Flame Spread on Ppma

In: Science

Submitted By kamare
Words 2735
Pages 11
Table of Contents
Abstract 2

Introduction 2

The Fire Problem 2

Methodology 5

Results and discussion 6

Processes of flame spread 7

Diffusion flame spread 8

Thermal Model 8

Transition to Turbulence 10

References 13


The fires problem is one of the hazard pose a threat to life and property. Flames behave differently under various conditions which include: the oxygen available, combustible material, orientation of surfaces, etc. this a complex phenomena which is influenced by multiple factors that includes ignition, heat release rate, flame spread and the generation of different products of combustion like carbon IV oxide and carbon II oxide. The research was performed by studying various sources in the library and in the internet and also performing experiments to simulate a real life situation.


The Fire Problem

The flammability of a material is a complex event which is influenced by multiple factors that includes ignition, heat release rate, flame spread and the generation of different products of combustion like carbon IV oxide and carbon II oxide. In order to better protect the people and property from risk posed by the unwanted fires, it become necessary to understands all these factors under different conditions.
Babrauskas and Vytenis 1992 suggested that heat release rate is the main variable in fire hazard; but Kashiwagi and Ito argued effectively that, the flame spread over the surface of combustible material such a wall and a floor is the main variable responsible for the growth of fire at the initial stages of fire. In addition, the angle of orientation of the combustible material has been found to contribute to the flame spread; specifically, upward flame spread on a vertical surface has been recognized as important since it is often present during the development of…...

Similar Documents

Fire Spread

...Fire Spread By: John Williams Abstract A fire is a rapidly moving element that can spread quickly from one building to another. In the event a fire ignites, firefighters must be aware of the factors that cause a fire to spread quickly and work to prevent those elements from aiding in the fuel of the fire. Fire spreads by three causes: convection, conduction and radiation. Fire control (or fire fighting) consists of depriving a fire of fuel (Reducing Agent), oxygen (Oxidizing Agent), heat and/or the chemical chain reaction that are necessary to sustain itself or re-kindle (also known as the four components of the fire tetrahedron). Firefighters are equipped with a wide variety of equipment to accomplish this task. Some of their tools include ladder trucks, pumper trucks, tanker trucks, fire hose, and fire extinguishers. Very frequent training and refresher training is required. Structure fires may be attacked, generally, either by "interior" or "exterior" resources, or both. Interior crews, using the "two-in, two out" rule, may advance hose lines inside the building, find the fire and cool it with water. Exterior crews may direct water into windows or other openings, or against other nearby fuels exposed to the initial fire. A proper command structure will plan and coordinate the various teams and equipment to safely execute each tactic. Most...

Words: 1381 - Pages: 6

Flame Colors

...- [pic] ABSTRACT A flame test is an analytical technique to identify the presence of metal ions in a sample by heating the sample with a flame and examining the color of the flame. It is also used to visually determine the identity of an unknown metal or metalloid ion based on the characteristic color the salt turns the flame of an alcohol lamp. The heat of the flame excites the metals ions, causing them to emit visible light. The characteristic emission spectra can be used to differentiate between some elements. Different metal electrons emit different wavelengths of light to return to their respective ground states, so the flame colors are varied.  These flames can be used to produce atomic emission spectra of the elements combusted.   Using known values of emission spectra, one can perform a flame test on un unknown substance, gather an emission spectrum from it, and determine which elements are in the unknown substance. INTRODUCTION The smallest particle of an element that exist and still have the properties of the element called “Atom”. Electrons specify the chemical properties of atoms. Shells or energy level is the electrons in an atom that exist in layers. Usually, atoms do not eject radiation but there are ways of causing radiation to be ejected. The simplest thing to do is to heat the atoms. When an atom is heated, It soak up the energy causing its electron to get excited to positions of higher potential energy father away from......

