Effects of Chemical Agents on Bacteria, Disinfectants, Antiseptics, and Chemotherapy Agents

In: Science

Submitted By sb1129
Words 906
Pages 4
1. Amoxicillin works by inhibiting cell wall synthesis during the stage of active multiplication and is a broad spectrum drug. The organisms that we tested with Amoxicillin, both Gram + & - were all resistant to this drug. The Zone of Inhibition was 0mm for E. Coli, S. Aureus, P. aeruginosa, S. marcescens. 2. Ampicillin’s mode of action is to penetrate Gram + and some Gram – cells. It has an Amino group which helps it to penetrate the outer membrane of Gram- bacteria. It inhibits bacteria from making cell walls and leads to cell lysis and is a broad spectrum drug. All bacteria that we tested, Gram -and Gram + were resistant to this drug. E.Coli was resistant to this drug, its Zone of Inhibition was 0mm. S. Aureus was resistant to this drug, its Zone of Inhibition was 8mm. P.Aeruginosa was resistant to this bacteria, its Zone of Inhibition was 0mm. S.marcescens was resistant to this drug, its Zone of Inhibition was 0mm. 3. Cephalothin’s mode of action is to prevent cell wall synthesis and is narrow spectrum. E.coli was resistant to this drug. Its Zone of Inhibition was 11mm. S. aureus was sensitive to this drug. Its Zone of Inhibition was 34mm. P.aeruginosa was resistant to this drug. Its Zone of Inhibition was 0mm. S. marcescens was resistant to this drug. Its Zone of Inhibition was 0mm. Gram + bacteria: S.aureus was sensitive to this drug. Gram – bacteria: E.coli, P.aeruginosa, and S.marcescens were resistant to this drug. 4. Erythromycin’s mode of action is to inhibit protein synthesis by binding to 50s ribosomal subunits. This drug can be bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on organism and drug concentration and is narrow spectrum. Gram - E.coli was resistant to this drug, its Zone of Inhibition was 8mm. Gram + S.aureus was sensitive to this drug, its Zone of Inhibition was 24mm. Gram - P.aeruginosa was resistant to…...

Similar Documents

Antibiotic Production by Bacterial Biocontrol Agents

...Leeuwenhoek81: 537–547, 2002. © 2002Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. 537 Antibiotic production by bacterial biocontrol agents Jos M. Raaijmakers ∗ , Maria Vlami & Jorge T. de Souza Department of Plant Sciences, Laboratory of Phytopathology, Wageningen University, Binnenhaven 5, 6709 PG Wageningen, The Netherlands (∗ Author for correspondence) Abstract Interest in biological control of plant pathogens has been stimulated in recent years by trends in agriculture to-wards greater sustainability and public concern about the use of hazardous pesticides. There is now unequivocal evidence that antibiotics play a key role in the suppression of various soilborne plant pathogens by antagonistic microorganisms. The significance of antibiotics in biocontrol, and more generally in microbial interactions, often has been questioned because of the indirect nature of the supporting evidence and the perceived constraints to an-tibiotic production in rhizosphere environments. Reporter gene systems and bio-analytical techniques have clearly demonstrated that antibiotics are produced in the spermosphere and rhizosphere of a variety of host plants. Several abiotic factors such as oxygen, temperature, specific carbon and nitrogen sources, and microelements have been identified to influence antibiotic production by bacteria biocontrol agents. Among the biotic factors that may play a determinative role in antibiotic production are the plant host, the pathogen,......

