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Safety Handbook

Introduction

Safety is the state of serenity being devoid of harm or any form of event that may be considered non-desirable. In any type of institution, be it, a business, school, industry, laboratory or even the common workplace, safety plays a major role in ensuring activities run smoothly and no-one gets hurt while doing their job. Safety encompasses protection from a wide host of potential hazards which could be physical, financial, emotional or biological. In the common workplace health is a major concern and infection control is the main aim of a safety handbook. Biosafety in the work setup starts by assuming every individual is a potential source of infection. Basic techniques such as scheduled cleaning of the workplace and regular hand washing by staff go a long way in ensuring infection control and biosafety of workers. All workplaces should ideally possess appropriate safety apparatus e.g. a first aid kit with an employee having necessary expertise in first aid. Provision of necessary safety equipments e.g. gowns, gloves and goggles is also essential in as far as biosafety in the workplace is concerned.

General Principles

Disease is caused by organisms termed pathogens. There are various pathogens that are located routinely in work setups. These include bacteria, fungi, viruses, prions or protozoa. When these manage to enter your body or attach onto your skin, disease arises. It usually takes a certain incubation time before symptoms appear depending on the nature of the particular pathogen. Therefore an infected individual may unknowingly be spreading disease to other workmates during the incubation period. Safety mechanisms provided in the safety handbook aim to prevent or reduce the chances of pathogens from coming into contact with an individual from the onset. As per the…...

...Interaction Between Forex and Stock Markets in India: An Entropy Approach Y V Reddy and A Sebastin Executive Summary Interactions between the foreign exchange market and the stock market of a country are considered to be an important internal force of the markets in a financially liberalized environment. If causal relationship from a market to the other is not detected, then informational efficiency exists in the other whereas existence of causality implies that hedging of exposure to one market by taking position in the other market will be effective. The temporal relationship between the forex market and the stock market of developing and developed countries has been studied, especially after the East Asian financial crisis of 1997–98, using various methods like cross-correlation, cross-spectrum, and error correction model, but these methods identify only linear relations. A statistically rigorous approach to the detection of interdependence, including non-linear dynamic relationships, between time series is provided by tools defined using the information theoretic concept of entropy. Entropy is the amount of disorder in the system and also is the amount of information needed to predict the next measurement with a certain precision. The mutual information between two random variables X and Y with a joint probability mass function p(x,y) and marginal mass functions p(x) and p(y), is defined as the relative entropy between the joint distribution p(x,y) and the product......

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...Disagreements Big Bang “proposes that this uniformity results from everything in the observable universe starting its outward expansion at a specific time and from a very hot, dense state” -What was the central point or “cosmic egg” our universe seems to be expanding from? And how could that be ending if that’s where it began? Spiritual eternity leads us to believe there will be a physical eternity that we will share with God, however that seems to be impossible. A video is not the same thing as history. I think that what the article said towards the end about our bodies and life after death wasn’t necessarily true. They related ones body to that of a computer. They said that data or our soul can exist without the computer or our body. I think our souls don’t need our bodies after death. He used the example of the idea of a song living on even if every copy was destroyed but I don’t think the memory of something living on is the same as the thing living on. “the scientific painting of the universe has deliberately set aside many of the most pleasing parts about being alive.” applying principles of science to explain the phenomenon of the universe gives more meaning to the theory of creation of the earth and everyone on it. science doesn’t take away the fact that we are alive, it emphasizes how interesting it is to be able to explain certain theories “Perhaps it is in the power of abstract ideas, the nature of words themselves, that give us our best......

