Examine the Relationship Between Sociology and Social Policy (33 Marks)

In: Social Issues

Submitted By toriaaa
Words 1962
Pages 8
Social policies are the plans and actions of government agencies, which aim to address social issues, ranging from poverty to racism. Sociology has been linked to the beginning of social policies, especially in more recent years. For example, the concept of marketisation within the school system in the early 1990’s and the reduction in funding for Higher Education Tuition Fees was influenced by contemporary sociology. Donnison believes that there are four factors that he feels shape social policy. These are changing political agendas, changing circumstances, growing knowledge and new questions. There are different sociological opinions that view the relationship between sociology and social policy differently, which means there is no simple view. For example, social policies are introduced to the belief that they will improve society by tackling social problems: affecting the welfare of the population of the country where the policy is being introduced. However, Feminists and Marxists believe that social policy is not just about improving the welfare of citizens, as they believe it is about social control; deterring rather than helping individuals.

Giddens’ supports Donnison by stating that there are four practical uses of studying sociology. These include: understanding social situations, being aware of cultural differences, assessing the effects of policies and increasing self-knowledge. By understanding social situations, we are able to understand the world around us because we are provided with knowledge and insights. We can understand the world theoretically and factually. Understanding social situations theoretically provides people with an explanation as to why something is happening. For example, sociologist’s uncovered the extent of poverty by devising more sophisticated ways of measuring it. In particular, they brought in a relative deprivation model…...

Similar Documents

Assess Sociological Explanations of the Relationship Between Globalisation and Religion 33 Marks

...Assess sociological explanations of the relationship between globalisation and religion 33 marks The world today is more interconnected than ever this is known as globalisation. Religion may be related to its global context as when societies and religions come into closer contact with one another there is potential for religious conflict and for religious diversity and change. Due to modernisation we now have more technology so there is big opportunity to be interconnected with other countries. Giddens argues this has then lead to globalisation as there is now exposure as we see more beliefs and religions and therefore we become more accepting to them as they are not so unusual. He also argues globalisation has then lead to cosmopolitanism thinking. Cosmopolitanism thinking is a term which describes people or societies which are tolerant to the views of others as a result of constant exposure to new ideas and values. Cosmopolitanism thinking is a way of thinking that embraces modernity. Fundamentalism is the enemy of cosmopolitanism thinking. Within the relationship of globalisation and religion is fundamentalism as this is a response to globalisation. Fundamentalism describes people or groups that defend tradition and believe in the literal truth of sacred texts, they seek to return back to basics and do not like change. Giddens argues that fundamentalism has grown in reaction to globalisation and people are joining fundamentalist movements because in today’s......

Words: 1061 - Pages: 5

Assess Sociological Explanations of the Relationship Between Globalisation and Religion 33 Marks

...Assess sociological explanations of the relationship between globalisation and religion 33 marks The world today is more interconnected than ever this is known as globalisation. Religion may be related to its global context as when societies and religions come into closer contact with one another there is potential for religious conflict and for religious diversity and change. Due to modernisation we now have more technology so there is big opportunity to be interconnected with other countries. Giddens argues this has then lead to globalisation as there is now exposure as we see more beliefs and religions and therefore we become more accepting to them as they are not so unusual. He also argues globalisation has then lead to cosmopolitanism thinking. Cosmopolitanism thinking is a term which describes people or societies which are tolerant to the views of others as a result of constant exposure to new ideas and values. Cosmopolitanism thinking is a way of thinking that embraces modernity. Fundamentalism is the enemy of cosmopolitanism thinking. Within the relationship of globalisation and religion is fundamentalism as this is a response to globalisation. Fundamentalism describes people or groups that defend tradition and believe in the literal truth of sacred texts, they seek to return back to basics and do not like change. Giddens argues that fundamentalism has grown in reaction to globalisation and people are joining fundamentalist movements because in today’s......

Words: 1061 - Pages: 5

Examine the Relationship Between Sociology and Social Policy

...“Examine the relationship between sociology and social policy” Social policies are the actions of governments, such as legal laws. They have a direct impact on citizens, for e.g. may provide them with services or income. Social policies are created after Sociological research identifies social problems of society, for e.g. policies put in place to help vulnerable children (adopted/abused), as they are highly likely to end up in gangs, as drug addicts or prostitutes. According to Worsley (1977) a social problem is some piece of social behaviour that calls for collective action to solve it. In turn, policies help tackle social problems e.g. increasing payment for foster/ adoptive careers to reduce vulnerable children getting involved with crime. The founding fathers of sociology believed that sociology had a central part to play in society – in reforming social institutions, solving social problems and improving human condition. Comte (1798-1857) saw sociology as a practical subject, not confined solely to universities, but being applied to wider society to gain social progress. Emile Durkheim believed sociology contributing to social policy can solve question of order in society. Sociologists such as Giddens place a great emphasis on the practicality of studying sociology. The most significant outcome of sociology is that it allows us to understand the world around us, providing us with knowledge and insights. This understanding can take the form of factual knowledge......

