Child Language

In: English and Literature

Submitted By achiv
Words 762
Pages 4
"What have you learnt about language acquisition from children's early words and meanings?"

A child acquires language through a variety of sources. In this essay I will be explaining how children acquire words and meanings when learning language. A child goes through various stages of acquiring words. They being the cooing stage which means they are making open vowel sounds. This then adapted into a consonant vowel pattern in the babbling stage. The child then begins to use proto-words that they may not understand. Finally they use productive vocabulary to express needs or wants.

The early words and meanings a child acquires, are mainly influenced by their environment and personality. This is shown in Nelsons experiment where she determined that when a child starts to use early words their functions could be put into four categories of naming, action, social and modifying. When looking at a transcript of a child’s early words the influences on vocabulary could be seen. Using names such as “mummy” or “cup” shows the child is referential meaning they use concrete nouns often. Whereas a child that uses many action and social words like “play” and “hello” is more expressive and use abstract nouns. This is also evident in the Social Inertactionist Theory. Bruner suggested that children acquire language through nature and nurture, so children in different environments with different parents would develop distinctive words and meanings that relate to their own personal surroundings.

In an investigation by Thompson and Chapman suggested that children develop meanings for new words by working out what they don’t mean. When a child identifies a “big dog” and “small dog” they may not fully understand the adjective “small” but they can distinguish and recognize the fact it is not the “big dog.” Another study carried out by Aitchison showed three stages of children’s…...

Similar Documents

Language

...Figurative Language vs. Literal Language 28 November 2012 Abstract Literal language is fully factual. Figurative language is full of statements that elicit comparisons, imagination, and one’s ability to identify with the rendering statement context and connotation. Figurative and literal languages are vital components to the communication process; however, figurative language can evoke emotion and imagery into communications that literal language just cannot provide. By doing so, figurative language makes expressing meaning easier and more relatable to the reader. An important fact to remember is figurative language requires context in order to discern, adequately, the meaning the speaker or writer intends to convey. Failure to acquire an understanding of the context or connotation can lead to a complete misinterpretation of the intended communication. Failing to communicate, succinctly, an intended message to a receiver will preclude that individual from formulating any sustainable hypothesis based on information received. This inhibits the receiver from engaging in productive thinking on a figurative language message received out of context. To understand the comparison between figurative language and literal language it is important to first define the two terms. The term literal language signifies the language complies with its accepted, dictionary definition. Figurative language indicates the language diverges from its generally accepted......

Words: 1081 - Pages: 5

Language

..."...accent is used to refer to the breakthrough of native language phonology into the target language." While I agree that accent is generally used to refer to how a person sounds like relative to other speakers with regards to intonation and pronunciation of specific words, I cannot help but notice that the author has neglected choice of words in his definition of an accent. Language is a construct that is heavily influenced and, is in turn influenced, by culture; there is an intimate relationship between language and culture. Examination of various languages will reveal that some words or phrases in a particular language just cannot be translated perfectly into another language; the nuances and connotations are inevitably lost in the process of translation. For example, the French word "dépaysement" means the feeling that arises from not being in one's home country, the feeling of being a foreigner, and this word has no equivalent English translation. Language is a reflection of culture, and the values and practices intrinsic to it. Similarly, English users from different places not only have different intonation and pronunciation, they also utilize different words to mean the same things. In fact, some users of English even have constructed or creolized words to convey a whole wealth of meaning in their communications with other similar users. For example, in Singapore where many locals speak a colloquial English known as Singlish (a portmanteau of Singapore and English),...

Words: 709 - Pages: 3

Language

...paper? • Is the language in my thesis vivid and clear? Is it formulaic, or is it engaging and interesting? Sunderman, English 1A Thesis Statement Activity Instructions: Following are excerpts from various drafts of essay #1. In your groups, examine your assigned excerpt, and identify the thesis statement. In the space provided, write down its strengths and weaknesses, and anticipate any problems that might occur when attempting to write a draft based on the statement. (Be sure to refer back to Everyday Writer and the Thesis Statement Handout.) Suggest ways to revise the thesis statement so it is more effective. 1. Although society’s role in our identity is large, I believe that it is the parents who have ultimate control of how we become as males and females, in the early stages of life, and ourselves in the later stages. Our parents decide whether to abide by the “rules” of our society or not, and raise us accordingly. It is society’s views and pressures that are deriving our identity from its true identity, and is inversely affecting the diversity of people as a whole. This society is attempting to make all humans the same, taking away our natural differences. 2. Traditions have been set stating that girls like pink and boys like blue. Gender identity is conformed from society’s beliefs and traditions forced upon them. Within the family, the nature vs. nurture theory takes a huge role in determining how that child will grow and develop......

