Klare’s Realist Theory Michael Klare applies realist theory to explain contemporary American international relations. In this explanation, Klare draws on the geopolitical thesis of Halford Mackinder. Mackinder’s theory explains that the state that controls the Heartland, which is land seen to be of geopolitical importance, will inevitably become a global superpower as they amass economic and political strength from that territory. Mackinder states “Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland; Who rules the Heartland commands the World-Island; Who rules the World-Island commands the World.” (Mackinder 1919: 150) Klare’s incorporation of a realist approach lies in the way he explains America adherence to the Heartland thesis. Klare demonstrates America’s desire to control the Heartland by overtly militaristic foreign policies in areas of great geopolitical competition. America had been involved in conflict in the resource rich...

Words: 1124 - Pages: 5

Geopolitics of China

...The Geopolitics of China China is a land shaped by its history; a country that has suffered great calamities and more than anything else, has grown. China “boasts a civilization at least three thousand years old” (Hutton, 2007) and is a home for more than 1.3billion people. It covers over 5,000 kilometres of land in East Asia, and is surrounded by powerful neighbours – Vietnam, India, North Korea, Russia and more. While Northern China is subarctic, South China experiences sub-tropical climates. The Eastern side of the country, following the East China Sea, as well as the Yellow Sea, is comprised of mainly low lands; China is much more heavily industrialised towards the north-east (Hutton, 2007), whereas, the West hosts more mountains. Most countries are historically known for using their boarders and coast lines as defensive mechanisms, conversely though, China is known for tactfully moving in-land and using its terrain for defence; which form up to two thirds of China’s land (Gaddis, 2005). Will Hutton argues that China has “burst back on to the world scene in a manner parcelled in scale and speed in world history only by the rise of the United States.” It first endured a “century of humiliation” (Lecture). Opium Wars dominated China in the 1840s until 1860, after which the Taiping Rebellion – a civil war, revolting against the Quing Dynasty took place, closely followed by the Boxer Uprising – a rebellion provoked by imperialist expansion (Gaddis, 2005). Looking at......

Words: 2520 - Pages: 11


...1945. * Post-war geopolitical representations. * Kennan on containment. * Truman doctrine. * Soviet geopolitical representations > American imperialism. * Confining national discourses. Session 3 * Confining national discourses. * Domino theory. * US interventionism. * US cold war interventionism. * Soviet interventionism. * Proxy wars. * Cold war= bloody war. * Political realism and institutions. * Security Dilemma. * National security states. * Détente. * US military/conservative backlash. * The Reagan Era. * Non-aligned movement. (END). * New generation in USSR: Gorbachev. * Glasnost * Perestroika * The Sinatra doctrine. * Loss of international status. * Derzhavnost. * The “Near abroad”. * Balance of power. Session 6 * Post-Cold War geopolitician. * Francis Fukuyama: The end on the history is the end of ideological struggle. * Samuel Huntington: Clash of civilizations. * Edward Luttwak: geo-economics (commerce replace the military). * Rogue state doctrine. * Middle East. * Colonialism. * Arabism. * Secular nationalism. * Pan-Arabism. * Western intervention: * Israel. * Iran * Saudi Arabia * Iraq, Resources war? * China’s energy security interests. * Resource wealth: Curse or blessing? * Islamism....

Words: 303 - Pages: 2

Discuss the Current State of International Humanitarian Affairs and How World Leaders Can Be More Involved in Solving Related Crisis

...DISCUSS THE CURRENT STATE OF INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN AFFAIRS AND HOW WORLD LEADERS CAN BE MORE INVOLVED IN SOLVING RELATED CRISIS International humanitarian affairs have improved over the years. According to Jan Egeland there is 50 percent less war now than in 1989. There are less than one billion people in the world living under the $1 a day threshold when it used to be two billion people living under the same $1 threshold years ago. In his address, Mr. Egeland confirmed that the researchers of the Human Security Report found 10 genocides in 1989 compared to the only one found last year. Also, indicated that there has been an average of three to five military coups, compared to between 10 and 25 per year in the 1960’s, 70’s and 80’s. This is a clear indications that the world leaders are doing the best they can to curtail human right problems. The world leaders are also doing well in reducing humanitarian problems. During the tsunami crisis years ago about ninety nations such as United States happened to be donors of them fifty-five of them deployed military and civil defense assets to helped places like Indonesia and other areas that were affected by the tsunami. Mr. Jan Egeland has the belief that this generation of workers in the United Nations and workers in government services has a better chance at improving the life of much affected people than the older generation, because the world economy is going forward by which poor countries have now grown......

