Fruit Flies

In: Science

Submitted By elodge
Words 685
Pages 3
The Genetics of Fruit Flies can be Used to Understand Human Genetics

Introduction:
A gene is the functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genotype and phenotype are products of the different genes that one inherits. Genotype is the genetic constitution of an organism or cell. The observable physical and/or biochemical characteristics of the expression of a gene are the phenotypes (Genetics Home Reference 2013). A monohybrid cross is for a single trait when different alleles are combined through mating. A dihybrid cross calls focuses on two traits. Alleles on the sex chromosomes result in sex linked traits. In this experiment, multiple generations of Drosophilia melanogaster were examined and their hereditary traits analyzed. My hypotheses is that the traits will end up in a 1:1 ratio.The goal of this experiment was to note the traits of the fruit flies and how they relate to human genetics.

Section Fri

Tables

F2 Generation Predictions Results

Eye Color

Wings

Half Red, Half White Half winged, Half Not All Red All Males had Wings

Materials and Methods: A parental generation of the fruit flies was obtained. Then 10 flies, 5 of each gender, of the F1 generation were obtained from the parent generation. Then 50-60 members of the F2 generation were obtained. At each stage, gender, eye color and wings were examined using a dissecting microscope after the flies were knocked out by FlyNap. Next, in the large petri dishes, crosses 2A and 2B were made, again noting gender, eye color and wings.

Cross 2B Parent Gen. F1 Gen.

Male Red Eyes White Eyes

Female White Eyes Red Eyes

Discussion

Throughout this experiment, red eyes were consistently shown to be dominant in all cases. Out of 51 flies tested after having a parent generation with one carrier of red eyes, all of the offspring had red eyes. White eyes were…...

Similar Documents

Fruit of the Loom

...Fruit of the Loom Crystal Hendren Professor Gregorio Business Law I August 24, 2012 Fruit of the Loom headquarters are in Bowling Green Kentucky. It was founded in 1851. It is owned by Berkshire Hathaway. The company is one of the largest manufacturers it markets men’s, boy’s, women’s, and girls underwear. They also do T-shirts and fleece, casual wear, and women’s jeans wear. Fruit of the Loom emploees more than 32,000 people world wide. There logo is an apple, leaves, green grapes, currants, and purple grapes. The first thing that I will talk about is what they are planning to do in the next 5 years. The second thing is the upcoming initiative(s) and what the impact of those laws will be. The third thing is the applicable sales, licensing, and e-Commerce laws and what the company will need to take into consideration during their initiative(s). The fourth and final thing will be the recommendations for the company to minimize the threat of lawsuits relating to privacy protection. The product liability, or intellectual property rights. The first thing is they are going to reduce carbon emissions, such as reducing packaging, recycling and reducing transport distances. The second one is that they are going to start making kids clothes. The third one is that they are going to have more people working for them. The fourth thing is that they are going to try to get people to buy more of there stock so that they can do better. The fifth and final one is that they are going......

Words: 960 - Pages: 4

Fruit Fly Lab

...company that bred the flies for us (Carolina Biological). The P generation is purebred for their particular phenotype (Homozygous). The day that they were placed in the vials is marked on the vials, as well as the phenotypes of the p generation. After 2 weeks of breeding and laying eggs, the P generation was removed and the vials were shipped. The flies that you are working with today are the F1 generation. Then we selected 5 male and females flies and placed them in a vial with culture medium. After about 10 days we will remove the F1 flies and count the F2 flies. From that data we will determine if the trait of Eye Color is sex linked or autosomal. If a trait is sex-linked, then it is concerning characteristics that are determined by genes carried on the sex chromosomes (on the X chromosome in particular). If a trait is autosomal then it originated off any non sex-chromosome. The Results of Mendel’s Studies in Heredity Using Pea Plants Generation | Phenotypic Ratio(Dominant : Recessive) | Genotypic Ratio(Homozygous Dominant : Heterozygous : Homozygous Recessive) | P (parental) | 1 : 1 | 1 : 0 : 1 | F1 (first filial) | 4 : 0 | 0 : 4 : 0 | F2 (second filial) | 3 : 1 | 1 : 2 : 1 | Hypothesis: If eye color of Drospophila is tested, then eye color will be a sex linked trait. Annotated Photo: Microscope-> <- Stopper <- Flys FlyNap <-Vial <wand <-Petri dish to identify Flys Variables: ......

