Fascism in the Twentieth Century

In: Historical Events

Submitted By taranjade
Words 2340
Pages 10
Fascism in the Twentieth Century; Hitler and Nazism
‘Fascism’ is one of the most controversial political terms in modern history. The lack of a universally accepted definition for the term has meant that it can and has been applied to a wide variety of political contexts. Fascism developed from the destruction caused by the First World War. Its origins can be traced, however, to the intellectual revolt against liberalism in Europe at the end of the nineteenth century. While there was a revolutionary reaction against the ideals of the French Revolution before 1914, it was the First World War which acted as a real catalyst for the emergence of fascism. The war swept away the Hohenzellern, Halsburg and Romanov dynasties in Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia respectively and sharpened class-consciousness (the idea of lower, middle and upper classes) and increased ethnic tensions, severely weakening the social fabric of many nations. Fascism, in part, was also the result of a reaction by the middle classes against the perceived communist threat caused by the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia in 1917. Fascism was the most severe reaction to the post-war political, social and national crisis. The First World War also had a positive significance on the rise of fascism. The survivors of the ‘lost generation,’ (the survivors of the First World War) had become disillusioned and embittered, and were attracted to the direct-action approach of fascist paramilitary organisations. This increased influence of the state, which assumed greater powers through massive orders for munitions and the control of consumption in many combatant nations, in turn influencing the rise of the fascist movement.

The impact of hostilities transformed the fringe subculture of fascism into a virulent political form in inter-war Europe. A whole generation of young men lost their lives in the trenches…...

Similar Documents

Greatest Canadian of the Twentieth Century

...Who is the Greatest Canadian of the Twentieth Century? Thomas Clement Douglas was born on October 20, 1904 in Falkirk, Scotland. He was often called Tommy. He and his family immigrated to Canada in 1911. They settled in Winnipeg, Manitoba. When Tommy was 10, he had a bone infection in his leg, osteomyelitis, which needed many operations. None of the operations helped him and his family could not afford to send him to a special doctor. He was extremely fortunate when a visiting surgeon volunteered to operate on him for free. He was also a minister and a politician. Tommy Douglas is the greatest Canadian due to the fact he achieved Medicare, became the first national leader of the NDP and fought for social programs even in the presence of strong oppositions. Tommy Douglas learnt from the experience of his sickness the importance of doctors. The sickness and how he was saved was his inspiration for the Medicare. He wanted everyone to receive the Medicare they needed, even if they did not have a great deal of money. During one of his speeches as a politician, he said, I came to believe that health services ought not to have a price-tag on them, and that people should be able to get whatever health services they required irrespective of their individual capacity to pay. This inspired him to work hard so as to make health care available to all Canadians at no cost. In 1959, Tommy announced the plan to establish a medical insurance called Medicare. He faced......

Words: 1409 - Pages: 6

Globalization of the Twentieth Century

...Racheal Hunt HIS 122 Mr. Raby September 6, 2012 Globalization of the Twentieth Century What is globalization? According to our text book, globalization is “a term referring to a trend by which peoples and nations has become more interdependent” (Spielvogel 679). When using the term of globalization most people are talking about our global economy and global culture. Over the last forty years new technologies have changed the way we communicate. Not only can we communicate with friends and family around the world with the touch of a button but we can use the same technology to buy, sell and distribute almost anything to almost anywhere in the world. This has not only changed our bottom line of profits but has also changed the mindset of how we view the world and how we do business and communicate with others. In this paper I intend to describe the main characteristics of globalization of the Twentieth century and discuss some of the many elements that have led us to this point in history. There are many characteristics of globalization. Arvind Kumar, writer of the article “What are the Characteristics of Globalization” says that there are three distinct characteristics of globalization. The first is liberalization which is the, “freedom to start industry, trade or commerce in his country or abroad (Kumar).” The second characteristic is free trade. Kumar explains that, “Free trade is the absence of excessive government control over trade (Kumar).” He goes...

