Feasibility of Using Biosensors for Heavy Metal Detection in Complex Matrices Such as Bio-Slurries.

In: Science

Submitted By kmunozforti
Words 17229
Pages 69
Maria Vasilenko 223901

Feasibility of using biosensors for heavy metal detection in complex matrices such as bio-slurries.
Master of Science Thesis

Examiners: Professor Matti Karp Professor Raghida Lepistö Examiner and topic approved in The Science and Bioengineering Department Council meeting on 7.11.2012

Abstract
TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Master‟s Degree Programme in Science and Bioengineering Vasilenko Maria: Feasibility of using biosensors for heavy metal detection in complex matrices such as bio-slurries. Seminar paper, 97 pages November 2012 Major: Biotechnology Examiners: Matti Karp, Raghida Lepisto Keywords: environmental pollution, heavy metals, biosensors, slurries The quality of bioslurries that are used in industrial production and agriculture need to be watched very closely to avoid spreading of contaminants on area and poisoning of humans and animals. Because heavy metals are very stable and toxic in many chemical compositions, their amount should be estimated very thoroughly. A new approach that involved biosensors was tested in this study. Because the slurries are complex non-unified matrices which composed of two phases – solid and liquid, the cell behavior can varies a lot from the one that explained in water and so the estimation of ion concentration can be not reliable. It was shown that the cell actually behave different in the slurries. Normally the dissolved compounds suppress the biosensor activity and, in the same time, the ions in the particles can released during the tests and interfere with the signal. So the concentration and the pretreatment of the samples should be chosen for every particular biosensor. Additionally, there was an attempt to measure the heavy metal amount and to compare it with the results that were obtained on AAS. The data declares that the bioavailability may differ in the matrices and so the…...

Similar Documents

Human Face Detection and Recognition Using Web-Cam

...Publications Human Face Detection and Recognition using Web-Cam Petcharat Pattanasethanon and Charuay Savithi Depatment of Business Computer, Faculty of Accountancy and Management, Mahasarakham UniversityKamreang, Kantharawichai, Mahasarakham 44150, Thailand Abstract: Problem statement: The illuminance insensitivity that reflects the angle of human facial aspects occurs once the distance between the object and the camera is too different such as animated images. This has been a problem for facial recognition system for decades. Approach: For this reason, our study represents a novel technique for facial recognition through the implementation of Successes Mean Quantization Transform and Spare Network of Winnow with the assistance of Eigenface computation. After having limited the frame of the input image or images from Web-Cam, the image is cropped into an oval or eclipse shape. Then the image is transformed into greyscale color and is normalized in order to reduce color complexities. We also focus on the special characteristics of human facial aspects such as nostril areas and oral areas. After every essential aspectsarescrutinized, the input image goes through the recognition system for facial identification. In some cases where the input image from the Web-Cam does not exist in the database, the user will be notified for the error handled. However, in cases where the image exists in the database, that image will be computed for similarity measurement using......

Words: 1996 - Pages: 8

Change Detection

...Different Change Detection Techniques Table of Contents Introduction...................................................3 Digital Change Detection Process...............................4 Description of the most commonly used change detection methods.5 I. Post-Classification Comparison..........................5 II. Direct Classification...................................6 III. Principal Component Analysis (PCA)......................6 IV. Image Differencing......................................8 V. Change Vector Analysis (CVA)............................9 Relative accuracy of the most commonly used change detection methods........................................................9 I. Post-Classification Comparison.........................10 II. Direct Classification..................................11 III. Principal Component Analysis (PCA).....................11 IV. Image Differencing.....................................12 V. Change Vector Analysis (CVA) Conclusion....................................................14 References....................................................15 Introduction Remote sensing change detection has been defined as the process of identifying change in the state of an object or phenomena through the detection of differences between two or more sets of images taken of the same area on different dates (Wang, 1993). The underlying assumption is that changes on the ground cause significant......