Words: 2063 - Pages: 9

Critically Assess the Relationship Between, Gender, Religious Participation and Religious Organisations (33 Mark)

...Critically assess the relationship between, gender, religious participation and religious organisations (33 Mark) Statistics have shown that women tent to be more religious than men across most cultures globally. This is reflected by the Church Census records as it shows that participation in churches and denominations in England and Wales between 1979 and 2005 women were consistently more likely to attend. There are various reasons why females are more religious than men ranging from socialization, exploitation to patriarchy in traditional religions. Women’s sexuality has always been a dangerous factor in religion; this is because women menstruate and give birth they are considered to have a great capacity to pollute religious rituals. This can be seen in the Adam and Eve story in Christianity as Eve has ‘seduced’ Adam in order to eat the apple which God had forbidden to do so. This shows that the presence of a female can distract men from performing religious rituals and worshipping God. Bird argues that sexuality is an important factor in many religions. In Roman Catholic churches priests are expected to be celibate meaning they have to deliberately refrain from sexual activity while in other religions such as Islam are opposed to homosexuality. This means that in order for priests to carry out their duty appropriately there needs to be a degree of policing of the body; and the presence of women makes it more difficult. Due to patriarchal ideologies women have......

Words: 2244 - Pages: 9

Social Policy in Sociology

...agree that social policy can have an important influence on family life, they hold different views about what kinds of effects it has and whether these are desirable. In this essay I will examine a range of different sociological views or perspectives on the impact of social policy on families. The actions and policies of governments can sometimes have profound effects on families and their members. Cross-cultural examples from different societies and historical periods can show us some of the more extreme ways in which the state’s policies can affect family life, this can help us to see the relationship between families and social policies in a new light. One particularly striking attempt by the state to shape family life was the policy set by China on controlling the population, and birth rate within the country. Chinas population control policy has discouraged couples from having more than one child. According to Adrian Wilson (1985) the policy is supervised by the workplace family planning committees; women must seek their permission to try and become pregnant, and there is often a waiting list and a quota for each factory. Couples who comply with the policy get extra benefits, such as free child healthcare and higher tax allowances. Functionalists see society as built on harmony and consensus, and free from major conflicts. They see the state as acting in the interests of society as a whole and its social policies as being for good for all. Functionalist’s see policies......

Words: 1224 - Pages: 5

Sociology Does and Should Influence Social Policy Making’.

...Sociology has had some influence on social policy, and varies from government to government but the extent of which has been thoroughly debated. Social policies are put in place in order to address the needs of the population in terms of welfare, housing, health, education, law and order and employment. The influence sociology can have on social policy includes; electoral popularity, ideological policy and preferences of government, interest groups, globalization and its impact, critical sociology, costs and funding sources. However, there is a definite correlation between the sociological researches being compromised by too close a relationship with the funding bodies. Modern sociologists hold the view that sociological research has an impact on social policy by providing practical solutions to social problems such as unemployment, educational failure and so on. They share the view that this kind of research is able to address key issues within society, gain empirical evidence and find the root cause of such problems. On the one hand Positivists and Functionalists will state the view that social policies are ‘piecemeal social engineering’ and accept that sociological view do influence social policy making. Durkheim will hold the view that the meritocratic education system benefits society and promotes social cohesion and solidarity. He saw sociology as a way of restoring order in a society conquered by industrialization and strengthening integration and social stability.......

Words: 953 - Pages: 4

Social Policy

...Assess the relationship between Social Policy and Sociology. (33 Marks) Sociology is a subject that wants to study and understand society. Social policy or otherwise known as the law comes from research completed by sociologists, which is then proposed to the government. Social policy can be seen to change social problems such as the economy. Peter Worsley describes a social problem as “some piece of social behaviour that causes public friction”. For example poverty, educational under-achievement, and divorce can be seen as social problems that the government may be forced to tackle with social policies. Worsley thinks that a sociological problem is “ any pattern of relationships that calls for explanation”, meaning any piece of behaviour that we want to make sense of. For example why some families are richer than others? , Why people commit crime? Or why couples remain happily married? George Simmel was intrigued about the characteristics present in all social relationships and their different settings, be it in an office, in the family home or on a busy street. However many sociologists are interested in solving social problems through their research. They will conduct their research so it is aimed at the social problem they are most interested about. Government departments such as home office employ many sociologists. They will often have a direct input into making social policies. However sometimes sociological research does not effect social polices, and there are a......