Words: 1072 - Pages: 5

The Spread of the Vernacular Language

...The Spread of the Vernacular Language One may wonder what is vernacular. Vernacular can be defined as “using a language or Dialect native to a region or country rather than a literary, cultured, or foreign language” (Merriam- Webster). The language of vernacular began to spread in the twelfth century. Before the vernacular language, people only knew Latin. There was a difference between Latin language and vernacular language. The difference was that Latin was written, spoken, and taught to all literacy; whereas vernacular language was more of a dialect and it was not taught to all literacy. Latin had more than just one form of culture because over time it had continued to change. People had the ability to read and write, but the Latin literacy became limited to people during the twelfth century. Vernacular language was more commonly spoken, but writers began using the language in their writing. Vernacular language had an impact on cultures during the twelfth century. Before the twelfth century, Latin was more popular among people, but the origin of vernacular language began and spread. Latin language was very popular among the people. Latin was the growth of the Roman Empire and its language had spread, being used throughout the Mediterranean. Latin was originally an Italic language. Its heritage was the Indo- European family, and then later it started to influence other languages. Writer’s like Dante Alighieri began speaking to a wider audience. Vernacular was also......

Words: 508 - Pages: 3

Spread of Islam

...The spread of Islam started shortly after the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad in 632 AD. During his lifetime, the community of Muhammad, the ummah, was established in the Arabian Peninsula by means of conversion to Islam and conquering of territory, and oftentimes the conquered had to either accept Islam or pay tax (jizyah) for protection if they chose to not convert. Among others, the tax permitted the non-Muslim citizens to practice their faith, and ensure protection from outside aggressors. In the first centuries conversion to Islam followed the rapid growth of the Islamic world under the Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphs. Muslim dynasties were soon established and subsequent empires such as those of the Abbasids, Fatimids, Almoravids, Seljuk Turks, Mughals in India and Safavids in Persia and Ottomans were among the largest and most powerful in the world. The Islamic world was composed of numerous sophisticated centers of culture and science with far-reaching mercantile networks, travelers, scientists, hunters, mathematicians, doctors and philosophers, all of whom contributed to the Golden Age of Islam. The activities of this quasi-political early ummah resulted in the spread of Islam as far from Mecca as China and Indonesia, the latter containing the world's largest Muslim population. As of October 2009, there were 1.571 billion Muslims,[1] making Islam the second-largest religion in the world.[2] THE EXTRAORDINARY SPREAD OF ISLAM AND ITS MAIN DYNAMICS Islam, in......

Words: 452 - Pages: 2

The Spread of Christianity

...Help spread the religion Christianity is one of the world’s largest and oldest religions. It has a very diverse history and has gone through many stages to get to where it is today. As of 2010, a comprehensive demographic study of more than 200 countries found that there are approximately 2.18 billion followers of the Christian faith, of all ages around the world, representing nearly a third of the estimated 2010 global population of 6.9 billion. That is vast. So, how did the religion survive pressure, from both Judaism and Islam, and go on to become the leading religion in the world? Christianity’s history is immense to say the least. This Abrahamic religion originates from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus of Nazareth, also known as the Christ, in the 1st century AD. His stories and history can be found in the Holy Bible and more specifically the gospel via the New Testament of the Holy Bible. Christianity as a whole acknowledges that humanity is flawed and needs a savior. According to Christians, Jesus Christ is that savior. It is written in the Holy Bible, in the book of John, Chapter 3, verses 16–18: “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.” This belief in Jesus’ divinity helps followers to embrace the doctrine of original sin and directs its followers on how to repent for committed sins. Initially, the Christianity cause was an underground one. The religion......

Words: 1241 - Pages: 5

Spread Dakwah by Technology

...WRITING TEST 1 (15%) In today’s world, they cannot deny the influence of technology in our lives especially to teenagers, the biggest user of it. So, in that opportunity, technology can be used in spread dakwah among every technology’s user. Dakwah can be spread by many ways of technology because it can ease the way of delivering dakwah. This essay will discuss how technology can help to give a new dimension in dakwah. By technology, social network can be use in help to give a new dimension in dakwah. In social network, such as Facebook, Twitter, Wechat, they can share status about Islam. There they can learn at least a little bit about Islam. They also can post many pictures that related about Islam. This way is easy to delivered dakwah because it more interesting. At least they did not use social network in a wrong way. Other than that, media network also can be use in help to give a new dimension in dakwah. Television, radio, and mp3 are categorized as media network. Through the concept of broadcast television and radio programming will help provide an understanding of Islam more deeply and easily through audiovisual form to the audience. Station television that uses most concept of Islamic missionary approach is Tv Al-Hijrah. Same goes to radio station that use the same concept is IKIM.FM. Both are trying to make people understand more about Islam in dakwah. Last but not least, technology that can help to give a new dimension in dakwah is palmtops and PDAs.......