Words: 1247 - Pages: 5

Plight of African Americans in the Mid Twentieth Century

...In the fifty years following World War II, African Americans made great strides in America. Now they did not come easily but the hard ships endured by those some sixty/seventy years ago have improved the quality of life for many African Americans today. Throughout the Civil Rights Movement, great black leaders stepped up to help secure equality for all races and equally voting rights among, among other things. Some of the more recognizable names were Martin Luther King, Jr., Stokely Carmichael, and Rosa Parks. They may have had different ideas and ways to end segregation but they all contributed to improving African-American life in America politically, socially, and economically over the latter half of the twentieth century. To look at the political changes of blacks over the years, look no further than the White House. Without the influence of the Civil Rights movement, Barack Obama would never be the President, and politicians like Herman Cain, Condoleezza Rice, and Colin Powell would never have made it as far as they did in their political careers. These are just a few of the many politicians who have benefitted from the political empowerment of African Americans. All of these achievements have stemmed from the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. The Civil Rights Act was part of the first phase of the Civil Rights movement. The Act was a Congressional law that nullified Southern states “Separate but Equal” laws once and for all. Now “Separate...

Words: 804 - Pages: 4

Fascism

...How successful was Fascism in achieving its totalitarianism ambitions? The first time Mussolini used the term ‘totalitarian’ was in a speech at the Fascists Party’s fourth national congress in 1995*1 , he declared the ‘goal that is defined as our ferocious totalitarian will be pursued with even greater ferociousness’*1 . There is no doubt that Benito Mussolini was a very determined dictator. His aim was to create a long lasting Fascist Italy*1. In order to achieve his aim he required the total involvement and participation of every member of the state, in other words he needed to ‘Fascistize the masses’*1. Unfortunately Fascism was a very ambitious plan that failed to properly execute its aims*2. In order to delve deeper into the ways that Mussolini failed in his totalitarianism aims, we must first define what totalitarianism is. The essence of totalitarianism can be seen as a regime’s total control of the everyday life of its citizens, of its control, and more particularly of their thoughts and attitudes as well as their activities *3. A totalitarian dictatorship must have an elaborate ideology, a single mass party which is led by the ‘dictator’, a system of terror, near complete control over weapons of armed combat, control over all means of effective mass communication including the press, radio and cinema, and finally central control over the entire economy*3. While Mussolini dabbled in all of these areas he failed to execute them in an effective manner. It is......

Words: 3158 - Pages: 13

Controversy and Twentieth Century Music

...Controversy and Twentieth Century Music Controversy and Twentieth Century Music The music has presented ever-changing throughout history. A variety of musicians has passed through each century leaving a lasting impression on the world. Each musician gave you a piece of him or her and how he or she saw the world of music and life through his or her eyes (Kamien, 2011). The write will elaborate on two well-known musicians of the 20th century, and then contrast and compare a 20th century musician song and a modern day song which both had aspects of controversial issues within each work. Ravels lacked emotion within his music. His music had extended harmonies. In his time, Ravels music was seen as very controversy. It seems as if his music had no feeling. The music seemed just to play. There was no intimacy or remembrance by it. When Ravels wrote this piece, it was as if he separated himself from everything around him. Although his music was bland, Ravels stayed true to his form of music. His music put a person in the mind of elevator music that has vague melodies. One can forget that the music is playing in the background after a while. Stravinsky music was unpredictable. It was as if he created a box around him and said, "This is what I am going to play, and you can either like or dislike, because I do not care and will play it." Stravinsky broke away from the romantic period and any other period. He created his own period. The Romantic period had a wide range of......