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...Challenge Entropy, Enthalpy, and Free Energy The equation relating these factors is: ∆G = ∆H–T∆S, where G is free energy, H is enthalpy, S is entropy, and T is temperature (in Kelvin). Although temperature values will always be positive, entropy, enthalpy, and free energy values can be positive or negative. For a given process, a quantitative value for each factor can be calculated using the known values of the factors for each reactant involved (see Table 1) according to the general equation ∆ X°rx = Σ X°(products)–Σ X°(reactants). See if the following activity helps you better understand what these quantities really mean. Table 1 HCO3 H+ H2O (l) CO2 (g) - ∆Η° (kJ/mol) -691.1 0 -285.8 -393.5 S° (J/K mol) 94.94 0 69.9 213.6 ∆G° (kJ/mol) -587.1 0 -237.2 -394.4 Materials • • • • • vinegar baking soda thin-walled cup tablespoon measure teaspoon measure Exploration Step 1 Put about 2 tablespoons vinegar in a cup. Add a teaspoon or two of baking soda to the cup. (a) What do you observe through sight, sound, and touch? (b) What kind of change is occurring? (c) What are the formulas of the 2 major components of vinegar and of the one component of baking soda? (d) Write the overall equation and the net ionic equation for the process. Step 2 (a) Define entropy and the significance of the sign of its value. (b) Based on your observations, explain the entropy change for the system observed in Step 1. (c) Use the entropy data from Table 1 to calculate the entropy......

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...Most spontaneous reactions give out heat so are exothermic. Randomness or entropy * Mixing and spreading out e.g. liquids evaporating, solids dissolving * Gas= more random than liquids due to their arrangement of particles * Endothermic reactions may be spontaneous if they involve spreading out, randomising or disordering. This is true of the two reactions above the arrangement of the particles in the products is more random than in the reactants. The randomness of a system, expressed mathematically= entropy of the system and is given symbol S. Entropies have been determinded for a vast range of substances and can be looked up. With standard conditions 298k and 100kpa. * Gases have larger values than liquids, which have larger values than solids. * Entropy units= JK-1Mol-1 * Entropy increase when water turns to steam * Entropies increase with temperature * Higher temperatures, particles spread out and randomness increases. Calculating entropy changes Can be calculated by adding all entropies of products and subtracting sum of entropies of the reactants. e.g. CaCO3 -> CaO + CO2 entropy of products = 40+ 214 = 254 jkmol-1 entropy of reactant = 93Jk-1mol-1 ΔS = 254 – 93 = + 161Jk-1mol-1 Large positive value so gas has formed from a solid The gibbs free energy change ΔG Two factors govern spontaneity of a reaction 1. The enthalpy change 2. The entropy change Combine they are the gibbs free energy G, if the ΔG of a......

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...Although coffee will be Starbucks’ core business, the Company has taken initiatives to diversify its product lineup. Recent acquisitions of Evolution Fresh, Tazo, and Teavana demonstrate this strategy. We believe these strategic moves broaden Starbucks’ product mix, allowing the company to better position itself globally. These acquisitions also signify the Although coffee will be Starbucks’ core business, the Company has taken initiatives to diversify its product lineup. Recent acquisitions of Evolution Fresh, Tazo, and Teavana demonstrate this strategy. We believe these strategic moves broaden Starbucks’ product mix, allowing the company to better position itself globally. These acquisitions also signify the Although coffee will be Starbucks’ core business, the Company has taken initiatives to diversify its product lineup. Recent acquisitions of Evolution Fresh, Tazo, and Teavana demonstrate this strategy. We believe these strategic moves broaden Starbucks’ product mix, allowing the company to better position itself globally. These acquisitions also signify the Although coffee will be Starbucks’ core business, the Company has taken initiatives to diversify its product lineup. Recent acquisitions of Evolution Fresh, Tazo, and Teavana demonstrate this strategy. We believe these strategic moves broaden Starbucks’ product mix, allowing the company to better position itself globally. These acquisitions also signify the Although coffee will...