Words: 1183 - Pages: 5

Fruits

...Contents Fruits: 1 Apple 1 Banana 3 Guava 4 Mango 5 Grapes 6 Peaches 7 Orange /Citrus/ kinnu 8 Water Melon 9 Sweet melon 11 Strawberry 12 Pear 13 Apricot 14 Pomegranate 16 Lychee 17 Pineapple 18 Cherry 19 Black Plum (Jamun) 20 Raspberry 21 Papaya: 23 Fruits: Apple Delicious and crunchy apple fruit is one of the most popular fruit favored by health conscious, fitness freaks who believe in “health is wealth.”Scientific name: Malus domestica Apples are low in calories; 100 g of fresh fruit slices provide only 50 calories. Nutrients: Apples contain antioxidant and fiber and Apples however, contain no saturated fats or cholesterol Apple also contains small amount of minerals like potassium, phosphorus, and calcium. In addition, apple fruit is a good source of B-complex vitamins such as riboflavin, thiamin, and pyridoxine (vitamin B-6) Nutritional value: Preparation | Serving Size | Carbs | Fiber(g) | Fat(g) | Energy(kj) | Apple (peeled) | 1 medium sized 100g | 12 | 1 | 0 | 205 | Apple (unpeeled) | 1 medium sized 100g | 15 | 2.5 | 0 | 250 | Disease-fighting factor: Apple Fiber helps to prevent absorption of dietary LDL cholesterol in the gut. The dietary fibers also help protect the mucous membrane of the colon from exposure to toxic substances by binding to cancer causing chemicals in the colon. Apples contain antioxidants which may help lower the chance of developing diabetes and asthma. Apples are......

Words: 6543 - Pages: 27

Fruit Essay

...I picked up the notice of this assignment late in the day and not with much time to put five minutes of thought into it before entering into a two and a half hour Business calculus lecture, which was a complete strain on the neural pathways. I left tired and a little confused but with intent – I was going to find my fruit specimen and I got a little excited. I jumped into my truck and after picking up a burrito for dinner, I headed straight for home. Auto-pilot had kicked in, with tiredness and food on the mind there was only one destination, luckily a sign from the heavens appeared. A giant, glowing, red Vons supermarket sign, that awoke me from my transient state. A total blessing, as I would have been completely fruitless otherwise. Entering the store, I thought about the type of fruit I wanted to peruse for this essay. I was thinking something tropical, exotic, different and exciting. I was feeling intense inspiration from the fruit I was inventing, when I happened to pass an apple stand. Completely different from the extravagance held in my mind’s eye and you might be thinking “how obvious and boring”. However, one apple stood out. Its color patterns intrigued me, almost hypnotizing in its appearance and I knew instantly it was the one. Arriving home, I dropped my bags by my bed and ran through a quick mental list of the best places to do this intense study of the object and I. The ideal spot needed to be quiet and free from distractions. My bedroom was just too......

Words: 842 - Pages: 4

Lord of the Flies

...Devine Providence Block 3 In the novel Lord of the Flies by William Golding, several school boys are stranded on a deserted island with no adults. At first, they are scared and don’t know what to do so they elect a chief, Ralph, to run the show and keep everything/everyone in order. When they realize that they don’t have to listen to what Ralph is demanding, the island turns to chaos and the boys turn into little savages. It is a struggle for them to survive and as a result two young, innocent children pay the price for others actions. When they are finally rescued the school boys are ecstatic and can’t wait. Although, there are a lot of things they are going to have to learn all over and try to pick up where they left off. Ralph, “He was old enough, twelve years and a few months…” “You could see now that he might make a boxer, as far as width and heaviness of shoulders went…” (Golding 10). He is, out of all the boys the most calm and collected, mentally. When the officer arrived at the island the boys were stunned, but at the same time half of their mind said “Let’s go home,” and the other half said “I want to stay.” As happy as Ralph is to go home, he has a lot that is going to have to be re-taught before everything returns to normal. Compared to expectations for Jack, Ralph’s transition to “normalcy” will be somewhat smoother and easier. During the whole spine tingling experience on the island, all he tried to do was keep thing in order with the help of his new......

