Developmental Psychology Theories

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THE PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY This theory was proposed by Sigmund Freud which he believed that a child passes five major stages in which the pleasure‐seeking energies of the ‘id’ become focused on certain erogenous areas. These stages are the oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital. If psychosexual stages are completed successfully, the result is a healthy behavior or personality. If certain issues are not resolved at the appropriate stage, fixation occurs. Fixation is the tendency to stay at a particular if not properly satisfied on its appropriate period. PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY This theory was proposed by Erick Erickson. His theory states that human’s lifespan undergo the Eight (8) Stages of major crises or conflict. This theory describes the impact of social experience of a person across the whole lifespan. He believed that human beings are rational creatures whose thoughts, feelings and actions are largely controlled by the ego. Individuals must first understand the realities of the social world in order to adapt successfully. The Eight Stages across the human’s lifespan are as follows: a. Basic Trust vs. Mistrust – from 0 to 1 year old or the Infancy Stage b. Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt – from 1 to 3 years old or the Early Childhood Stage c. Initiative vs. Guilt – from 3 to 6 years old or the Middle Childhood Stage d. Industry vs. Inferiority – from 6 to 12 years old or the Late Childhood Stage e. Identity vs. Role Confusion – from 12 to 20 years old or the Adolescent Period f. Intimacy vs. Isolation – from 20 to 40 years old or the Young Adult Stage g. Generativity vs. Stagnation – from 40 to 65 years old or the Middle Adult Stage h. Ego Identity vs. Despair ‐ from 65 to death or the Old Age Period DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FREUD AND ERICKSON’S THEORY Although Freud and…...

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