Words: 713 - Pages: 3

Thailand Geopolitics

...Geopolitics of Thailand TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction 2 Geographic location in Asia 2 Economy of Thailand 2 Demographic 2 Culture 3 China and Thailand 3 What China would want from Thailand 3 What are the Chinese needs ? 3 What can Thailand provides to China in this optic ? 4 China and Thailand relationships 5 Thailand and its neighbours 7 ASEAN7 Myanmar8 Laos 8 Cambodia 8 Vietnam 9 Thailand and USA9 Relations threw the history9 Economic relations10 Current bilateral issues 11 Strategies11 Geopolitical imperatives11 Strategies with historical evolution 12 Conclusion 15 Bibliography 15 I. Introduction 1.1 Geographic location in Asia Totaling 513,120 km² Thailand is the world's 51st-largest country by total area. 1.2 Economy of Thailand Thailand is an emerging economy and considered as a newly industrialized country.It exports an increasing value of over $105 billion worth of goods and services annually.> Thai rice, textiles and footwear, fishery products, rubber, jewellery, cars, computers and electrical appliances. Its Substantial industries are : electric appliances, tourism (6%), sex tourism and prostitution…It also has a GDP worth US$602 billion. This classifies Thailand as the 2nd largest economy in Southeast Asia, after Indonesia.It is the 4th richest nation according to GDP per capita, after Singapore, Brunei and Malaysia. Finally the IMF has predicted that the Thai economy......

Words: 4301 - Pages: 18

Current Affairs Content: Current Affairs 2013 (December 2012,January 2013,febraury 2013,March 2013, April 2013 ) Howdy ! friends . we are providing Five months current affairs for all competitive exam preparation .. Source : Various Location on Web Portal . Contains : 1. International Awareness 2. National Awareness 3. States News 4. Confrences 5. Sports and News 6. Awards and honors 7. Persons In News 8. Important dates 9. Books and Authors 10. Science and technology 11. Economy News INTERNATIONAL Mahama Re-elected as Ghana’s President : On 10 December Ghana’s incumbent President John Dramani Mahama of the ruling National Democratic Congress (NDC) has won the country’s presidential election.Mahama took 50.70 percent of the total valid votes cast, while his closest challenger, Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo of the New Patriotic Party (NPP) obtained 47.74 percent.With his re-election, Mahama becomes the fourth president to be elected under the Forth Republic.He had served as Ghana’s vice president since 2009. UN, Pakistan Launched ‘Malala Fund’ : Pakistan joined forces with the United Nations on 10 December 2012 to launch a fund aimed at boosting girls’ education throughout the world.The fund is named for Malala Yousafzai, the 15-year-old Pakistani girl. Pakistan’s President Asif Ali Zardari also announced a $10-million donation for a global war chest to educate all girls by 2015 set up in the name of Malala Yousafzai for campaigning for girls’ education. Shinzo Abe......

Words: 52705 - Pages: 211


...politique des Etats La géopolitique étudie l’importance politique, économique (géoéconomie) et stratégique de la géographien où la géographie est définie en termes de location, grandeur, fonction, la relation des lieux et ressources (eau, énergie, démographie, migrations …) Grande évolution dans la définition de la géopolitique : certains ont mis l’accent sur la puissance maritime des Etats (domination des mers et océans …), ou domination par le commerce. Après la seconde guerre mondiale, la géopolitique « disparaît » au profit de nouvelles disciplines des sciences humaines : relations internationales, droit international, sociologie politique, sociologie des relations internationales. La géographie politique se penche sur par exemple la cartographie électorale … Géostratégie, étude des intérêts des Etats et des acteurs politique dans l’espace surtout international La géopolitique retrouve une nouvelle légitimité en tant que discipline suite aux différents conflits qui ont surgi dans les années 1970. La géopolitique repose sur 5 données fondamentales qu’elle s’attache à analyser : - Conflictualité : intérêt divergent, recherche de pouvoir, perception - Espace : surface terrestre, maritime et aérienne - frontière - impérialité - mondialité Conflictualité = lutte pour la détention des ressources (pétrole, eau), contrôle d’espaces (e.g. mers, routes.. pour accéder aux ressources), et domination idéologique, ethnique… pour affirmer la......

