Cultural Difference: Hofstede Framework

In: Business and Management

Submitted By kl4efa
Words 1568
Pages 7
Culture, in my own opinion, is a unique system of values and norms that are believed by a group of people who live in the same society. Since culture is unique, Geert Hofstede tried to study the differences. After the study, he proposed five dimensions to measure the cultural difference between nations. The following parts will explain Hofstede Framework briefly. The first dimension is Power Distance. It is a tool to measure the power difference between levels in organization. In a group with high power distance, the majority of people would tend to respect in authority and establish hierarchy. When observing their behavior, they would have a great esteem on the class of social level. By contrary, a society with a low power distance would not fear authority and view themselves as equal with equal rights. Generally, the power distance in Oriental is higher than that in Occidental. The second dimension is Individualism vs. Collectivism. This index measures the preference of a group of people in considering self-benefit or group-benefit. In a society of collectivism, the society would have strong group cohesion and have higher responsibility on others well-being. Besides, the management level would tend to discuss with their subordinates before making a decision. By contrary, people will have loose ties and lack of interpersonal connection when a society prefers individualism. Generally, the Oriental prefer to focus on collectivism; the Occidental prefer to focus on the individualism. The third dimension is Achievement vs. Nurturing. This index reflects a society that sticks with and values traditional male and female roles. If the score is high, the society tends to holes value like traditionally male which is competitive, assertive and ambitious. They would be less emotional and would not make any emotional-based decision or argument. On the other hand, a…...

Similar Documents

Cultural Differences

...Cultural Differences In every culture, people work diligently to find a common ground for acceptance and tolerance. Typically, people are accepting of various social criteria that are oftentimes associated with a specific ethnicity. However, many individuals simply tolerate the beliefs, standards, values, and behaviors of other individuals in society while inwardly opposed to the model of the displayed behaviors of other individuals as it relates to another individuals beliefs, value systems, and other variables that influence how an individual functions in society. Individualism and collectivism is arguably two topics that are the subjects of continued debate and for that reason, this paper provides a comparison and contrast of individualism and collectivism. Additionally the paper provides a description of variables supporting the significance in understanding cultural differences as the differences relate to individualism and collectivism. The understanding of individualism and collectivism bridges the gap of understanding the similarities and differences between the two topics, provides a clear picture of various cultures, and facilitates sensitivity, and tolerance (Shaughnessy, Zechmeister, & Zechmeister, 2009). The ability to accomplish the sensitivity and tolerance portion allows for individualism and collectivism to be embraced and not feared.   According to Segall, Dasen, Berry, and Poortinga (1999) a society can have an increase of individualism and......

Words: 1079 - Pages: 5

Cultural Difference

...RUNNING HEADING: CULTURAL DIFFERENCES University of Phoneix September 23, 2013 Dr. Victoria Anyikwa Culture refers to a set of shared values, beliefs, and norms held by individuals of a group. Culture includes customs, material artifacts, and language that is transmitted from generation to generation. In the United States alone, there are several cultural differences. People do not dress the same, have the same religion, people have different perceptions of the world around them, have different languages, and also have different ways of expressing their personality. Differences between individuals within a culture are much greater than differences within groups. A person's belief, personality, sexual preferences, social standing, education, among other factors affect human behavior and culture. Recognizing and understanding differences in cultural patterns provides a framework for interpreting goals and behaviors of others. The purpose of this paper is to analyze religion and sexual identify/ orientation and point out their significance in understanding cultural differences. Religion Religions throughout the world are distinct in differences and relationship, with some having faith in saints, some in sacrifices and some in multiple gods. Religion is observed throughout the world in unlike traditions in few factors or other and can affect an individual’s behavior in his or her own tradition. According to Santrock (2010), people in numerous traditions will......