Words: 1449 - Pages: 6

Evaluate Different Views of the Relationship Between Sociology and Social Policy

...Social policy is an applied version of Sociology. It is primarily concerned with improving and reforming society. It focuses on studying and also influencing how governments respond to social policy. Researching social problems such as poverty for example has proven hugely popular amongst many sociologists. For there is a high chance their research will be funded by the government, aiding in this common practical problem some sociologist’s face. According to Anthony Giddens (2001), there are four practical benefits of studying sociology. One being that it helps our understanding of social situations. Factual information can be gained on society that can then be examined using theory. So the factual knowledge provides us with facts, and the theoretical understanding provides people with an explanation for these facts. For example, a series of reports by Townsend in 1979 and later Mack and Lansley showed the extent of poverty in Britain and showed groups most at risk of it. The facts they produced can be understood in relation to theory. Sociologists uncovered the extent of poverty by devising deprivation models of poverty, proving that it can be fully understood in terms of what people normally expect to have. Giddens also believes that another benefit is the awareness of cultural differences aspect. Leading to the raising of needs of minority groups in society. Over time, sociologists have built up a picture of the social and economic exclusion suffered by disabled people...

Words: 927 - Pages: 4

Critically Examine the Relationship Between Religion and Social Change

...Sociologists suggest that there is a relationship between religion and social change but there are two main arguments. One is that religion has not helped or contributed to social change as some sociologists as that religion is a conservative force, which believe in traditional values and beliefs about moral issues and that they oppose changes that would allow individuals more freedom in personal and sexual matters. For example the Catholic Church which forbid divorce, abortion and artificial contraception. Most religion’s as a conservative force also uphold ‘family values’ and often favour a traditional patriarchal domestic division of labour. Keeping roles separate and traditional, this shows that it is not acting as a force for social change and that it would like to keep things all traditional. Similarly it can act as a conservative force as it functions to preserve things as they are. It stabilise society and maintains the status quo. Functionalists argue that religion does this by it maintaining social stability and preventing society from disintegrating. Marxists and feminists believe that religion is an ideology that supports the social structure and acts as a means of social control, creating stability in the interests of the powerful, which helps to maintain the status quo by preventing the less powerful from changing this. Marx also sees religion as it prevents the working class from uprising and therefore helping to maintain the stability of capitalist......

Words: 671 - Pages: 3

As Aqa Sociology Power Relationships 24 Mark

...Sociology Essay: “Examine the factors affecting power relationships and the division of labour between couples” (24 marks) A power relationship is defined as an imbalance of power between the two people within a relationship. Traditionally, this will mean that one partner will be dominant and manipulative towards the other. Michelle Barrett and Mary McIntosh support this idea that there is an imbalance of power between men and women in heterosexual relationships. They believe the men gain far more from domestic work than they give back in finance. Additionally, this sense of ‘power’ suggestively is rooted from the means of finances – men generally earn more and exert this power on decision making and resources in the household. For example, Barett and McIntosh argue that men usually make these decisions, concluding that financial input is a key factor within a power relationship. Furthermore, it is argued by Elaine Kempson that this imbalance is apparent among low-income families. She notes that within these families, women’s basic human rights are ignored or not seen as a priority, such as women having smaller portions of food or simply skipping meals altogether. Other needs that are set aside are their own female needs and seldom going out. This theory links closely to the fact that power relationships, from a financial perspective, are observed by two key factors; pooling and an allowance system. Evidence of a more symmetrical, balanced relationship financially is......

Words: 1068 - Pages: 5

Assess Sociological Explanations for the Relationship Between Gender and Religious Practice and Participation. 33 Marks.

...Liberal Feminists agree with Radical and Marxist Feminists that religion is patriarchal, instead of getting rid of them, Liberals argue that they just need to be changed so that they offer total equality between the genders. Holm argues that religions do in fact express equality between the genders, however in practice women are still far from equal. On the other hand, patriarchal oppression of women isn’t universal. For example in Islam, children can choose whether to take the mothers surname or not, and the women can choose whether to keep it or not after marriage. However, Puttick argues that being born a women is seen as a punishment. This is due to women being oppressed by the religions they are a part of and the only solution is to become a submissive wife. Therefore why are women seen to be more religious than men? Sherry Ortner argues that women are more religious due to being closer to nature. She argues that women become more spiritual and expressive due to this close relationship, leading them to participate more within religion. However, she argues religion is still male dominated with mainly male clergy due to men being the creators of society and women being the creators of the future generation. Davie also argues a similar thing by saying women have a closer relationship to life and death, through things such as child rearing. Therefore being biologically predisposed to believing in a God. In addition to this Ortner suggests this is why women are more likely to......