Words: 585 - Pages: 3

Twentieth-Century Counterpart

...Mariana Offik English 101; 065 Bellomy December 6th, 2011 Twentieth-Century Counterpart John Edgar Wideman’s “Our Time” can be seen as a twentieth-century counterpart to Guaman Poma’s “New Chronicle.” This connection is made if Wideman’s essay is reread with the qualities that Mary Louis Pratt portrays in “Arts of the Contact Zone.” It can be presented as an example of what she defines as an autoehtnographic text. She defines autoethnography as an inferior culture defining itself through the terms of a dominant culture when writing back to them. Transculturation produces autoethnography. Transculturation is the process by which a culture takes certain aspects of another. The interactions between different cultures, the point of view, and the suppression of the inferior culture portrays “Our Time” as a twentieth-century counterpart to the New Chronicle. Multiple cultures interact constantly in “Our Time”. Robby and John represent different cultures. Robby grew up surrounded by crime and violence. He also comes from a lower educational group. John, even though he is Robby’s brother, grew up to be a different culture than Robby. He went to college and people that were vastly different from Robby surrounded him. John describes his struggle with projecting Robby’s voice in the story because of their different cultural backgrounds. They grew to become two separate cultures that interacted with each other throughout the story. 3 1/2 - 4......

Words: 1569 - Pages: 7

Twentieth Century

...Standing at the turn of the new century, we observe the twentieth century as a great advance in technology. With those advances, human lives have changed dramatically. In some ways, life is worse, but mostly, it is better. So personaly speaking, I am, and probably will always be, one of those who agree with the idea that technology has made the world a better place to live. First of all, technology has brought with it a more comfortable life. Not only do we use aircondition and heating system during the summer and winter, but also do we take many changes in food preparation methods to make so delicious food. Due to the development of architecture and so on, living conditions are greatly improved nowadays. Besides, the world is now more convenient to live. We can travel around by aeroplane and railway network. We can talk to each other faraway by telephone. Several score years ago, it was even daydreaming that we could today obtain information as well as commodities via Internet. The last but not the least, through the process of technology improvement, people begin to realize the fact that only reconciling with the nature can we keep a continuous development. That is why we today pay so much attention to environmental protection. Many factories have achieved economic growth without pollution under certain new technology. These cities are beginning to be very beautiful places to live in. Instances of the same sort can be multiplied indefinitely. When taking into account all......

Words: 316 - Pages: 2

Conflicting Logics of Twentieth Century Critical Theory: a Language Construct or a Social Notion?

...which Marx and his followers downplayed and neglected. It takes a specialized sense, describing the work of the Frankfurt School. On the other hand, it is concerned with the dominance of language to explain all phenomena. The term ‘Critical Theory’ was coined in 1930s. The concept of language and culture being linked has been discussed for a long period. However, in the twentieth century, Critical theory marks a linguistic turn; a whole new approach to language, literature and interpretation. During this period one witnessed the rise of an astonishing number of theories that used language as a basis for thinking about every kind of human experience. There were ‘new’ ways of looking at psychology, sexuality, philosophy, politics, technology— and, of course, literature. The major theories that spawned in critical theory ranged from formalism, structuralism, semiotics, psychoanalysis, and deconstruction, to the responses and critiques posed by race and gender theory, cultural studies, post colonialism, and new media. At the very crux of literary theory is language. Books are made of language; the question 20th century critical theory posed was “Are we made of language?” This turn to language gives new relevance to literature. To discover the new relevance of literature being applied to every system, the aspect of symbolic communication, the dominance of language over thought was done through Hermeneutics- the theory of interpretation; a very important component of......

Words: 749 - Pages: 3

Conciliation, Agitation, and Migration: African Americans in the Early Twentieth Century

...In the earlier part of the twentieth century, black and white Americans had profoundly different views on the future of black people in America. Most white people believed black Americans were an inferior race capable of little more than manual labor and entitled to only the most basic legal rights. Washington’s speech was very influential to both races. He believed economic acceptance would lead to political and social acceptance. He was labeled as the spokesman for African American by white people. Washington was the operator of the Tuskegee machine. He had supporter as well as he had oppositions. One of his opposers was William Monroe Trotter, he referred to Washington as “the great traitor” the Benedict Arnold of the Negro race and pope Washington. He was the cause of the Boston riot. W.E.B. Du Bois gave Washington some opposition as well. Following the Boston riot, Du Bois published “The souls of black folk”. It contained the first formal attack on Washington and his leadership. He states “One hesistates, therefore, to criticize a life which, beginning with so little has done so much. And yet to the time is come when one may speak in all sincerity and utter courtesy of the mistakes and short comings of Mr. Washington’s career, as well as the triumphs.” He agreed with Washington on some issues but disagreed with him on the more significant ones; like failing to stand up for political and civil rights, higher education; and his willingness to compromise with......