Words: 3616 - Pages: 15

Biogas Production Using Pig Manure and Poultry Dungs, (Substrates) Onions and Fruit Wastes(Additives) and Fowl Rumen(Inoculum)

...ARTICLE IN PRESS Bioresource Technology xxx (2004) xxx–xxx Review paper Enhancement of biogas production from solid substrates using different techniques––a review Yadvika a, Santosh a b a,* , T.R. Sreekrishnan b, Sangeeta Kohli c, Vineet Rana a Centre for Rural Development & Technology, I.I.T., Delhi 1100016, India Department for Biochemical Engineering & Biotechnology, I.I.T., Delhi 1100016, India c Department of Mechanical Engineering, I.I.T., Delhi 1100016, India Received 31 July 2003; received in revised form 18 August 2003 Abstract Biogas, a clean and renewable form of energy could very well substitute (especially in the rural sector) for conventional sources of energy (fossil fuels, oil, etc.) which are causing ecological–environmental problems and at the same time depleting at a faster rate. Despite its numerous advantages, the potential of biogas technology could not be fully harnessed or tapped as certain constraints are also associated with it. Most common among these are: the large hydraulic retention time of 30–50 days, low gas production in winter, etc. Therefore, efforts are needed to remove its various limitations so as to popularize this technology in the rural areas. Researchers have tried different techniques to enhance gas production. This paper reviews the various techniques, which could be used to enhance the gas production rate from solid substrates. Ó 2004 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Keywords: Biogas production rate; Additives; Anaerobic filters;......

Words: 9334 - Pages: 38

El Heavy Metal: Un Món D'Homes?

...EL HEAVY METAL: UN MÓN D’HOMES? INTRODUCCIÓ- HIPÒTESI DE RESPOSTA Aquest treball l’he realitzat amb el propòsit de resoldre la pregunta següent: Per què hi ha poca presència de la dona als grups de heavy metal? Realitzant una hipòtesi principal abans d’iniciar una possible resposta a aquesta complexa pregunta, en la meva opinió tot el conjunt ideològic que s’atorga al heavy metal ha tingut des de sempre connotacions masculines i, com a conseqüència, un rebuig cap al sector femení. A partir d’aquesta afirmació em qüestiono el següent: Hi ha poques dones en grups de heavy perquè sigui un gènere que escoltin més homes que dones, o bé hi ha poques dones que escoltin heavy a causa de la poca presència de les seves semblants en grups d’aquest estil? El constructe [no sé amb certesa si real o irreal] que el heavy metal és un estil de música escoltat per un públic majoritàriament per masculí probablement justifiqui la presència de tot un conjunt d’elements que ajuden a destacar-ne la “masculinitat”. Com a prova, es pot observar en la posada en escena una actitud “forta”, amb “caràcter”, “firmesa”,... (per exemple, posades d’escena en directe del grup Manowar) que en la nostra societat està associada més amb el gènere masculí que el femení. És evident que, sobretot als grups més reconeguts a nivell comercial, hi ha poca presència de dones, fet que demostra que s’ha creat una clara imatge de......

Words: 6056 - Pages: 25

Distributed Intrusion Detection Using Mobile Agent in Distributed System

...Emerging Trends in Computer Science and Information Technology -2012(ETCSIT2012) Proceedings published in International Journal of Computer Applications® (IJCA) Distributed Intrusion Detection using Mobile Agent in Distributed System Kuldeep Jachak University of Pune, P.R.E.C Loni, Pune, India Ashish Barua University of Pune, P.R.E.C Loni, Delhi, India ABSTRACT Due to the rapid growth of the network application, new kinds of network attacks are emerging endlessly. So it is critical to protect the networks from attackers and the Intrusion detection technology becomes popular. There is tremendous rise in attacks on wired and wireless LAN. Therefore security of Distributed System (DS) is become serious challenge. One such serious challenge in DS security domain is detection of rogue points in network. Lot of work has been done in detection of intruders. But the solutions are not satisfactory. This paper gives the new idea for detecting rouge point using Mobile agent. Mobile agent technology is best suited for audit information retrieval which is useful for the detection of rogue points. Using Mobile agent we can find the intruder in DS as well as controller can take corrective action. This paper presents DIDS based on Mobile agents and band width consumed by the Mobile Agent for intrusion detection. information it receives from each of the monitors. Some of the issues with the existing centralized ID models are:  Additions of new hosts cause the load on the......