Words: 8188 - Pages: 33

The Agent

...a single-sex fraternity or sorority, it is required to be departmentally sponsored in order to become a Registered Student Organization (RSO). Social fraternities and sororities on this campus are established as local chapters of national organizations. Chapters are required to be affiliated with a national organization, and subsequently ascribe to and follow the policies of the national organization. Chapters are also required to hold membership in a governance councils. Conclusion What is the effect of joining fraternity? Real fraternity is a good example to us because they help each other of what they need, but the fake fraternity can take you in a bad way and wrong decision for your future. There are several categories under fraternity.  Social, service, professional and honorary fraternity.  The most recognized form is the social fraternity. The effects actually depend on what kind of fraternity you are in. Protection, back-up, friends. BAD EFFECTS The bad effects of this organization is that their real goal and objectives is disappearing.  Instead of helping the community and be a good model among the youth, they are the one who's starting trouble in their community and become an arrogant person for being a member of it.But I did not mean that all of the fraternity and sorority but some of them. You can still find a good one who's purpose is true. I can only suggest that you can live life without fraternity/sorority and a life greater than......

Words: 711 - Pages: 3

Agent Provocateur

...Practice of Entrepreneurship Case Study (MMM038) – The meteoric rise and rise of Agent Provocateur Sambhav Bhandari 21027281 MSc Entrepreneurship and Management The small-scale company, which I have decided to do this case study on, has become synonymous with luxury lingerie the world over. It has become the epitome of upmarket couture lingerie - Agent Provocateur. The company had very humble beginnings and set out to do something completely different than what it has become today a ‘brand’. Founded in 1994 by Joseph Corre and his ex-wife Serena Rees, Joseph Corre saw that the state of fashionable or ‘sexy’ lingerie was pretty much non-existent in the UK market and as he says that he was absolutely disappointed after a visit to an Ann Summers store and thought the state of fashionable or sexy underwear could be changed altogether. What is intriguing I would say is that Joseph Corre having come from a very illustrious background, being the son of Vivienne Westwood and music manager Malcolm Mclaren, Joseph Corre worked for Vivienne Westwood previously before deciding to identify this potential gap in the market. The initial idea of the founder was to start a store that stocked creations from other brands, things that were too erotic for mainstream and at the same time acceptable by women. Having travelled to Paris and Los Angeles Joseph realized that even if he wanted to stock the lingerie he had the vision for there was nobody that was making it during this time......

Words: 2544 - Pages: 11

Change Agents

...from change in organizational structure to technical or managerial innovations Organizational targets for planned change include changes in strategy, objectives, technology, culture, structure, processes, management etc. These change activities in the organization are managed, facilitate and implement by change agents. There will be a discussion on why organizations enlist the help of change agents and the skills and competencies that they need to possess. There are various advantages and disadvantages for an organization in using internal and external change agents in the change processes. Lastly, few recommendations are people who bring or introduce planned change. The change agent can be manager or non-manager, employees of an organization or a consultant hired from outside (Pathak, 2010). In this paper, an analysis will be carried out on whether change leaders should be internal or external to the organization will be made based on this discussion. Change agents are enlisted by organizations several reasons. The change leaders have the professional knowledge and skills of the organisation development The roles of the change leaders, also known as change agents, must be able to solve problems in processes, systems, teams, individuals, organizational cultures, structures and designs within the organisation. The leaders will have very clear vision about the change provide intensive professional help to the organisation by giving the fair point of views on the......

Words: 1512 - Pages: 7

Agents

...Mobile agent construction tools Product | Company |Lang. |Description -------------------------|-------------------------------------------|-----------|------------------------------------------- AgenTalk | NTT/Ishida |LISP |Multiagent Coord. Agentx | International Knowledge Systems |Java |Agent Development Environment Aglets | IBM Japan |Java |Mobile Agents Concordia | Mitsubishi Electric |Java |Mobile Agents DirectIA SDK | MASA - Adaptive Objects |C++ |Adaptive Agents Gossip | Tryllian |Java |Mobile Agents Grasshopper | IKV++ |Java |Mobile Agents iGENTM | CHI Systems |C/C++ |Cognitive Agent JACK Intelli Agents | Agent Oriented Software Pty. Ltd. |JACK |Agent Development Environment JAM | Intelligent Reasoning Systems |Java |Agent Architecture LiveAgent | Alcatel |Java |Internet Agent AgentTcl | Dartmouth College |Tcl/tk |Mobile Agents MS Agent ......