Words: 1207 - Pages: 5

Cultural Differences

...Cultural Differences Hofstede (1984) have determined that Korea's culture is one of the most dissimilar cultures from that of the U.S. According to Hofstede, Korea can be characterized as follows: large power distance, authoritarian, collectivistic, and strong uncertainty avoidance. The U.S. is, basically, at opposite ends of the continuums associated with each of these characteristics. The U.S. has low power distance, is more participatory, is individualistic, and has low uncertainty avoidance. These types of differences have the potential to create conflict and, consequently, impact the level of trust and organizational commitment of managers confronted with situations involving managers from another culture. In the context of U.S. companies doing business in Korea, conflict may occur over such issues as how decisions are made, perceptions of what makes for appropriate relationships, and how authority is to be handled (Chung and Lee, 1989). These conflicts can, consequently, result in lowered trust and less organizational commitment. Organizational Commitment According to Sommer et al., (1996), organizational commitment is the construct most often researched to explain employee attachment or loyalty to an organization. Even though various terms have been used to describe the different elements of organizational commitment, most researchers agree with the three dimensions proposed by Mowday et al., (1982). These are "identification" as a proud member of the organization,......

Words: 823 - Pages: 4

Leadership and Cultural Differences

...MANAGERIAL LEADERSHIP AND CULTURAL DIFFERENCES OF EASTERN EUROPEAN ECONOMIES   Darryl J, Mitry and Thomas Bradley  National University School of Business and Technology http://marketing.byu.edu/htmlpages/ccrs/proceedings99/mitrybradley.htm Key Factors: ~ Global Business, Colliding cultures & Changing Economies   ~With the accession of the 21st Century, the developing globalization of business and other expanding pluralistic organizations we need to reconsider the topic of managerial leadership within a much larger perspective than has been the usual practice. Therefore, we offer some observations from empirical research and suggest theoretical directions. We review the subject as it relates to the challenges of transnational business and more specifically with reference to business operations in the emerging and transforming economies of Eastern Europe such as the newly independent regions of the former Soviet Union (FSU). The observed “globalization” of business is the precursor to the growing interdependency of peoples around the world; the development of a “Global Community.” This appears to be an inescapable and major event that is contributing to the dissolution of boundaries between customary disciplines of knowledge, information, technology, countries and peoples around the world. Associated with this phenomenon is an intensifying need to provide a strategic global approach in management education.(Mitry & Thomas, 2000)  ~ In the new era of...

Words: 21951 - Pages: 88

Hofstede Cultural Dimensiona

...Assignment 1 Hofstedes Cultural Dimensions The Hofstede cultural dimension can be a great way to study a county’s culture. The Hofstede analysis is based on five factors: power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, and long-term orientation. Looking first at the United States, we have a power distance rating of 40. This means that we understand uniqueness and have a strong belief in equality for each of our citizens, but also realize there is a certain amount of control we have to abide by. The Netherlands have a score of 38 making them similar to us, while the countries of Malaysia and Guatemala have the highest scores. This means they believe all societies are not equal and they accept power over them. The United States have a very high score of 91 on individualism. The belief that anyone can make something of themselves, or be anything they want to be when they grow up, helps contribute to such a high individualism score. Australia is very similar to the US with a score of 90, while Guatemala is very low on their individualism score. The masculinity factor refers to the roles between genders in society. A high masculinity score means the culture respects the male gender more, especially in roles of business and high power decision making. The US was almost in the middle with a score of 62. Japan had the highest, and Sweden had the lowest with a score of just 5. The uncertainty avoidance factor deals with the level that people feel......