Words: 858 - Pages: 4

Current Affairs

...Nigerian History and Current Affairs April 2013 Vol. 3.9                            Origination, Information and Statistics Current Ministers as @ April 2013 Top Officials in Government States Data and Governors Addresses of Federal Ministries Addresses of State Liaison Offices Past and Present Leaders 1960 -2013 Foreign Leaders 1921 - 1960 Natural Resources Tourist Attractions Exchange Rate History Memorable events - 800BC to April 2013 Political Parties Map of Nigeria Addresses of Federal Ministries Government Websites Local Government Areas Tertiary Institutions Important Abbreviations Sports Info Traditional Ruler Titles Civil War Events Memorable Dates Brief Biography of Notable Nigerians Web Diary General Knowledge Quiz Downloadable from Compilation by Promoting brands nationwide …more than 10,000 monthly downloads !!! 2 Contents Nigeria Origination, Information and Statistics………………..…………………………………………………………………………….3 States and Their Natural Resources...................…………………………………………………………………………………………….7 Tourist Attraction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….8 Anthem, Pledge, Coat of Arms and National Flag……………………………………………………………………………………………9 Senate Presidents,Foreign Leaders, Premiers of the 1st Republic…………………………………………………………………..9 Inec Chairmen, Govenors of the 2nd Republic.………………………………………………..……….………………………………….10 Historical value of the Us dollar to the......

Words: 5950 - Pages: 24

Geopolitics and Polsci

... Political Science is a vast study. It can correlate to other blanches of learning just like History, Economic, Geography, Sociology and Anthropology, Psychology, Philosophy, Statistics and Logic, and Jurisprudence. But, what i would like to reflect is the study of Geography. It is very important for me to be able to understand the interrelationship of political science and geography, since I am currently taking up a major subject which is geopolitics. As i have undergone the learning process of my degree program, International Studies and this subject, Political Science 2, I have realized that it is necessary for a concerned citizen, an IS student, a diplomat, and most especially a political scientist to know how geography affects the arising of global issues and international politics. It is the simplest way, the actions of individuals and societies are influenced by the physical environments, particularly climate, food, soil, etc. The geographical and physical factors greatly affect or influence the character, the national life of the people, and their political institutions. Without geography, I think the political concept can't go this far. This branch of learning is just so important to explain why such phenomena happened in the past and are happening today. Say for example those nations that are rich in natural resources may become more powerful in world politics. Another concrete example in the issue in recent months with regards to the tension......

Words: 411 - Pages: 2

Current Affairs    Current Affairs (Sep 15 to 21) Bit bank  1. The International Economic Association (IEA) has appointed which of the following as president-elect of the association? 1) Kaushik Basu 2) Rakesh Mohan 3) Jagdish Bhagwati 4) Amartya Sen Who is only the second West Indian to score a test century aged 40 or more? 1) K. Edwards 2) S. Chanderpaul 3) J. Blackwood 4) D. Bravo K. Srinivas and Rashmi Kumari won the men’s and women’s singles titles respectively in the fourth world cup carom championship in 1) Sri Lanka 2) China 3) Maldives 4) India Shankar Barua shot himself on September 17, 2014. He was the former Director General of Police of 1) Assam 2) Odisha 3) Tripura 4) West Bengal The International Day for the Preservation of The Ozone Layer is celebrated on 1) September 15 2) September 16 3) September 17 4) September 18 Throng Tan Sang is the president of 1) Vietnam 2) Japan 3) Burma 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 4) Laos 7. Which country has approved a law setting a two-year jail term for anyone involved in marrying a girl aged Under 18? 1) Iran 2) Bangladesh 3) Pakistan 4) Sri Lanka Mojang is the maker of the popular game Mine craft. Mojang is based in 1) USA 2) Demark 3) Sweden 4) China Which company has announced its acquisition of Mojang for a sum of $ 2.5 billion?  8. 9.    1) IBM 2) Facebook 3) Apple 4) Microsoft 10. Who won the National Women’s......

Words: 2948 - Pages: 12

Academic Affairs

...According to the Journal of Blacks in Higher Education (2014), “the Vice President for Academic Affairs provides leadership to promote excellence in teaching, research and service across the university system. This leadership role is collaborative in nature, as the vice president works closely with the campus provosts to achieve the goals of the campus chancellors, president and the Board of Regents” (Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2014). The Vice President of Academic Affairs is under the direction of the University President. The Vice President is often known as the chief academic officer and is responsible for the implementation educational policy and academic programs. The Vice President must provide strategic direction and leadership that fosters a culture of academic excellence, scholarship and student achievement. As the university’s chief academic officer, the Vice president will work closely with provost, deans, faculty members, department chairs, student affairs, and a host of other departments to maintain an active learning environment that promote student learning through rigor and relevant academic study. The Vice President has ongoing collaborations with the Department of Student Affairs to monitor student enrollment, retention, graduation rates, student services and the evaluation of university programs. Role of the Vice President The role of the Vice President calls for someone to have exceptional managerial skills in higher education, government...