Words: 2474 - Pages: 10

Agent of Socialisation

...long process and a variety of individuals and institutions contribute to its shaping effect. For example, individuals are politically socialized by such groups as their family, peers, and social class. Furthermore, they are socialized by existing laws, media, religion, education, their own gender, and more. Basically, the process is never ending and the factors which shape it are all encompassing. Those groups and institutions which contribute to the process of political socialization are known as the agents of socialization. These sources affect the development of political values and attitudes differently, but they all contribute to the individual's understanding of and orientations toward politics. The primary agents of socialization are those that directly develop specific political orientations such as the family. Whereas, the secondary agents of socialization tend to be less personal and involved in the process of socialization in a more indirect manner such as the media. Basic political attitudes and values tend to be formed early in childhood and tend to be relatively consistent throughout life. Thus, the family is a very important agent of political socialization. However, the degree to which these basic political orientations are retained by the individual varies as a result of the discontinuities one experiences in their political socialization. Hence, this is where the other agents of political socialization become fundamental factors in one's political......

Words: 276 - Pages: 2

Bioterrorism Agents

...| ANTHRAX | IONIZING RADIATION | SARIN GAS | Pathophysiologicactions | Caused by Bacillus Centhracis bacteria. 3 ways of contact, cutaneous, ingesting, inhalation. Inhalation is the most deadly. Inhaled spores produce toxins within the lungs and lymph system. | Causes | Inhibits the breakdown of the enzyme acetylcholinesterace. It over stimulates the parasympathetic nerves in smooth muscle | | | | | Signs and Symptoms | Cutaneous- bumps, blisters with black centersGI- nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, fever, bloody diarrheaInhalation- sore throat, mild fever, fatigue, muscle aches, high fever, trouble breathing, shock, meningitis, coma, death.Resembles flu like symptoms. | Radiation sickness- nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, skin erythema, necrosis, sterility, damage to DNA, low birth weight babies, mental retardation, developmental delays, cataracts, cancers. | Runny nose, blurred vision, sweating, muscle twitching, tightness of the chest, headache, cramps, nausea, vomiting, involuntary defecation and urination, convulsions, coma, respitory arrest. | | | | | Treatments | Treat skin lesions, Oral antibiotics like PCN, Tetracycline, Ethromycin, and Cirpo. | Treat symptoms as they appear. Many symptoms will not appear for days, weeks even years.Blood transfusions stem cell transplant, and cytokine therapy. | Treat symptoms as they appear. Give Atropine and Pralidozine (PAM) | Bioterrorism is a constant concern today. As seen in the news,......

Words: 757 - Pages: 4

Agent Orange

...Ruslan Vasilenko September 5, 2013 Vietnam and Western Imagination Paper Proposal Long Term Effects of Agent Orange I selected the topic of Agent Orange to write about in my final paper and all the controversial issues surrounding that topic. In that paper I will talk about the long term effects of Agent Orange that was used during the Vietnam War between 1961-1977. I will examine the effects it had on Vietnam people right away and in the long run. I will also talk about the political side of things and why it would be used in the first place. A brief history will be given on what it is, how it was made, how it was transported and sprayed over the Vietnam jungles, why things reached these extremes, who was behind the idea, how has the world responded in order to help those affected, and etc. I will also try and include the opinions of American and international populations on this controversial topic. The reason why I picked this topic is because I am always interested in controversial topics that humans have witnessed throughout history. These topics rise out of many occasions and especially during the times of war. Agent Orange is one of those topics because people have been arguing for many decades on both, negative and some positive, sides of it. It has caused a great deal of suffering and pain to those affected. It continues to have a tremendous impact on newborns and those people have yet to be refunded for their struggles even though its not going......