Words: 805 - Pages: 4

Assess the Relationship Between Sociology and Social Policy (33 Marks)

...Social policy is the actions, plans and programmes of government bodies and agencies aim to deal with a problem or achieve a goal.e.g preventing crime and reducing poverty. Policies are often based on laws that provide the framework within which these agencies operate. Sociologists findings may sometimes influence social policies but many other factors also play a part, such as political ideologies and the availability of resources. This essay will assess the relationship between sociology and social policy. Essentially, it can be argue that social policies are one of the most applicable ways in which sociology finds it simperative uses. This is because many sociologists argue that sociology should be used to solve sociological problems as defined by Peter Worsley “ a behaviour in which causes private misery or calls for collective action to solve it” This therefore means sociology can and should be used to investigate patterns of these behaviours and ways in which it can be resolved. Additionally, the relationship between sociology and social policy according to Functionalists and Positivists such as Comte and Durkheim is that a rigorous objective and scientific approach should be used in order to generate social facts which can be used by the government to develop generic nomothetic patterns of behaviour that can be used to implement policies that benefit society as a whole. As highlighted, Positivists and Functionalists adopt a positive relationship between sociology...

Words: 548 - Pages: 3

Assess the Relationship Between Sociology and Social Policy

...Assess the relationship between sociology and social policy Social policy is the actions, plans and programmes of government bodies which aim to deal with a problem or achieve a goal .e.g preventing crime and reducing poverty. Policies are often based on laws that provide the framework within which these agencies operate. The following essay will argue for and against the relationship between sociology and social policy. It can be argued that the relationship between social policy and sociology is not always consistent because sociological funding may not be implemented. This is because of a range of factors such as electoral popularity. This is the perception that social policy will not be used to if citizens will not like the policy. Also current government bodies and their ideologies will also influence the implementation of government polices. This means research findings may have to fit into the governments’ values and set of beliefs before the social policies can be implemented. Finally, funding sources are another important factor. This is the view that the government essentially influences what area of research the sociologists researches and it is essentially a reference to the phrase “He who pays the piper call the tune” this is the view that the policies suggestions are initiated by the government. The relationship between sociology and social policy according to Functionalists and Positivists such as Durkheim is that an objective and scientific approach......

Words: 725 - Pages: 3

Assess the Relationship Between Sociology and Social Policy

...Assess the relationship between sociology and social policy In order to understand the role of sociology in relation to social policy, it is important to firstly distinguish between social problems and sociological problems. According to Peter Worsley, a social problem is some piece of social behaviour that causes public friction and private misery and calls for collective action to solve it. According to Worsley, a sociological problem is “any pattern of relationships that calls for explanation.” In other words, it is any piece of behaviour that we wish to make sense of. However even when sociologists conduct research into social problems, there’s no guarantee that policy makers will study their findings, or that any solutions they propose will find their way into social policies. Many factors may affect whether or not sociological research succeeds in influencing policy. Some of these include electoral popularity, interest groups, globalisation and cost. Different sociological perspectives hold different views of the nature of the state and their social policy it produces. As a result, each perspective tends to take a different view of the role of sociology in relation to social policy. Early positivists such as Comte and Durkheim took the view that sociology was a science and would discover both the cause of social problems and scientifically based solutions to them. As such, their approach was part of the Enlightenment project to use science ad reason to improve......

Words: 1091 - Pages: 5

Criminological Relationships Between Theory and Policy

...Criminological Relationships between Theory and Policy American Intercontinental University Julie Hurden Abstract This paper will discuss three policies within the criminological field and the theories that might have influenced them. The three policies and two theories that will be discussed in this paper are the death penalty, three strikes laws and expunging of records, the classical school of criminology and the labeling theory. This paper will discuss rulings by the Supreme Court concerning the “Three Strikes and You’re Out” laws and the death penalty policies. It will review the Eighth Amendment and the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution of the United States. Criminological Relationships between Theory and Policy Three Strikes and You’re out Law (TSAYO) The Three Strikes Laws are basically laws that order increased sentences for repeat criminals, this increased sentence is given after three felony crimes have been committed by an offender. Most state and federal laws in the United States require harsher punishment for repeat offenders but they are not as severe as the “Three Strikes and You’re Out” (TSAYO) laws. TSAYO was passed into law to help protect society from persons that are dangerous and have exhibited a pattern of criminal behavior, to break it down this law simply takes repeat offenders out of the game by putting them in prison and hopefully deter others from......

Words: 2012 - Pages: 9