Words: 1249 - Pages: 5

Language

...Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein said "The limits of my language are the limits of my world." What are the limits of language and our world? The limits of our language are our knowledge, skills and abilities to use them, and our world - this is our vision, we know how to get along with others. Through language we share information about the world around us. If you do not master the language fully, these limits will prevent us from fully share their views on our environment. Then I will give only partial information, such as allowing our knowledge. Others around us will take the part for the whole and complete, and will conclude that they have betrayed everything we want and that the limits of our world. Boundaries of our world are not only our knowledge of a language, but for different languages. On our planet there are very different to each other languages ​​and cultures. As we meet someone with whom we have a common language, then we can not understand it, nor did he understand us. But you are blind and deaf people, some of whom can not learn spoken language, does this mean that they will never be able to know the world and to convey their opinions? The answer is no, because languages ​​are spoken only: braille letters enable the blind to explore the world, a zhestomimikata helps the deaf to communicate with others. Despite what factors determine the limits of our language, they limit our world from the perspective of others - for them that our world is part of...

Words: 274 - Pages: 2

Language

...Vernacular Language Jessica Trevino AIU Online University Vernacular Language Vernacular is defined as using a language that is native to a country or province rather than a cultured, foreign or literary language. The Vernacular languages would also be considered as the large family of contemporary romantic language. Vernacular languages would one day be known to use as Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese and others as well. In the twenty century, Latin was the major language that was used for literature and to be educated. The Latin language was influenced by many others in the native language that included those of Celtic languages, Greek and Etruscan. The Latin languages were consistently developed due to the fact there were significant differences during each period. These differences included those in the literary written language and also due to differences in the spoken language of he educated and those of the less educated population lower class. When it all started the Latin language was the only italic language that belonged to the Indo-European linguistic family and the development of these languages were generated or taken by other tongues, including the language known as Celtic, Etruscan and Greek. The Latin language under went reconstruction, during its evolution stage, between the literary written language which was very different from the way it was spoken and conformed to the educated versus to that of the less educated versus that was most used by...

Words: 443 - Pages: 2

Sign Language for You and Your Child

...about how Sign language is an independent, complete language; and how hearing parents can acquire it to teach it to their deaf child; and how parents can learn to accept their child as Deaf. Sign language uses body language, facial expressions and gestures to convey meaning as opposed to using voice i.e. LSQ opposed French. It is not only used by deaf people but also by people who cannot speak. It is import for parents to learn and teach their child sign language as early as possible; and encourage people around them to learn it as well because it is critical to sign around Deaf people all the time. Sign language might seem hard to learn at first but motivation is the key; and it is easier for people to sign than for the deaf child to speak. As people learn to sign, they also learn that most of their perceptions were based on false information. Signing comes naturally to Deaf people and it is essential that the child’s foundation should be in sign language first and then English should be their second language. Just like any other language, deaf children will “baby talk” first, but their language will evolve and become more complex with time. It is important for the Deaf child and the family to immerse in the Deaf community and learn about Deaf culture; and for the Deaf child to develop a strong self-identity. Parents of the Deaf child should understand that the child has a different way of life and they should not limit to the one hope that the child will one day......

Words: 294 - Pages: 2

Language

...Language plays an important role in human life. Out of all the languages in the world, English is considered as the international language. Foreign language like a foreign plant grows with difficulty on the native soil. That is why the learning of the mother tongue is the labor of love whereas the learning of a foreign language is the love of labor ; one gives hot house existence, another breathes spring time atmosphere. A foreign language is like the step-mother whose frowns and rebukes one has to bear in spite of one's feelings. On the other hand mother tongue is like our own mother who nurses us into intellectually developed persons. English is a global language and proficiency in it is a must to succeed in a globalized world. British brought with them their language English to India and its global Nature has made it the lingua franca of India- a country with diverse regional Languages. English is a language which is acceptable all over India be it all Kannada, Malayalam, Punjabi, Guajarati, Marathi, Bengali because all speak English along with their own mother tongue. Not only in India, but also when you go abroad this is a language most commonly used. In the world of globalization, countries like China, Japan and Russia, who have passionately sustained and promoted their own language, have today accepted the importance of English language. No country as a matter of fact shall be able to survive without the knowledge of English today. In India, English has become a...