Words: 1055 - Pages: 5

Current Affairs

...Inclusive Learning Guaranteed!!! (LIKE US ON FACEBOOK AND GET ALL IMPORTANT UPDATES) Category Wise Current Affairs from January 2015 to June 2015 1) Awards and Honours 2) Appointments 3) Banking and Finance 4) Indian Affairs 5) International Affairs 6) Science and Technology 7) Sports 8) Obituary Visit for Current Affairs, General Knowledge, Current Affairs Quiz, Banking Quiz, Marketing Quiz, Science Quiz, English Quiz..etc 9) Important days observed from January to June THE MORE YOU VISIT THE MORE YOU SUCCEED All the Success for your upcoming Exams!!! Contact us at & (Feedbacks are Greatly Appreciated) Do It Now. Sometimes Later Becomes Never. Current Affairs Jan to June AWARDS AND HONOURS Name of the Award Business Person of the Year State Pre-Eminent Science and Technology Award 2015 Space Pioneer Award Award Winner Larry Page Yu Min – Nuclear Scientist ISRO’s Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) Team Asian Tour’s Players Player of Anirban Lahiri the Year Ballon d’Or 2014 Award Cristiano Ronaldo Governor of the Year Raghuram Rajan National e-Governance Award Vyas Samman Award 2014 Jammu and Kashmir National Tiger Conservation Authority Award Vikram Sarabhai Memorial Award Sahitya Akademi Award Periyar Tiger Reserve NSC Award for Best Electoral Practices Social Media Person of the year 2015 Giraffe Hero Award Best Indian Language Website in India Hindu Literary Prize 2014 CV Anand Martin......

Words: 30993 - Pages: 124


...governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology. This process has effects on the environment, on culture, on political systems, on economic development and prosperity, and on human physical well-being in societies around the world. : all those processes by which the peoples of the world are incorporated into a single world society. : Globalization can thus be defined as the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa. For eg. Recession US eg The International Monetary Fund (IMF) identified four basic aspects of globalization: trade and transactions, capital and investment movements, migration and movement of people and the dissemination of knowledge. Further, environmental challenges such as climate change, cross-boundary water, air pollution, and over-fishing of the ocean are linked with globalization. Globalizing processes affect and are affected by business and work organization, economics, socio-cultural resources, and the natural environment. Globalization is deeply controversial, however. Proponents of globalization argue that it allows poor countries and their citizens to develop economically and raise their standards of living, while opponents of globalization claim that the creation of an unfettered international free market has benefited multinational......

Words: 2545 - Pages: 11

Geopolitics South and Central Asia

...May 12th, 2013 GEOPOLITICS OF SOUTH AND CENTRAL ASIA Borders in South and Central Asia INTRODUCTION While some seem to care above all about the economic growth of several booming economies (or as they are often called “emerging markets”, such as China, Russia or India), it is legitimate for others to worry more about the borders of some states in the very same region. A border is the very line separating two political or geographical areas, more commonly called countries. Whereas in some parts of the world, the borders between two countries are not even a marked and are seen as simple trade corridors, the issue is raised in a totally different way when it comes to both South and Central Asia. The question of borders presents a major problem for several countries, especially given all it symbolizes: the stability of a state and its legal territory, a politically controlled and delimited zone and a corridor between two nations. Were it after the end of the British Empire or that of the Soviet era, the borders keep being a matter of dispute and the cause of severe contentiousness in South and Central Asia nowadays. Drug trafficking and the circulation of energy are not the only problems. The border disputes mostly jeopardize the transnational security and the ethnical conflicts at stake. A territorial dispute is a disagreement over the possession or control of land between two or more states, or over the possession and control of land by a new state that is...

Words: 3412 - Pages: 14

Geopolitics in Euro-Mediterranean Area

...GEOPOLITICS IN EURO-MEDITERRANEAN AREA Introduction Since several centuries, The Euro-Mediterranean Area has always been the center of the world, geopolitically speaking, representing a major hub when it comes to political interactions, commercial alliances, diplomatic communication and socio-cultural connections. The appellation of United States of Europe can highlight the crucial importance of these nations and the impact of its cooperation and interactions at the international level. In July 13th 2008, Nicolas Sarkozy had triggered a process that led to the Union for the Mediterranean that became today a huge union between countries all around the world, over and above the Mediterranean Sea, attesting of the tremendous magnitude of its geopolitical power. To me, the major objective of this Union should be conducted by a real long-term geopolitical, economic and socio-cultural strategy aiming the promotion of the economical integration and democratic reforms among and between Euro-Mediterranean nations. Since this geopolitical area is highly characterized by an ambient heterogeneity, between North Nations and South Nations in one hand, between wealthy powers, and more underprivileged countries on the other hand, economical and socio-cultural disparities between different geopolitical regions seems to me that they represent the 1st major problem and geopolitical challenge. Indeed, this inevitable battle for a homogeneous united geopolitical area can be a capital......

Words: 600 - Pages: 3