Words: 2840 - Pages: 12

Jazz and Heavy Metal

...A Seemingly Unlikely Fusion: Jazz and Heavy Metal The music of jazz has come a long way since the very beginning. Its influence on society and politics is unquestionable, and even more so when it comes to its impact on the musical world. If traced back to its origin, one can see that jazz has developed substantially starting from the early country blues and emerging onward to genres such as Dixieland, swing, bebop, cool, hard bop, and free/avant-garde. And like many musical genres, jazz has continued growing within the last few decades, fusing and incorporating musical aspects such as rock ‘n roll, Cuban, soul, Latin, and even “extremes” such as rap and, in particular, the music of heavy metal. The emergence of the fusion of jazz and metal cannot be exactly pinpointed (much like many other genres recorded in history), but it definitely had an origin. Perhaps it started early on with the development of jazz fusion (lead by Miles Davis in the late sixties/early seventies) and heavy metal (lead by the ever famous Black Sabbath) (Scaggs). But in order to comprehend this particularly odd combo, one must understand, or at least be aware of the basic concepts of both genres individually. For those who are not too familiar with the genre, heavy metal is an aggressive form of music, mainly standardized with fast guitar riffs and solos, heavy bass grooves, and fast (or slow), hard drumming patterns. Vocals can consist of growling used to express discontent or anger, but is......

Words: 2229 - Pages: 9

The Frankenstein Complex: Killer Robots or Metal Friends?

...Diem-Chi Tran Dr. Ingrao HUMA 1301.002 November 22, 2013 Row C-2 The Frankenstein Complex: Killer Robots or Metal Friends? In it’s fifty years of age, the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics continue to capture the imagination of the general public, but with this growing interest, it also engendered a great deal of fear and skepticism. Hollywood and the media exacerbate the problem while some well-known authors and scientist lend credence to it. This fear isn’t anything new and didn’t just appear with the creation of these mechanized humanoids. Even reaching as far back as the folktales of golems to the monstrous birth of Frankenstein’s creature, humankind has feared the rise of an army of evil manmade creations that banned together to overthrow humanity. Asimov called this fear the Frankenstein Complex. With so many amazing possibilities that came with the new technological era, Asimov believed that the creation of robots and androids would benefit humanity so he formed the Three Laws of Robotics to try and calm the fears that boiled amongst the general public. He states that first and foremost, “a robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm” (Asimov 37). The second law states, “a robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders conflict with the First Law” (Asimov 37). And the third law is that “a robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict......

Words: 1631 - Pages: 7

Metal Treatment

...characteristics, as well as how the B4C technology compares to other surface treatment processes within the metal finishing industry in general. At present, over ninety-five percent (95%) of all functional surface treatments are surface coatings such as hard chrome, HVOF, PVD, and CVD / nitride; all of which extract an element from a secondary source then apply it to the work piece. Overall, the greatest challenge in metal finishing production is in achieving the required balance between the desired surface properties and adhesion strength, as the bond between the applied coating and work piece is largely dependent upon proper preparation of the work piece prior to treatment. To address this fundamental failure mode during preparation, the metal finishing house endeavors to achieve a level of cleanliness that is 100% free of any organic material and/or oxides. Even a pin-head size of missed surface contamination will often compromise the bond between the coating and substrate. Therefore, prior to plating each work piece is subjected to a variety of detergents and acids with rinse tanks in between. As a result, production plating lines with 25 to30 chemical stations are common prior to the final plating tank where the desired coating is applied. Even with today’s advanced process control systems, the potential for a bond failure remains a constant concern for both the metal finishing house and the ultimate end user; as bond failures often lead to catastrophic failure of......

Words: 1843 - Pages: 8

Adsorption of Lead (Ii) Ion Clay Using Clacined Okada Clay

...INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY Removal of heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, nickel, chromium and copper from aqueous solution is necessary because of the hazardous effect it does on the environment ,thereby making environmental protection important, however waste solutions containing heavy metal elements need treatment systems that can remove these contaminants effectively (Harvey and Chantawong, 2001). Frequent appearance of these metals in waste streams from many industries, including electroplating, metal finishing, metallurgical, tannery, chemical manufacturing, mining and battery manufacturing. This problem has received considerable attention in recent years, primarily due to the concern that those heavy metals in waste streams can be readily adsorbed by marine animals and directly enter the human food chain, thus presenting a high health risk to consumers (Lin et al., 2000). A number of technologies for treating contaminated effluents have been developed over the years. The most important of these techniques include chemical precipitation, filtration, ion- exchange, reverse osmosis and membrane systems. However, all these techniques have their inherent advantages and limitations in application. In the last few years, adsorption has been shown to be an alternative method for removing dissolved metal ions from liquid wastes (Bayat, 2002). The removal of heavy metal ions from industrial wastes using different adsorbents is currently of......