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...70504 ABSTRACT Information Systems (IS) practitioners and educators have equal interest in the content of the Systems Analysis and Design Course (“SAD”). Previous research has examined instructors’ perceptions regarding the skills and topics that are most important in the teaching of the SAD course and the class time devoted to each. A similar assessment evaluated SAD course content from a practitioner perspective. Both studies used entropy calculations. A comparison of these studies is presented in this paper. For traditional topics, the group (either faculty or practitioner) with greater agreement believes the topic to be deserving of less class time. For structured and object-oriented topics, the group with the greater agreement also believes the topic to be of greater importance. This analysis demonstrates that practitioners and academics agree on approximately 40% of the SAD skills and knowledge areas. Keywords: Systems analysis and design, Structured analysis, Object-oriented analysis, Management Information Systems curricula, Entropy INTRODUCTION It is important that an education in Management Information Systems (MIS) is reflective of practices and techniques that are currently used in industry. Given the pace of technological innovation, there are ever-changing demands of technology workers [19] [30]. The content of each MIS course should be regularly compared to the skills that are required by employers, as an alignment must exist to ensure adequate preparation......

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... Thermodynamics is a branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work. It defines macroscopic variables, such as internal energy, entropy, and pressure, that partly describe a body of matter or radiation. It states that the behavior of those variables is subject to general constraints, that are common to all materials, not the peculiar properties of particular materials. These general constraints are expressed in the four laws of thermodynamics. Thermodynamics describes the bulk behavior of the body, not the microscopic behaviors of the very large numbers of its microscopic constituents, such as molecules. Its laws are explained by statistical mechanics, in terms of the microscopic constituents. Thermodynamics applies to a wide variety of topics in science and engineering, especially Physical chemistry, Chemical engineering, thermal power generation and steam and combustion turbines. Historically, thermodynamics developed out of a desire to increase the efficiency and power output of early steam engines, particularly through the work of the French physicist Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot who believed that the efficiency of heat engines was the key that could help France win the Napoleonic Wars. The Irish-born British physicist Lord Kelvin was the first to formulate a concise definition of thermodynamics in 1854: Initially, thermodynamics, as applied to heat engines, was concerned with the thermal properties of their 'working......

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...defines temperature in a non-circular logistics without reference to entropy, its conjugate variable. • First law is nothing but a connotation of Energy Conservation • Second Law of Thermodynamics has been formulated differently by many scientists like Kelvin, Planck, Clausius and Caratheodory. But this law is the outcome of a very basic fact that Entropy of a spontaneous system always increases. Entropy is also defined qualitatively as Disorder of state. This is a common experienced fact that if let on its own, the disorder of a system always increases and work has to be done to bring it back in order. • According to the second law the entropy of any isolated system, such as the entire universe, never decreases. If the entropy of the universe has a maximum upper bound then when this bound is reached the universe has no thermodynamic free energy to sustain motion or life, that is, the heat death is reached. • The famous theory of evolution violates our Second Law of thermodynamics. Second law states that the entropy (disorder) of an isolated system always increases. Considering the Universe is an isolated system, various stages in Theory of evolution like Big Bang, or even our improvement in all respects since ever clearly goes against the law that disorder always increases. eg. Plants would have never evolved and started converting useless solar energy to useful form of energy (food) if the entropy was supposed to increase. Snowflakes, sand dunes,......

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...1 p(B|A)p(A) p(B) Entropy Measures for Discrete Random Variables Deﬁnition of Entropy The entropy, H(X) of a discrete random variable X is deﬁned by: X H(X) = p(x) log(P (x)) x2X 4 From the perspective of Bayesian logical inference, each p(xi ) is a measure of degree of belief in an individual proposition xi , and H(X) is a measure of the degree of uncertainty represented by the probability distribution as a whole. 2.2.2 Units By convention, H(X) is expressed in units of bits, unless otherwise speciﬁed. Other common units for H(X) are: The nat: loge (p) = ln(p) The ban: log10 (p) The deciban: 10 log10 (p) Example in base 2 1 1 p(X) = ( , ) 2 2 1 1 H(X) = log(2) + log(2) = 1 bit 2 2 Note that when a condition is known with certainty, p(X) = 1, 0, and H(X) = 0. Since H(X) goes to zero when the result is certain, it can be considered as a measure of missing information. 2.2.3 Change-of-Base Formula To convert units, use the change-of-base formula, Example For example, to convert an entropy expressed in bits into an entropy expressed in nats, log2 (2) loge (2) = log2 (e) = or, = 2.2.4 1 = 0.6931 1.443 1 bit = 0.6931 nats 1.443 bits/nat Joint Entropy Deﬁnition H(X,Y) The joint entropy H(X, Y ) of a pair of discrete random variables (X, Y ) with a joint distribution P (x, y) is deﬁned as: XX H(X, Y ) = p(x, y) log(p(x, y)) x2X y2Y 5 2.2.5 Conditional Entropy Deﬁnition H(Y |X),......