Words: 351 - Pages: 2

Cultural Differences

...MSc Management Cross-cultural Management module Cross Cultural Study of China and America Name of Student Name of Instructor Dated: Table of Contents S. No. | Topic | Page No. | Cross Cultural Study of China and America | | 1- | Introduction | 3 | 2- | Chinese Culture | 3 | 3- | Leadership styles and skills of China | 4 | 4- | Motivating others | 4 | 5- | Trust Builder | 5 | 6- | Talent retention | 5 | 7- | High Performance team | 5 | 8- | Management Style of China | 5 | 9- | The Guanxi | 6 | 10- | Individualism and collectivism | 6 | 11 | America’s Culture | 6 | 12 | Leadership Styles in America | 7 | 13 | Directive leadership | 7 | 14 | Participative leadership | 7 | 15 | Empowering leadership | 8 | 16 | Charismatic leadership | 8 | 17 | Management Styles of America | 8 | 18 | Ethical issues in cross cultural of China and America | 8 | 19 | Compare and contrast between China and USA | 9 | 20 | Conclusion | 11 | 21 | References | 12 | Introduction: This paper consists of cross cultural study of two developed countries named USA and China. These countries are well developed and exist in the major countries of the world. Both have an entire different culture in reference of behavior, leadership styles and management. China is the part of eastern countries and USA is a western country, both have entirely different environment and too far from each other. There are many roles that are involved in any organization...

Words: 3090 - Pages: 13

Ational-Cultural-Differences-and-Multinational-Business

...Globalization Note Series Pankaj Ghemawat and Sebastian Reiche National Cultural Differences and Multinational Business The eminent Dutch psychologist, management researcher, and culture expert Geert Hofstede, early in his career, interviewed unsuccessfully for an engineering job with an American company. Later, he wrote of typical cross-cultural misunderstandings that crop up when American managers interview Dutch recruits and vice versa: “American applicants, to Dutch eyes, oversell themselves. Their CVs are worded in superlatives…during the interview they try to behave assertively, promising things they are very unlikely to realize…Dutch applicants in American eyes undersell themselves. They write modest and usually short CVs, counting on the interviewer to find out by asking how good they really are…they are very careful not to be seen as braggarts and not to make promises they are not absolutely sure they can fulfill. American interviewers know how to interpret American CVs and interviews and they tend to discount the information provided. Dutch interviewers, accustomed to Dutch applicants, tend to upgrade the information. To an uninitiated American interviewer an uninitiated Dutch applicant comes across as a sucker. To an uninitiated Dutch interviewer an uninitiated American applicant comes across as a braggart.”1 Cultural differences, while difficult to observe and measure, are obviously very important. Failure to appreciate and account for them can lead to......

Words: 10010 - Pages: 41

Differences in Cultural

...Cultural Differences between Japan and U.S. There are many cultural differences between the U.S. and Japan. Each country has their culture and lifestyle. While we may feel that Japanese cultural and lifestyle seems strange, they likewise look at Americans as being different. It is important to realize that Japanese and American culture is swayed by the society of people. Americans belong to a number of subcultures due to immigration, while Japanese society has less immigration and is not as diverse when it comes to subcultures. Since there are so many cultural differences between Japan and the U.S., we cannot discuss its entirety but review a few differences as it relates to the family, greeting, business, and government. First, the family structure is much different. In the Japanese culture, the man is the head and the wife services all of his needs first. While in American culture, the husband and wife are equal partners and share in responsibilities. The family structure in Japan is defined by tradition while the American family structure is free and family roles are chosen according to likes and dislikes of the family member. Japanese traditionally feel that a married woman’s place, especially older women, should be at home taking care of her husband and children. However, Americans feel that a woman can do both home and career and she is free to chose, especially since both partners are equal and share in responsibilities. Japanese are also known to take care of......