Words: 1312 - Pages: 6

Greatest Canadian of the Twentieth Century

...Who is the Greatest Canadian of the Twentieth Century? Thomas Clement Douglas was born on October 20, 1904 in Falkirk, Scotland. He was often called Tommy. He and his family immigrated to Canada in 1911. They settled in Winnipeg, Manitoba. When Tommy was 10, he had a bone infection in his leg, osteomyelitis, which needed many operations. None of the operations helped him and his family could not afford to send him to a special doctor. He was extremely fortunate when a visiting surgeon volunteered to operate on him for free. He was also a minister and a politician. Tommy Douglas is the greatest Canadian due to the fact he achieved Medicare, became the first national leader of the NDP and fought for social programs even in the presence of strong oppositions. Tommy Douglas learnt from the experience of his sickness the importance of doctors. The sickness and how he was saved was his inspiration for the Medicare. He wanted everyone to receive the Medicare they needed, even if they did not have a great deal of money. During one of his speeches as a politician, he said, I came to believe that health services ought not to have a price-tag on them, and that people should be able to get whatever health services they required irrespective of their individual capacity to pay. This inspired him to work hard so as to make health care available to all Canadians at no cost. In 1959, Tommy announced the plan to establish a medical insurance called Medicare. He......

Words: 346 - Pages: 2

Fascism

...Extended Project To what extent / How did Adolf Hitler's childhood affect and shape him later in life? Why was the rise of fascism in Europe so popular in the 1930’s? Assess did Hitler become the war mongering man he was due to his childhood or was it events leading up to World War II that made him bring the Nazi’s to power and become a dictator. Was Hitler’s intention to save Germany from the economic depression it was in through military power and expansion or was it more based on the ideology of the Aryan race and the deluded hatred he had towards the Jews? Or was it both? Be sure to talk about his ancestry, his parents and schooling. Anything leading up to World War II such as Hitler’s 9 month imprisonment Include how bitter he was after World War I and resented the new German government (Weimer Republic) Include how previous personal encounters with Jews made him hate them. Explain how not only the General German public hated the Jews because of propaganda but how most of the Western world resented the Jews in the early-mid 20th century. Include Austria and events that might have happened in Austria which could have affected Hitler as a child. Hitler: The man and his ideas Adolf Hitler was born on 20 April 1889 in a little Austrian town called Braunau am Inn. His father was a customs official who Hitler did not get on well with. Also Hitler didn’t particularly excel at school and did not enjoy his schooling except for History lessons. In 1907......

Words: 779 - Pages: 4

Twentieth Century

...Twentieth Century Philosopher Maria Pinelle, Treddie Knight, and Shurvell McClendon PHL/215 March 19, 2011 Leon Hallingquest Twentieth Century Philosopher INTRODUCTION - Well-known philosophers have influenced the lives for many centuries. Jacques Derrida was a twentieth century philosopher who was one of the most contemporary philosophers of modern (contemporary) times (Philosophy basics, 2011). Jacques Derrida was born on July 15, 1930, and died October 8, 2004 of pancreatic cancer. Derrida left behind a wife and two sons named Pierre and Jean. Derrida was the founder of Deconstructionism. What is Deconstructionism? IDENTIFY AND EVALUATE THE KEY CONCEPTS AND ANALYSES THAT COMPRISED THE PHILOSOPHER’S THEORIES –Deconstructionism or Deconstruction is a philosophical theory of criticism (usually of literature or film) that seeks to expose deep-seated contradictions in a work by delving below its surface meaning ("Deconstruction"). According to C. John Holcombe (2007), “Derrida has been called philosopher, anti-philosopher, literary theorist, literary subverter and intellectual joker. But his central tenets are clear. Once we use language (speech or writing) to refer to reality, that reality is linguistically formulated and therefore indeterminate. Meaning is not something preexisting in the mind that we struggle to express. Like the main analytical schools of language philosophy from Hume onwards, and contrary to Saussure, Derrida does not regard words as the......