Words: 354 - Pages: 2

The Creation and Spread of Islam

...The Creation and Spread of Islam Paper The creation and spread of Islam came from the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. It was believed that a merchant called Muhammad began to have religious experiences, and by the time he died, most of Arabia had accepted his belief. The spread of Islam came about a century later, after Muhammad’s followers control other countries around the Arabian Peninsula. The spread of Islam continued for centuries and was influenced throughout the Eastern and Western civilizations. The early years of Muhammad’s life was based from oral tradition. There is no current evidence or any materials that shows us who Muhammad really was. Everything about Muhammad was passed down from one generation to another which was the only biography of Muhammad. The biography became a model of Muhammad, and was an example that Muslims believer would emulate. Muhammad’s story is similar to the sources of information about Jesus. Information about Muhammad’s existence came after his death. Muhammad was an orphan at age six who was brought up by his uncle, and as he grew older became a merchant in the caravan trade. Muhammad was very religious, self-disciplined, and he dedicated himself to meditation. He was able to admire things and think about it for a long period of time. Muhammad had a deep religious experience at or around the age of forty, as he spent some time in the cave in the hills near Mecca where he was adapted himself to praying. After his religious...

Words: 963 - Pages: 4

Silver Bear Spread

...Derivatives Markets: Futures and Options December 9, 2013 Authored by: Kelly Smith Derivatives Markets: Futures and Options December 9, 2013 Authored by: Kelly Smith | Silver Bear Put Spread | | An investment strategy to capitalize on a forecasted weakness in the silver spot market | | Silver Bear Put Spread | | An investment strategy to capitalize on a forecasted weakness in the silver spot market | Hypothesis – Silver Prices Forecasted to Decline Based on key macro and micro economic indicators relevant to the silver market, I conclude that spot silver prices will continue to decline in both the short and long term. Several noteworthy firms also support this hypothesis, including UBS, CPM Group, and HSBC Holdings. UBS, for example, lowered their 2014 silver price forecast December 2, 2013, citing that “the new year will likely tempt investors to move out of precious metals into other assets.” They lowered their average price expectations for silver from $25 previously to $20.50/oz. for 2014 and from $24 to $21 in 2015. For the purpose of this assignment, I am assuming the role of a speculator. As such, I will open a Silver Bear Spread with the intention to capture a significant short-term profit – the intended result based on my hypothesis that silver prices will continue to trend lower. Silver Supply and Demand Economics Industrial demand growth, driven by technology advances for several decades, appears to have plateaued. In...

Words: 1538 - Pages: 7

Flame Photometry

...Flame Photometry 1) Principal of Flame Photometry: It is the conversion of molecules to their component atoms in gaseous state ; and it is carried out by introduction of the molecules solution in the flame in very fine droplet Atoms in gaseous state in the flame absorb thermal energy from the flame itself ,some of the atoms get excited & as they return back to the ground state they emit radiation having energy equal to that absorbed. The emission is proportional to the number of excited atoms, which is proportional to the total number of atoms in the flame i.e. the sample concentration When a metallic salt solution is aspirated into path of flame, following events takes place; 1) Vaporization: The solvent is vaporized leaving particles of solid salt. 2) Atomization : The salt is vaporized and converted into free neutral gaseous atoms or radicals 3) Excitation: Some of these atoms are excited by the thermal energy of the flame to higher energy levels.The various events are as follows, Sample Solution Fine Mist M+ X  Solid Particles MX M+ X  Ground  State    gaseous  atoms   Excited Gaseous Metal atoms Gaseous Atoms M(g)+ X(g) Gaseous Molecules MX The excited metal atoms are unstable at higher energy level, and quickly returns to lower energy state, while coming to lower energy they emit light of their own characteristic wavelength. The measurement emitted photons (light) forms the basis of flame photometry. The colour of the flame tells us which......