Words: 688 - Pages: 3

Fruit Malabon

...Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Objective of the Study The study is conducted, which aimed to identify the feasibility of the proposed business “Knights’ Fruit Malabon” at Poblacion, Mawab, Compostela Valley Province. Determining and identifying the procedures of the whole operation of the chosen business from its production, marketing and financing the said business. The objective of the study is to promote the product and create a harmonious relationship towards the customers and in the society. Moreover, to offer good quality products and services not only for the purpose of earning profit but also to meet the customer’s needs and wants. Methodology Having teamwork, hard work and patience are some of the effective keys in order to have a successful feasibility study. Those techniques are being applied by the researchers in order to have a good output of the said research. Different techniques and strategies are being used prior to the day of interview. These techniques such as questionnaires are being distributed to the prospect buyers in order to gather data like their preferences in terms of our offered products. And then all date gathered are analyze by the researchers in order to come up with a comprehensive feasibility study. Scope and Limitation of the Study One of the limitations of the study is that the business is limited on its target market capacity of purchasing. In terms of its production, the proposed business hence, the limitations of the tools......

Words: 7516 - Pages: 31

Fruit Battery

...qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyui opasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfgh jklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvb nmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwer Fruit Batteries Science Fair Project tyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopas Project Guidebook dfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzx cvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmq wertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuio pasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghj klzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbn mqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwerty uiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdf ghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxc vbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmrty uiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdf ghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxc © 2009 Supercharged Science By Aurora Lipper © 2009 Supercharged Science www.AwesomeScienceProjects.com Page 1 Table of Contents Table of Contents ........................................................................................................................2 How to Use This Book: ................................................................................................................3 Materials List...............................................................................................................................5 Create a Science Fair Project with Fruit & Veggies .......................................................................6 Sample Data Sheet ....................................................................................................................10 Sample Report ................................................................

Words: 6809 - Pages: 28

Fruits of the Spirit

...Fruits of the Spirit Galatians 5:22-23 22 But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, 23 gentleness and self-control. Against such things there is no law. These are some of the most pleasing virtues that can ever be offered and, to our benefit, happen to be the fruit that have become available to us upon living according to the Spirit God has given us! In order for us to become more insync with the Spirit God has given us we will be focusing on one of these fruits a month for the next nine months (nine fruits) allowing us to experience the fullness of the Spirit God has given us! Month #1: October Fruit #1: Love Goal: Fill the month of October with love! Lets pump this month full of love! Each week should include an extension of love to God, each other, to the lost, the disciples, and the people in our families. Additionally each week will include a day with a personal quiet time on the topic of the love to be shared with one another during our talk times in addition to the weekly focus seen below: Week 1: October 1-October 4 -Love Languages Week 2: October 5-October 11 -the Lost Week 3: October 12-October 18 -the Disciples Week 4: October 19-October 25 -Family and Each Other Week 5: October 26-October 31 -God (the idea is not to love God last but to save the best for last) *note: It is encouraged that each week receives its assigned focus but is not limited to its assigned focus...

Words: 306 - Pages: 2

Lord of the Flies

...In this competitive era, everyone is eager to gain something. Positive attitude on satisfying desire can push one to achieve one’s dream, while radical and unsatisfied desire will ruin one’s humanity and take away one’s reason. “a contented mind is a continual feast” is a good suggestion about how to control ambitious. In Lord of the flies, it is their different attitudes toward how to satisfy their desire make them have different fates. Field Marshal said, “The most powerful weapon on earth is the human soul on fire.” When you set the fire of kind desire for power, your weapon is a shield, which protects your followers and saves your conscience. In an opposite way, the weapon can be a spear, which not only hurts followers but also spears you. In Lord of the Flies, the desire for power breaks boys’ brittle civilization, causes conflict and competition, and finally devastates the island. Jack, an aggressive and ambitious boy, is novel’s primary representative of primitive, instinctual savagery and the desire of power. In the beginning of chapter 2, Ralph encourages boys to vote for a chief, he  [Ralph] lifted the conch. “Seems to me we ought to have a chief to decide things.” “A chief! A chief!” “I ought to be chief,” said Jack with simple arrogance, "because I'm chapter chorister and head boy. I can sing C sharp."(22) Jack thinks there’s no doubt that he should hold the power because he gets used to being the top one in a group. However, he fails to be elected. Since then,......