Words: 1385 - Pages: 6

Hofstedes Cultural Dimensions (China and Germany)

... Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions | China and the comparison to Germany | | | | Dennis Keidat | 01.04.2013 | | Gerard Hendrik Hofstede (born October 2, 1928 in Haarlem) is a Dutch expert in cultural studies [GHW]. Hofstede (1980) surveyed 88,000 IBM employees working in 66 countries and then ranked the countries on different cultural dimensions. His research resulted in four dimensions (power distance; individualism versus collectivism; uncertainty avoidance; and masculinity and femininity). In the beginning, China was not included in this study but later Bond and Hofstede looked at Chinese values. From this research they included a fifth cultural value dimension called: long-term versus short-term orientation [SKR]. Power Distance Index (PDI) The Power Distance index shows how less powerful individuals accept and expect an unequal distribution of power. High power distance means that power is unevenly distributed; low power distance means that power is more evenly distributed [TIP]. According to Geert Hofstede’s 5 dimensions China is located in the higher ranking at 80. That means that this society “believes that inequalities amongst people are acceptable” [GER]. The Power is centralised and the management is autocratic. The subordinate-superior relationship tends to be cleaved and “there is no defence against power abuse by superiors” [GER]. This means that “people are less willing to challenge authority which is likely due to old communism beliefs which still......

Words: 2347 - Pages: 10

Hofstedes Cultural Dimensions (China and Germany)

... Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions | China and the comparison to Germany | | | | Dennis Keidat | 01.04.2013 | | Gerard Hendrik Hofstede (born October 2, 1928 in Haarlem) is a Dutch expert in cultural studies [GHW]. Hofstede (1980) surveyed 88,000 IBM employees working in 66 countries and then ranked the countries on different cultural dimensions. His research resulted in four dimensions (power distance; individualism versus collectivism; uncertainty avoidance; and masculinity and femininity). In the beginning, China was not included in this study but later Bond and Hofstede looked at Chinese values. From this research they included a fifth cultural value dimension called: long-term versus short-term orientation [SKR]. Power Distance Index (PDI) The Power Distance index shows how less powerful individuals accept and expect an unequal distribution of power. High power distance means that power is unevenly distributed; low power distance means that power is more evenly distributed [TIP]. According to Geert Hofstede’s 5 dimensions China is located in the higher ranking at 80. That means that this society “believes that inequalities amongst people are acceptable” [GER]. The Power is centralised and the management is autocratic. The subordinate-superior relationship tends to be cleaved and “there is no defence against power abuse by superiors” [GER]. This means that “people are less willing to challenge authority which is likely due to old communism......

Words: 2347 - Pages: 10

Managing Cultural Differences

... TITLE: Managing cultural differences By Name Course Professor University City/State Date Contents Introduction 3 Discussion of cultural frameworks 3 My cultural background and discussion of my cultural scores 6 Recommendation on cross cultural management 7 Conclusion 8 References list 9 Introduction Cultural practices in different regions of the world are different. In managing a firm in a particular region, a manager should thus understand the effective cultural practices in the region so as to conduct management in an effective manner (Joint, 2013). The cultural practices determine the expectations of the workforce from the manager and the conditions required by the workforce in a firm so as to yield an optimal output. The knowledge on cultural diversity is greatly applicable in the advertising and branding activities of the firm. It enables one to understand the consumer behavior and thus make informed decisions on the strategies to be undertaken (Verhoest et al., 2010). From the concept and impact of the difference in the cultural practices, then it is crucial for all managers to understand the cultural differences in the regions they conduct their management. In an aim to analyze the cultural frameworks, various cultural frameworks have been generated. The most preferred cultural framework for analysis is the Hofstede’s cultural framework (Dong et al., 2010). Discussion of cultural frameworks In this essay, one analyzes the nature and dimensions of the......

Words: 2263 - Pages: 10

Cultural Differences

...Cultural Differences Christina Bacon Psych/535 March 16, 2015 Cindy Ojeda Cultural Differences There are different cultures that come into people’s lives and into the United States every day. Different cultures is what makes the world an interesting place to live, whether it be a person’s gender identity or their cultural identity, people tend to judge others on their gender and their cultural identity. This essay will discuss the multicultural concepts on both gender identity and cultural identity and will talk about understanding the cultural differences. Gender identity Dictionary.com (2015) defines gender identity as an inner sense of a person and whether or not they are male or female. This identity usually happens during early childhood and as a result of how the child’s parents raise them and the social influences that happen during puberty by the changes in hormones. When children reach their teen years they start to feel differently about themselves, teens ask themselves if they were actually supposed to be female instead of male and vice versa, and when others hear about it then that is where the differences come from. In the transgender culture they are accepted because other teens and young adults like them have gone through the same things, but in other cultures they are looked down on. In our culture we are called transgender or homosexual or heterosexual, etc. but in the world of the Native American they are called two-spirits. According to......