Words: 665 - Pages: 3

Italian Fascism vs. German Nazism

...Italian Fascism vs. German Nazism By Christina Dixon HIS306: Twentieth-Century Europe (BPI1434A) Instructor: Max Fassnacht May 4, 2015 Fascism and Nazism came during a time when there was an economic crisis that was sweeping through Europe. Fascism and Nazism was two familiar totalitarian regimes that was able to arise from Germany and Italy. In Germany, the National socialist party was conducted by Adolf Hitler, while Benito Mussolini conducted the fascist party in Italy. Italy and Germany’s future was based on the education in the schools, since education played an important role between these two nations. The people’s image of Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler as two leaders was profoundly the important factors to their popularity. The most essential tool that was allowed in both countries and played a very important role in both political parties was propaganda, which gave both parties the ability to influence the perspectives of the people to their partiality. Italy and Germany are two natural allies, but however they are both different from each other and can be connected in many salutations. “Largo ai Giovani”, Italian for "make way for the young" (Clayton, 2009) was just one of the mottos that was used by Benito Mussolini’s regime. Mussolini’s saying highlights one of the most important aspects during the Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany’s education system. The education system in both countries was not just used for learning but also was the...

Words: 1295 - Pages: 6

Industry in the Late Twentieth Century

...Texas has enormous natural resources, and it is the reason due to which it is considered to be one of the largest industrial hubs in the US. In the early 20th century, the discovery of the Spindle top geyser provided a great chance for growth in the oil industry. Texas successfully utilized its oil industry to achieve great success and revenues. The oil industry is one of the most valuable industries in Texas because it contributes significantly to the overall economy of the country. The topic selected for the proposed research is the history of Texas related to the oil industry in the late twentieth century. It is difficult to gather first-hand knowledge, and therefore, the research will be based on both primary (interviews) and secondary research. Texas’s history related to its oil boom has great significance and it has deepened the knowledge about the petroleum strokes in Texas. The proposed research would provide a useful account of the history related to the famous oil industry of Texas. Therefore, the research will provide a chance to enhance the knowledge about the history of Texas’s oil boom. The related information regarding the topic will be obtained from different journals including The Journal of American History, Journal of Tourism in Southern & Eastern Europe, etc. The whole data will be compiled to complete the research work on the history of Texas and present useful information in a coherent and meaningful manner. Collecting data is also time-consuming as it......

Words: 1244 - Pages: 5

Origin of Fascism

... Wiki Loves Africa: share African cultural fashion and adornment pictures with the world! Fascism From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For the original version of the ideology developed in Italy, see Italian Fascism. For the book edited by Roger Griffin, see Fascism (book). "Fascist" redirects here. For the insult, see Fascist (insult). Part of a series on | Fascism | | Core tenets[show] | Topics[show] | Ideas[show] | People[show] | Literature[show] | Organizations[show] | History[show] | Lists[show] | Variants[show] | Related topics[show] | * Fascism portal * Politics portal | * v * t * e | Fascism /ˈfæʃɪzəm/ is a form of radical authoritarian nationalism[1][2] that came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe. Influenced by national syndicalism, fascism originated in Italy during World War I, in opposition to liberalism, Marxism, and anarchism. Fascism is usually placed on the far-right within the traditional left–right spectrum.[3][4] Fascists saw World War I as a revolution. It brought revolutionary changes in the nature of war, society, the state, and technology. The advent of total war and total mass mobilization of society had broken down the distinction between civilian and combatant. A "military citizenship" arose in which all citizens were involved with the military in some manner during the war.[5][6] The war had resulted in the rise of a powerful state capable of mobilizing millions of people to serve on the front lines or provide......

Words: 17730 - Pages: 71