Words: 1158 - Pages: 5

Lord of the Flies

...Home Page Title Page LORD OF THE FLIES Contents Page 1 of 290 Go Back Full Screen Close Quit Home Page Title Page LORD OF THE FLIES Contents a novel by WILIAM GOLDING Page 2 of 290 Go Back G LOBAL V ILLAGE C ONTEMPORARY C LASSICS Full Screen Close Quit This e-book was set with the help of KOMAScript and LaTeX Home Page Title Page Contents Page 3 of 290 Go Back Full Screen Close Quit Home Page Title Page Contents Contents 1 The Sound of the Shell 5 2 Fire on the Mountain 42 3 Huts on the Beach 65 4 Painted Faces and Long Hair 80 5 Beast from Water Page 4 of 290 106 Go Back 6 Beast from Air 134 7 Shadows and Tall Trees 155 8 Gift for the Darkness 177 9 A View to a Death 207 Full Screen Close Quit 10 The Shell and the Glasses 221 Home Page 11 Castle Rock 242 12 Cry of the Hunters 262 Title Page Contents Page 5 of 290 Go Back Full Screen Close Quit Home Page 1 The Sound of the Shell Title Page Contents The boy with fair hair lowered himself down the last few feet of rock and began to pick his way toward the lagoon. Though he had taken off his school sweater and trailed it now from one hand, his grey shirt stuck to him and his hair was plastered to his forehead. All round him the long scar smashed into the jungle was a bath of heat. He was......

Words: 65127 - Pages: 261

Fruits and Vegetables

...Fruits and Vegetables Throughout my adolescence I have been told that fruits and vegetables are essential to a quality health. “An apple a day keeps the doctor away” or “It is important to eat your veggies to grow big and strong.” Although these foods contribute to a good health, they also differ in many ways. There are distinct requirements that allow a fruit to be a fruit, and a vegetable to be a vegetable, and the tastes and usage of these foods often bear no resemblance with each other. Before I proceed, I feel it is necessary to clarify any common misconception about fruits and vegetables that were brought up throughout my research. The tomato, thought to be a vegetable by many, as well as myself, is actually not, it is a fruit. The pumpkin and avocado also fall into the category of a fruit ("Did you know fruit facts".) These false impressions result in the mistaken identity in countless fruits and vegetables. A fruit is the ripened ovary of a flowering plant, often sweet and fleshy ("Fruits vs Vegetables"). On most accounts, fruits are foods that are consumed for dessert or as a snack. For example: apple pie, a banana split, or a strawberry shortcake, all of which are desserts with ingredients that require the use of fruit (MarthaStewart.com). The majority of fruits taste rather sweet due to a simple sugar called fructose. However, fructose is not the only element found in fruits. For a fruit to truly be a fruit, it must contain seeds. Some examples of......

Words: 1876 - Pages: 8

Vita Fruit

...body in the healthiest mix of 10 organic fruits” A) Advantages and values of VITAfruit: VITAfruit is a unique organic energy drink composed of mix of ten organic fruits high in vitamin c, green tea and caffeine free for a healthy lifestyle. This drink has many benefits for the body, it gives you a pure energy coming from the vitamin in 10 different fruits. B) Objectives of VITAfruit: The main goal of VITAfruit, is to change people’s opinion about the energy drinks and to prove to them that a magic healthy and organic recipe exits that will give you all the energy and nutrition that your body needs. C) The issues that VITAfruit treats: The most important issue that VITAfruit will treat is to ensure a caffeine free recipe and that will guarantee an energy drink without any health effect and that will permit to the customer to consume it as many times as they want without any concern about their health: Heart attack, anxiety… 2- Market Research: http://www.imglv.com/articles/achieveconsistentquality.htm After a one-on-one interview with 5 different persons in 24 hours fitness, La Jolla UTC; we came up with these answers: Customers ‘profiles: Actives / following a healthy life style/ athletic/ working a full time job Customer’s needs: Quick meals/ Energy / Healthy drinks and meals/ Products and their customer fit: Energy drinks/ Protein Powders/ Healthy snacks/ Meals based on vegetables, proteins and fruits/Gym/Yoga… 3-Define the......