Words: 1388 - Pages: 6

What If Christianity Didn't Spread

...prophesied in the Old Testament. Originating from the Middle East, it quickly spread to Syria, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, and Egypt. It grew in size and influence over a few centuries, and by the end of the 4th century had become the official state church of the Roman Empire, replacing other forms of religion practiced under Roman rule. During the Middle Ages, most of the remainder of Europe was Christianized. The Catholic Church, one of the most powerful organizations on the planet would never have existed, because of that King Henry VIII wouldn't have separated from the church. Protestants wouldn't exist if King Henry VIII didn’t separate, half of the revolutions that took place wouldn't have happened, and several other religions wouldn't exist. Most of the people would still be in polytheistic religions. Christianity is one of the biggest monotheistic religions all over the world; it has influenced almost every aspect of our daily lives. If Christianity didn’t spread, I could not imagine our life today. Some people say that without Christianity, our technology would be far greater than it is now because Science was held back during the Medieval days and scientists we’re persecuted during those times. It was a dark age for science. Some people would say that if it was not for Christianity we’d all be living in chaos and would still live like our barbaric ancestors. I believe that if Christianity didn’t spread out, we’d all be stuck up and wouldn’t be really living......

Words: 346 - Pages: 2

Chagas Disease Spread

...Diana Frias LACS 271 Professor Almendros March 23,2014 The chagas disease The spread of the chagas disease is most common in places of greater poverty in Latin America and the Caribbean. The chagas disease is a parasitic disease named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas who discovered it in 1909. It is spread to animals and people through a bite of an infected insect named triatomine bugs or “kissing bugs” that carry the parasite known as Trypanosoma cruzi (Boston College). The triatomine insect feeds on the blood a mammal infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, ingesting the parasite. The insect then becomes infected and now moves on to bite a human transferring the parasite. As the insect bites, it releases its feces near the site of the bite wound allowing the parasite to enter the victim. The parasite then invades the first cells it comes in contact with. They use the victim cells to multiply then releasing itself into the victim bloodstream where they will then continue to multiple and spread into different areas in the body. There are many other ways in which the disease can be spread. For example, infections occur from mother to baby, through contaminated blood transfusions, organ transplant from an infected donor and rarely though contaminated food or drinks (FAQs). Symptoms do not show immediately after being bitten by the triatomine bug. It takes from five days to two weeks for slight symptoms to show. Some symptoms are mild fever with body ache and......

Words: 1854 - Pages: 8

Flame Photometery Report

...DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING BULUMA MARK EUGINE F18/1494/2011 GROUP 4 EXPERIMENT 3: FLAME PHOTOMETRY. THE OBJECTIVE OF THE EXPERIMENT. 1. To determine presence and concentration of sodium ions in drinking water. 2. To determine the presence and concentration of potassium ions in an unknown fertilizer sample. THEORY BEHIND THE EXPERIMENT. The major cation of the extracellular fluid is sodium. The typical daily diet contains 130-280 mmol (8-15 g) sodium chloride. The body requirement is for 1-2 mmol per day, so the excess is excreted by the kidneys in the urine. Hyponatraemia (lowered plasma [Na+]) and hypernatraemia (raised plasma [Na+]) are associated with a variety of diseases and illnesses and the accurate measurement of [Na +] in body fluids is an important diagnostic aid. Potassium is the major cation found intracellularly. The average cell has 140 mM K+ inside but only about 10 mM Na+. K+ slowly diffuses out of cells so a membrane pump (the Na +/K+ATPase) continually transports K+ into cells against a concentration gradient. The human body requires about 50-150 mmol/day. Hypokalaemia (lowered plasma [K+]), hyperkalaemia (increased plasma [K+]) and hyperkaluria (increased urinary excretion of K+) are again indicative of a variety of conditions and the clinical measurement of [K+] is also of great importance. INTRODUCTION TO THE EXPERIMENT Flame photometry is a traditional and simple method for determining sodium and......