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...Journal of Electronic Imaging 13(1), 146 – 165 (January 2004). Survey over image thresholding techniques and quantitative performance evaluation Mehmet Sezgin ¨ ˙ Tubıtak Marmara Research Center Information Technologies Research Institute Gebze, Kocaeli Turkey E-mail: sezgin@btae.mam.gov.tr ¨ Bulent Sankur ˇ ¸ Bogazici University Electric-Electronic Engineering Department Bebek, ˙stanbul I Turkey Abstract. We conduct an exhaustive survey of image thresholding methods, categorize them, express their formulas under a uniform notation, and ﬁnally carry their performance comparison. The thresholding methods are categorized according to the information they are exploiting, such as histogram shape, measurement space clustering, entropy, object attributes, spatial correlation, and local gray-level surface. 40 selected thresholding methods from various categories are compared in the context of nondestructive testing applications as well as for document images. The comparison is based on the combined performance measures. We identify the thresholding algorithms that perform uniformly better over nondestructive testing and document image applications. © 2004 SPIE and IS&T. [DOI: 10.1117/1.1631316] 1 Introduction In many applications of image processing, the gray levels of pixels belonging to the object are substantially different from the gray levels of the pixels belonging to the background. Thresholding then becomes a simple but effective tool to separate objects from the......

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...(a) Compute the Entropy for the overall collection of training examples. Answer: Entropy(t)= -∑ p( j | t)log p( j | t) =-[1020log21020+1020log21020] =1 (b) Compute the Entropy for the Movie ID attribute. Answer: The movie id is unique to each movie. The Entropy for each Movie ID value is 0, hence the entropy for the Movie ID attribute is 0. (c) Compute the Entropy for the Format attribute. Answer: It has two types: DVD and Online. Entropy can be calculated in the following manner: Entropy(t)= -∑ p( j | t)log p( j | t) Entropy for DVD= -68log268+28log228=0.811 In similar way, Entropy for Online= 0.915 Weighted average = 820x0.811+1220x0.915=0.8734 (d) Compute the Entropy for the Movie Category attribute using multiway split. Answer: Entropy(t)= -∑ p( j | t)log p( j | t) Entropy for Entertainment= -14log214+34log234=0.8112 Similarly, Entropy for comedy= 0.5435 Entropy for Documentaries= 0.8112 Weighted Average=420x0.8112+820x0.5435+820x0.8112=0.70412 (e) Which of the three attributes has the lowest Entropy? Answer: Movie ID has the lowest Entropy. (f) Which of the three attributes will you use for splitting at the root node? Brief explain your choice. Answer: We will use Movie Category to split the root nodes even though the entropy for Movie ID is lowest it is just an identification attribute and a decision tree using this attribute would not generalize at all. Movie ID value is unique for each record. The number of records for each...

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...The Second Law of Thermodynamics The second law of thermodynamics says that the entropy of any segregated framework dependably increments. Confined frameworks suddenly advance towards warm balance—the condition of most extreme entropy of the framework. All the more basically: the entropy of the universe (a definitive disconnected framework) just increments and never diminishes. A basic approach to think about the second law of thermodynamics is that a room, if not cleaned and cleaned, will perpetually turn out to be more muddled and confused with time - paying little respect to that one is so watchful to keep it clean. At the point when the room is cleaned, its entropy diminishes, yet the push to clean it has brought about an expansion in entropy outside the room that surpasses the entropy lost. The Third Law of Thermodynamics The third law of thermodynamics expresses that the entropy of a framework methodologies a steady esteem as the temperature approaches supreme zero. The entropy of a framework at supreme zero is regularly zero, and in all cases is resolved just by the quantity of various ground states it has. In particular, the entropy of an unadulterated crystalline substance (immaculate request) at total zero temperature is zero. This announcement remains constant if the ideal precious stone has stand out state with least vitality. Source: Boundless. "The Three Laws of Thermodynamics." Boundless Chemistry. Vast, 03 Feb. 2016. Recovered 14 Apr. 2016......