Words: 1587 - Pages: 7

Drosphilla Flies

...Eyeless mutation gene located within the second intron of Drosophila melanogaster Justin Lazarus Genetic 300 Abstract The following experiment was conduct over a several week time span to determine and identify the mutation that is causing the eyeless mutation within the Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies. The experiment included genome sequencing and comparison between the Drosophila melanogaster wild type and the Drosophila melanogaster eyeless type. After combining the two different phenotypes. We determined that we were unable to visualize the mutation at a chromosomal level, as both wild-type and eyeless flies looked similar. The experiment involved electrophoresis and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) through which we were able to isolate and amplify the needed DNA eyeless DNA. The difference between the wild-type Drosophila melanogaster and the eyeless Drosophila melanogaster is approximately only 500-nucleotide base pairs. As we see the eyeless phenotype is approximately 3000 base pairs in length while the wild-type phenotype is approximately 2500 nucleotides base pairs in length, a difference of about 500 base pairs. After completing nucleotide sequencing and comparing our data on the blast website, we determined that the eyeless mutation has being interest exons two and three, but more specifically the mutation itself was located within the second intron at base pairs 8264 to 9212. Introduction In the early 20th century scientists had already been acquainted......

Words: 4038 - Pages: 17

Fruit

...meats, fish, poultry, fruits and vegetables. Employees will be trained on stocking, storing, rotating, and how to keep the shelves appealing to the eye. Personally, I like the idea of fresh fruit and vegetables on the shelves. I think everyone does. Where I shop, I have seen shriveled zucchini. I have seen berries with mold on them. I have seen oranges that have completely lost its shape and color because of negligence from the produce manager and their employees. This is disappointing to anyone who enjoys fresh fruits and vegetables. Produce managers are expected to keep the shelves fully stocked to please their bosses, which ultimately forces them to keep bad food on the shelves because they do not have the stock to replenish the shelves. Any consumer who has food stamps would easily result to buying unhealthier foods if all the store has is old fruits and vegetables.  While this idea does seem attractive, the goal might be unattainable. The USDA might not be successful because the idea seems to conform to a demand that isn't there. Food stamps households do not demand fresh fruits and vegetables as much as unhealthier foods. If farmers are supplying more fruits and vegetables and keeping the shelves full with fresh-pick leafy greens and crisp apples to comply with government interference in consumer choices, the prices for those goods will surely go up. Not only will the prices for these goods go up, there will be a lot of waste. To keep fresh fruits and vegetables on......

Words: 531 - Pages: 3

Fruit Flies

...Linkage Mapping in Drosophila Introduction Common fruit flies, D. melanogaster, have been found as one of the most useful tools in genetic research. The reason behind that it is a popular experimental organism is due to the high likely hood of producing mutant, visible individuals. Geneticist, Thomas Morgan Hunt, was the first to discover the Drosophila as a model organism to study genetic hereditary. His research showed that the species could randomly obtain genetic mutations that could be visible in the parental generation. Since fruit flies have a diploid chromosome number of 8 (haploid 4), chromosomal types are easily identified. Various genetic crosses are able to determine that the x-linked gene is found on chromosome 1, while the autosomal genes are located on the 2-4 chromosomes. Mapping of unknown mutations by reciprocal crosses can identify if the alleles are x-linked or autosomal and if these alleles are dominant or recessive. Once the type of allele is determined, other genetic crosses can determine the location of the chromosome that the mutagen is one. For the x-linked mutations, a three factor test cross can induce map order and distance. The physical distance separating two genes on the chromosome (map distance) is directly related the frequency of recombination between markers during meiosis. The greater the map distance of the genes, the greater the probability that there is crossing over when the chromosomes segregate in......

Words: 1820 - Pages: 8