Words: 9309 - Pages: 38

Review of Biosensors

...Biosensors and Bioelectronics 25 (2009) 661–667 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Biosensors and Bioelectronics journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/bios Review Detection of microorganisms using biosensors—A smarter way towards detection techniques Madhura Nayak 1 , Akhil Kotian 1 , Sandhya Marathe 1 , Dipshikha Chakravortty ∗ Centre for Infectious Disease Research and Biosafety Laboratories, Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012, India a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t Along with useful microorganisms, there are some that cause potential damage to the animals and plants. Detection and identification of these harmful organisms in a cost and time effective way is a challenge for the researchers. The future of detection methods for microorganisms shall be guided by biosensor, which has already contributed enormously in sensing and detection technology. Here, we aim to review the use of various biosensors, developed by integrating the biological and physicochemical/mechanical properties (of tranducers), which can have enormous implication in healthcare, food, agriculture and biodefence. We have also highlighted the ways to improve the functioning of the biosensor. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Article history: Received 8 July 2009 Received in revised form 22 August 2009 Accepted 25 August 2009 Available online 31 August 2009 Keywords: Biosensors Microorganisms Biodefence...

Words: 7262 - Pages: 30

Heavy Metals

...Leaching zinc from spent catalyst: Process optimization using response surface methodology Zhengyong Zhang a,b , Jinhui Peng a,b,∗ , C. Srinivasakannan c , Zebiao Zhang a,b , Libo Zhang a,b , Y. Fernández d , J.A. Menéndez d a Key Laboratory of Unconventional Metallurgy (Kunming University of Science and Technology), Ministry of Education, Kunming 650093, China Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093, China Chemical Engineering Program, The Petroleum Institute Abu Dhabi, 2533, United Arab Emirates d Instituto Nacional del Carbón, CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo, Spain b c a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t The spent catalyst from vinyl acetate synthesis contains large quantity of zinc. The present study attempts to leach zinc using a mixture of ammonia, ammonium carbonate and water solution, after microwave treatment. The effect of important parameters such as leaching time, liquid/solid ratio and the ammonia concentration was investigated and the process conditions were optimized using surface response methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD). The optimum condition for leaching of zinc from spent catalyst was identified to be a leaching time of 2.50 h, a liquid/solid ratio of 6 and ammonia concentration 5.37 mol/L. A maximum of 97% of zinc was recovered under the optimum experimental conditions. The proposed model equation using RSM has shown good agreement with the......

Words: 1402 - Pages: 6

What Is the Relation Between Heavy Metal and Religion?

...Semih BOZ 21102153 Section: 5 ABSTRACT One of the discussion topics of music world is the relation between heavy metal music and religions. It is generally thought by non-authority people that heavy metal is music of Satanism. This remains as a prejudice, because the truth is different from what is thought of. The early times metal bands are even conservative and they have nothing to do with Satan in terms of religion. But most of the metal bands used satanic elements in lyrics, in music or on the stage. However, the intension of it is to attract listener’s attention. On the other hand, there is a small group in Norway actually worshipping Satan. In spite of the fact that they are in small numbers, their big actions made people talked about themselves. WHAT IS THE RELATION BETWEEN HEAVY METAL AND RELIGION? Heavy metal is a music genre which has very hardcore sound and brutal theme in terms of lyrics. It covers the issues like life, death religion love betrayal etc. It is generally associated with black color and heavy metal bands seem very tough wearing black and silver stuff. This is some kind of requirement to be a metal band, because this music deals with the issues which are not mentioned explicitly by any other genres but heavy metal, then that music is something strong and brave. Therefore, who makes that kind of music should appear in the same way. If and only if, they ought to have a strong theme. This strong theme comes from the music which is made by powerful......