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...ENTROPY AND ENERGY DENSITY From the beginning of the universe, during the big bang up to now, entropy has been steadily increasing while energy density is decreasing. Putting aside the steady state theory, wherein the universe is static, and utilizing the expanding universe theory, we arrive to this conclusion. Entropy is the state of disarray and chaos in the universe. It has been increasing ever since the big bang. With the formula for entropy being Joules/Kelvin (energy over temperature), and as the universe expands it becomes colder and colder, the value for temperature goes down, resulting in a greater number as we go along the arrow of time. Using the CMBR (Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation), which is radiation left over from the Big Bang, scientists have measured the cosmic temperatures to be averaging at around 2.73 Kelvin [1], and it still decreasing. On the other hand, energy density, which is the amount of energy in a given space, has been decreasing. Having the formula of Joules/meter3 (energy over cubic meter), and with the earlier assumption that the universe is expanding, the quotient becomes smaller and smaller. In a non-mathematical explanation, as the universe expands, energy does not have to be confined in a small space and has a bigger area to travel and spread itself to. ENTROPY AND ENERGY DENSITY IN AN INFINITE UNIVERSE Having said everything above, given an infinite length of time and an infinite amount of particles, in a......

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...these values in eqn ……(1) Lit -∆S = Lit ∆Cp T -> O T -> O i.e…. “All processes must occur without the change of entropy & change of heat capacity as the temperature is lowered towards the absulute zero (in the vacinity of absolute zero)” This is the statement of nernst heat theorem *3* LIMITATION OF NERNST HEAT THEOREM : (1) (GASES)… the NHT could not be applied to gases as no gas exists at absolute zero. (2) (LIQUIDS)… the NHT NHT could not be applied to liquids due to certain valid resons i.e…..gt is true only in case of solids (3) Gt is not found to be true if the rulrtance exists in both crystalline & super cooled states According to NHT in such cases, there should not be entropy change at o’k but it has been EXPERIMENTALLY found that the entropy of SUPPER COOLED liquid is more than that of crystalline state. (4) Red….639 ______ details……… APPLICATIONS OF NHT : (1) Calculation of ∆G from thermal data i.e…. ∆H (2) Calculation of Kp of gaseres reaction from ∆H and ∆Cp (i.e…. thermal data). (3) Calculation of transition point & fusion temp of solid (4) Calculation of emf of cell by thermal data. *4* THIRD LAW OF THERMODYNEMICS: Scientists working on the entropy of pure crystalline substances at absolute zero gave a fundamental principle known as third law of thermodynamics there are number of statements for this......

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...surroundings. A spontaneous process is capable of proceeding in a given direction, as written or described, without needing to be driven by an outside source of energy. The term is used to refer to macro processes in which entropy increases; such as a smell diffusing in a room, ice melting in lukewarm water, salt dissolving in water, and iron rusting. The laws of thermodynamics govern the direction of a spontaneous process, ensuring that if a sufficiently large number of individual interactions (like atoms colliding) are involved then the direction will always be in the direction of increased entropy (since entropy increase is a statistical phenomenon). Entropy is a chemical concept that is very difficult to explain, because a one-sentence definition will not lead to a comprehensive statement. Thus, few people understand what entropy really is. You are not alone if you have some difficulty with this concept. The word entropy is used in many other places and for many other aspects. We confine our discussion to thermodynamics (science dealing with heat and changes) and to chemical and physical processes. We have defined energy as the driving force for changes; entropy is also a driving force for physical and chemical changes (reactions). Entropy, symbol S, is related to energy, but it a different aspect of energy. This concept was developed over a long period of time. Human experienced chemical and physical changes that cannot be explained by energy alone. A......

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