Words: 1675 - Pages: 7

Stop the Spread (Sex Education)

...Stop The Spread There are many opinions on how certain topics should be taught in schools, and with people from every background imaginable attending our public schools today, it is difficult for a majority to agree on anything. Sex education is one of the most controversial topics concerning public education today. Many parents feel that school is not the place to educate children on sex because, just like religion, different people have different views on the subject. Distributing condoms to students is at the heart of this debate. Many people who take a side on this argument feel the decision to or not to distribute condoms to students will have profound effects on these student’s lives. If students do not have access to condoms, the possible pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases will certainly have a profound effect on them. Much of America feels that handing out condoms to students of any age sends the wrong message. The feeling is that we are supplying those with the necessary tools to have sex when they are not ready to be sexually active, and cannot handle the emotional effects that can ensue. Also, some would see this as telling the students that it is not only okay to have sex, but it is somewhat expected of them. In addition, this supplying of condoms admits a failure of sexual education. These people believe that informing young people of the possible negative effects of a sexually active youth is enough to deter them from any type of sexual......

Words: 592 - Pages: 3

Easy to Spread

...Case Study, 8 – 2 Easy to spread Introduction Using information provided in The Marketing Pathfinder textbook, research carried out via an internet search and a formal interview with Hatuma Lime marketing manager (see Appendix 1 and 2) this assignment will analysis Case 8 – 2 Easy to spread, including answering the questions below. The Purchasing Decision 1. What are factors that a farmer in Taranaki will take into account before purchasing Hatuma Dicalcic Phosphate? Marton Site Logistics 2. Outline the logistic decisions that Hatuma Lime needs to make to set up the Marton site? Building Brand Equity 3. What does management need to do to build the Hatuma Dicalcic Phosphate brand equity? 1 The Purchasing Decision Price Point The farm paddock can be likened to the engine room of the farm, opting not to fertilise for more than one or two years can cause significant damage to a paddock. In 2009 rising cost of fertiliser and decreasing farm income forced farmers to compare the benefit of fertilising paddocks or reducing stock numbers to maintain (Smith, 2009). Phosphate consumption has been steady in recent years at around 140,000 tonnes, indicating good sales for fertiliser companies (Fertiliser Matters, 2015). Hatuma Dicalcic Phosphate marketing manager Aaron Topp feels that high analysis fertilisers have out priced themselves. Dicalcic phosphate (DP) uses 50% less phosphate and is therefor cheaper to produce and purchase (personal communication,......

Words: 1343 - Pages: 6

Homophobia; a Wide Spread Disease

...Homophobia; A Widespread Disease We all hear the words like ”Homo”, “Dyke” and “Faggot” tossed around a lot socially these days, and they may seem harmless. They’re not! These words are used daily by individuals who are known as homophobes. If you were to look up the definition of this term homophobia, it would best be defined as “irrational fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against homosexuality or homosexuals”(Merriam-Webster Dictionary). Homophobia is more wide spread than what most people think, it is present in our country, but also all over the world. In this paper I will discuss how homophobia is not just present here in Canada, but that it exists in Tanzania, South Africa, Johannesburg and how same-sex individuals are effected by the homophobes in their community. The novel Tommy boys, lesbian men and ancestral wives, documents same sexuality in east and southern Africa, where each of the chapters has been co-authored by women activists spanning across six different countries, from Uganda to Namibia. I will be focussing on the Introduction chapter as well as chapter six, which portraits the live of African women engaged in same-sex relations and practices, including the pains of betrayal and the hatred in their communities. When looking at Busi Kheswa and Saskia Wieringa Chapter Six in the novel, Kheswa discusses Nunu, Nokuthula and Zozo, and their experience as same sex individuals in Johannesburg. Kheswa discusses how all her responders have been......

Words: 772 - Pages: 4