Words: 2426 - Pages: 10

Fly Ash Brick Project: Feasibility Study Using Cvp Analysis

...W13543 FLY ASH BRICK PROJECT: FEASIBILITY STUDY USING CVP ANALYSIS S. K. Mitra and Shubhra Hajela wrote this case solely to provide material for class discussion. The authors do not intend to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of a managerial situation. The authors may have disguised certain names and other identifying information to protect confidentiality. This publication may not be transmitted, photocopied, digitized or otherwise reproduced in any form or by any means without the permission of the copyright holder. Reproduction of this material is not covered under authorization by any reproduction rights organization. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, contact Ivey Publishing, Ivey Business School, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada, N6G 0N1; (t) 519.661.3208; (e) cases@ivey.ca; www.iveycases.com. Copyright © 2013, Richard Ivey School of Business Foundation Version: 2013-12-19 In April 2013, Rajiv Sharma had a business plan. For quite some time, he had been doing some market research exploring the potential of his “dream project” — establishing a fly ash brick manufacturing unit — and had seen huge potential for profit in the project. His long-time friend Alok Gupta was also interested but had a few doubts regarding the feasibility of the project. Sharma, on the other hand, was sure of his plan. Years of work in the construction industry had shown him the potential of using large volumes of fly ash bricks in......

Words: 2276 - Pages: 10

Matrices

...III. Matrices Definition III.1 An m × n matrix is a set of numbers arranged in a rectangular array having m rows and n columns. It is written   A11 A12 · · · A1n  A21 A22 · · · A12  A= . . .  ..  . . .  . . . . Am1 Am2 · · · Amn There are two important special cases. A 1 × n matrix (that is, a matrix with 1 row) is called a row vector. An m × 1 matrix (that is, a matrix with 1 column) is called a column vector. Our convention will be that row indices are always written before column indices. As a memory aid, I think of matrices as being RC (Roman Catholic or rows before columns). §III.1. Matrix Operations Definitions 1. Equality. For any two matrices A and B A = B ⇐⇒ (a) A and B have the same number of rows and the same number of columns and (b) Aij = Bij for all i, j 2. Addition. For any two m × n matrices A and B (A + B)ij = Aij + Bij for all 1 ≤ i ≤ m, 1 ≤ j ≤ n That is, the entry in row i, column j of the matrix A + B is defined to be the sum of the corresponding entries in A and B. Note: The sum A + B is only defined if A and B have the same number of rows and the same number of columns. 3. Scalar multiplication. For any number s and any m × n matrix A (sA)ij = sAij for all 1 ≤ i ≤ m, 1 ≤ j ≤ n For example 2 1 0 2 0 + 3 1 1 2×1+0 = 1 2×0+1 2×2+1 2 = 2×3+1 1 5 7 4. Matrix multiplication. For any m × p matrix A and any p × n matrix B p (AB)ik = j=1 Aij Bjk for all 1 ≤ i ≤ m, 1 ≤ k ≤......

Words: 20391 - Pages: 82

Heavy Metal as a Social Movement

...Heavy Metal as a Social Movement Thorin Shafer [Social Movements] Dr.Harry Murray Prologue It began in Aston, Birmingham in 1969 with Black Sabbath…. Factory worker and world renowned Guitarist Tony Iommi lost the fingertips of his ring finger and his middle finger on his right hand in a work related accident. Being left handed, this almost prevented him from playing guitar ever again. Instead he found a work around that would prove to be most beneficial for the metal movement that was to take place thereafter. After attempting to play right handed, He tuned his guitar down with lighter strings and used homemade plastic fingertips and created a new sound. After playing with several bands in the early 1960’s, he teamed with Ozzy Osbourne, Geezer Butler and Bill Ward under the moniker Earth. After some controversy with another band who shared the name Earth, in August of 1969 they changed the name of the band to Black Sabbath. This breathed new air into the band and they would go on to be pioneers in The Heavy Metal genre for decades to come. Black Sabbath paved the way for other bands like Motorhead, Deep Purple, and Rainbow. It was these bands that would be influential and play a pivotal role in the lives of the next wave of heavy metal bands that was to come. It started out slowly in 1969 and took a bit of a nosedive in the 1970’s with the disco era, but the 1980’s and the 1990’s would be two decades of aggression that would......

Words: 7750 - Pages: 31