Words: 1382 - Pages: 6

Cultural Differences

...Cultural Differences Introduction Cultural diversity is the norm in today’s workplace. If you work for a large corporation, you most likely deal with people from various backgrounds and countries all day long. It is a difficult enough situation to have such cultural diversity amongst your peers but if you are a manager facing these demographics, you really face the challenge of learning the make-up and background of your team. In order to be an effective leader you will have to use various management styles as every team has different personality types, however, you will also have to be sensitive to and educated on what the cultural differences on your team are and how to tie it all together. Relationship building within your teams and reaching a diverse group with effective communication is a daunting challenge but necessary for success in today’s workforce. Millennials are the most ethnically and racially diverse generation ever in the history of the U.S. One out of three or thirty percent of Millennials is ethnically or racially diverse (Blain, 2008). The workforce is getting more and more diverse requiring effective communication, tolerance of others, and education about cultural differences. This paper will take a closer look at the cultural differences in Hofstede’s Five Dimensions between the United States and India. Cultural Differences in Hofstede’s Five Dimensions The workplace is getting more challenging to manage but Dr. Geert Hofstede and his Five...

Words: 1676 - Pages: 7

Cultural Framework

...International Management EA ------------------------------------------------- Assignment 12407210 - Hang Nguyen Title Compare and contrast cultural frameworks developed by Geert Hofstede and Fons Trompenaars. I - Introduction Different national cultures comprise different cultural value systems. The value systems are generated from a conception, or as noted previous beliefs, of existing means or resources, and necessities. Cultures have various standards and some factors such as behaviors, traditions or communication of one culture can be observed as irrelevant or sometimes even threatening by other cultures. These uncertainties can bring into being cultural gaps between people within a workforce. Not only do the variety of cultural structure interacting together increase the potential for conflict or disagreement, but also methods of control disputation among the cultures. The project manager must be able to handleconfrontation using different styles, depending on the circumstances, in order to effectively manage a diverse team. This paper discusses the most well-known and accepted theories of cultural differences and illustrates them with cases from international project management. Two leading studies of cross-cultural management have been conducted by Geert Hofstede and FonsTrompenaars. Both frameworksoffer a set of cultural dimensions along which core values can be obtained. These structures influence on human thinking, feeling, performance,......

Words: 2552 - Pages: 11

Cross Cultural Management - Hofstede

...along with cultural differences and with regard to business in multinational companies varying cultural behaviour plays an important role. Geert Hofstede, a famous Dutch management researcher, recognized the high explanatory power of these differences in his famous “national influences” – study (survey of 160,000 managers and employees of 60 countries). In compliance with Hofstede’s studies the most important results are the following: * Even though working in the same multinational company attitudes and behaviour of employees and managers can strongly differ form each other according to their cultural roots. * In contrast to factors like age, profession, gender, etc. the key component of “national culture” has a higher force of expression as well as a greater explanatory value. In summary Hofstede was able to identify the following dimensions as those ones in which employees and managers distinguish the most: “individualism/collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, […] career success/quality of life” (Adler N.J., Gundersen A., International Dimensions of Organizational Behaviour, p. 51) and long/short term orientation. The following paper shall give an overview of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions referring to business organizations in my home country Germany. For clarification purposes several proverbs are used to give the reader an understanding of Germany’s cultural distinctions in the field of organizational contexts. 2) Hofstede’s cultural......

Words: 1185 - Pages: 5