Words: 467 - Pages: 2

Blood Agents

...Blood agents are poisons that act on the body by being consumed into the blood (http://emergency.cdc.gov/agent/blood/). There are three known blood agents as identified by the Center for Disease Control: Arsine (SA), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Cyanide, and Sodium monofluoroacetate (compound 1080). I will attempt to discuss in detail how each blood agent enters the body and effects the human body. Blood agents extract from its effect on exposed victims. Blood agents generally enters the body by way of inhalation. It paralyzes the ability of the blood cells to harness and transfer oxygen to the blood. Because the blood agent prevents the transfer of oxygen to the blood, it causes the body to suffocate within. Arsine By definition, arsine is has no color, flammable, non-irritating lethal gas with a benign garlic odor. It is generated when arsenic comes in unity with an acid (http://emergency.cdc.gov/agent/arsine/facts.asp). It has been reported that a half-hour exposure to 25-50 ppm can be lethal (Blackwell and Robins, 1979). Clinical signs of arsine present in the body are: abdominal pain, blood in urine, and jaundice. Symptoms that follow showing signs of acute exposure are: headaches, weakness, inability to release bowel, which usually causes vomiting and nausea due to stress on the body. Arsine was investigated as a warfare agent during World War II, but was never used on the battlefield (http://emergency.cdc.gov/agent/arsine/facts.asp). Certain industrial......

Words: 1055 - Pages: 5

Agent Orange

...war focus on the modernization of warfare and its destructive effect on the environment. Scorched earth methods have been used for much of recorded history. However, methods of modern warfare cause far greater devastation on the environment. The progression of warfare from chemical weapons to nuclear weapons has increasingly created stress on ecosystems and the environment such as Agent Orange during the Vietnam War. Agent Orange is one of the potent herbicides used as a defoliant by the U.S. military in its herbicidal warfare program, Operation Ranch Hand, during the Vietnam War. The name Agent Orange comes from the containers that it was stored in, which had an orange stripe. The U.S. military deployed almost 20 million gallons of herbicides from 1962 to 1971. Among these substances, Agent Orange was the most widely used herbicide, around 11 million gallons. The Vietnamese had the geographical advantages so they used Agent Orange, a mixture of toxins, to remove leaves from trees and bushes, leaving the enemies more exposed. However, the persistent nature of dioxins, erosion caused by loss of tree cover and loss of seedling forest stock meant that reforestation was difficult or nearly impossible in many areas. It has also been linked to many health problems in Vietnam veterans and Vietnamese civilians which caused thousands to die from conditions likely brought on by exposure to Agent Orange. Thus, Agent Orange has disrupted ecological equilibrium. When dioxin......

Words: 489 - Pages: 2

Agent Orange

...Was the use of Agent Orange worth it? Was it worth all the hard ache it caused to not only Americans but, also the lives of a whole entire generation of people from Vietnam? This essay is about how and why it shouldn’t of been used in the Vietnam war. And how if it wouldn’t of been used, would of saved thousands of lives. I’m not too sure what your prior knowledge is about Agent Orange so I’ll give you a little background information to it. November 1st 1955 America goes to war with North Vietnam in the attempt to end all communism in the world. The location of the war was in the lush and extremely dense jungles of South Vietnam proving to be very hard for our American soldiers. The herbicide Agent Orange was used to take out lots of the vegetation on the jungle floor to expose the enemy. Agent Orange was a very powerful and deadly chemical mixture of 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dixoin (TCDD). *history channel* Which through experiments done on lab animals as proven to have done almost immediate health effects not including the issues that come with time such as various cancers and birth defects. Agent Orange proved to be very useful on the battle field during the war, completely destroying the plant life to expose the Vietnamese soldiers. The whole operation of using the herbicide was called operation “Ranch Hand”. *A* There were several ways (TCDD) was spread out all over the jungles, such as trucks, soldiers with spray backpacks, and most of all the was the C-123’s......

Words: 395 - Pages: 2

Chemo Agents

...PRMCE Chemotherapy Volume Administration Guidelines |Drug |Administration Volume |Infusion Time |Stability |IV Administration/ | |Usual Adult Dose | | | |Comments | |Alemtuzumab (Campath) |NS 100ml (if given IV) |2 hours |8 hours |Do not shake. Premed with diphenhydramine 50mg + | |3mg/day to 30mg 3x/week | | | |acetaminophen 650mg | |May be given subcut or IV | | | | | |Arsenic Trioxide |250ml NS |1-2 hours |24 hours room temp |Infuse over 4 hours if vasomotor reactions | |0.15mg/kg | | ...

Words: 1787 - Pages: 8

Agents of Society

...Mashell Chapeyama Zimbabwe There are various agents that play part in the socialisation process in the society. In this essay the writer looks at five of these agents. The writer also looks at the good and bad sides of each of these agents. The agents that shall be discussed are: • Parents • Peers • Religious leaders • Teachers • Friends. Parents Parents are the main agents of socialisation for the children. This is so because the parents spend much of the time with the children, from their tender ages until they are grown up. At home the parents set standards and rules. They insist on certain folkways. Examples include that they must not eat while they are standing. In Zimbabwe parents also teach children moral codes such as clapping and thanking other people. They are taught good ways of treating others. Generally parents set the best guidance to children. This is due to the attachment which parents have with their children as well as the love they have for them. One bad thing in the socialisation that comes from the parents is insisting on certain standards which may not be good for the children. Some religious parents teach their children to disown other people’s religious beliefs. Parents may tend to create stereotypes in their children. They tend to want children to behave in exactly the same ways as they do. Teachers Apart from parents teachers give a lot of socialisation to children. Children believe that teachers are always right; hence they listen......

Words: 730 - Pages: 3

Agents of Socialization

...Agents of Socialization | Ways how each socialize the member of society | Examples That illustrate the agents of socialization. | Family | Morals and Values, Interaction and communication | Skills- learn to speak, learn daily chores, learn to socialize among people, to be responsible | School | Peer Group, Study Groups, Gender, | Skills- reading and writing, following rules, respect others, be polite, introduces to diversity. | Mass Media | Radio, Television, New Paper, Internet | Advertisements for persuading people to buy unnecessary items and products, Awareness (Natural Disasters and others), Exchange of information. Entertainment | Peer Group | Gangs, Study Groups | Communication of similar interests, the dress code, behaviour (good/bad), Entertainment. | 1. Develop a table to show the ways in which the following agents of socialize the members of the society. Family, School, Mass Media, Peer Group. Include examples to illustrate these ways. 2. In table form state advantages and disadvantages of the influence of exposure of the youth to the common modes of the mass media, such as Television, Video Games and the Internet. Common Modes of Mass Media | Advantages | Disadvantages | Television | Keeps us Updated on Interests, Entertainment, Educational T.V. | Violence (Violent Shows, movies) Crime Increases, Obscene Language, Aggressive behaviour, Pornography, Time Consuming. | Video Games | Entertainment, Find Friends from other countries......

Words: 340 - Pages: 2

Change Agents

...Chiung-Hui, H., & Ing-Chung, H. (2009). RESISTANCE TO CHANGE: THE EFFECTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL INTERVENTION AND CHARACTERISTIC. Review Of Business Research, 9(1), 110-114. In this study, the authors highlight the perceptions of change agents’ in regards to employee resistance. Research in this area specifically is quite scarce because previous research has focused on recognizing resistance as a having a significant effect on organization change outcomes. The purpose of this study is to understand the perspective of agents who drive the implementation of organizational change to investigate the agents’ perceptions to employee resistance, organizational intervention, and change outcomes. This study was conducted by sampling graduate school alumni in Taiwan, who had experience as internal change agents. Much of the study was based on variables such as tenure, profitability, and age. The rest was done on a scale that asked the internal agents’ to evaluate employee’s perceptions. They also considered characteristics of the organization such as size and the importance of the position held by the agents’. The authors agree with previous research that view resistance as an obstacle, instead of a reaction or response that newer studies promote. They believe it is a block that prevents change and a major reason that change does not succeed or does not get implemented. They also agree with previous claims that any change, no matter how beneficial for employees and to the......

Words: 449 - Pages: 2