Words: 288 - Pages: 2

Language

...Language lies at the root of that transformation of the environment that we call ‘civilization’. How is language encouraged in the Montessori prepared environment? ​Language is something that I can’t explain. It is absurd for me. What I know is I am able to speak to communicate what is on my mind to other people, but the process how did it happen I barely remember it. Before I learn about Montessori, I used to think that language is something that comes naturally. I thought it was something ridiculous if children learn how to write and how to read in early age because I was thought that eventually children could done it easily. Well, I guess I was wrong all this time and sure I am taking for granted that I was underestimate how we can speak, read, and writing. Human needs practice to be fluently in speaking, to be understood in reading, and to be able to writing a simple note. In fact, human being learns language from he or she was an infant. An infant is first exposed to language through sounds generated by the environment and languages spoken by the adults surrounding him. As I observe my 9 months old son, he starts babble when he was 6 months old now he is more talkative event tough he can only say baba papa mama or dada. But I always replying what he says in order to make him feel respected, to teach him Bahasa and I don’t want to lose his sensitive period. ​Language is goes a long way in establishing a people’s identity, somehow showing people’s artistic,......

Words: 2341 - Pages: 10

Language and Child Dev

...Language and Child Development Kaneisha Boddie PSY 600 November 10, 2014 Robert Irizarry Abstract This paper explains the developments of children from infancy to adolescents. It focuses on the importance of physical, cognitive, language, and emotional development. As children continue to grow, from infants to toddler to adolescence they tend to develop a sense of being little independent creatures. Language and Child Development Overtime children experience different type of changes of growth from the time of birth until their adolescence years which is normally referred to as child development. It is very important to recognize and to understand child development which involves a significant change biologically, cognitively, emotionally, and with educational growth through language skills.  There are two different type of environment that may influence children’s behavior. The first type of course is chosen by parents. Children will more than likely adjust and become more familiar with the environment that they are raised in, and it is very possible for them to imitate language and the actions of their parents. The second type of environment is based off how a child is being treated in a specific environment. Children studies and learn from their environment and social life which is very significant in children's growth and language development. For others what is determined and accepted to be genetics in children’s development results may favor nurturing. As...

Words: 1295 - Pages: 6

Language

...Language Shannon Kephart PSY/360 October 13, 2014 Janel Fairchild Language “Language is structured on several levels: the phonological (sound), syntactic (ordering and structuring of words and phrases in sentences), semantic (meaning), and pragmatic (the ways in which language is actually used), to name a few. Each of these levels has a different set of rules associated with it.” (Galotti, 2014 pg. 248) Lexicon is “mental store thought to hold a cognitive processor’s knowledge of words, including their spelling, pronunciation, definition, part of speech, and so on.” (Galotti, 2014 pg. 415) Language is a manner of conversation in order to express ones emotions, concepts, or ideas. Language takes shape in many different kinds of forms from sign language, to verbal and even body language. No matter what language is being spoken there is always a list of words that is identified with a specific discussion and these particular conglomerates of words are known as a lexicon. (Galotti, 2014) A terrific illustration could be the phrase “free will” which in turn makes one thinks ‘It was done of my own free will’. This makes language and lexicon go hand in hand on account of lexical memory of words or language and this pertains to cognitive psychology due to the regularity of lexical selections in the processing of ones words in the cognitive mind. The key characteristics of language are it is regular and productive, arbitrariness, and discreteness. These are all...

Words: 1034 - Pages: 5

Language

...Language John Kendrick PSY/360 September 14, 2015 Professor Jackson Language Through sounds, gestures, and symbols humans have learned to communicate with each other. It is a developed system for communicating in a society. Languages will vary from one culture to the next and will take on different forms. Not only are languages spoken, they are expressed through hand gestures and written symbols. Language is a form of communication that allows humans to express emotion, opinions, thoughts, and beliefs (Galotti, 2014). The lexicon is the vocabulary contained within the language. It is the knowledge of the words contained in the language. It is a compilation of all words known, understood, and expressed by the individual. The language is compiled and understood by others contained in the same culture and supports how the language is expressed (Galotti, 2014). One key feature of language is broadcasting the message and then rapid fading of the message. The message will fade and then not heard. The next feature is interchangeability. This is the ability to both receive and send the message. Total feedback is occurs when the speaker can hear his own speech and can monitor the language performance as they go and specialization involves producing the speech through the specialized body parts adapted for this role (Galotti, 2014). The key features of language are phonology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. An expression of language occurs when an......

Words: 749 - Pages: 3

Languages

...Shang was invaded from the west by the Zhou, who ruled from the 12th to the 5th century BC, until their centralized authority was slowly eroded by feudal warlords. Many independent states eventually emerged out of the weakened Zhou state, and continually waged war with each other in the spring and Autumn Period, only occasionally deferring to the Zhou king. By the time of the Warring States Period, there were seven powerful sovereign states, each with its own king, ministry and army. Imperial China The first unified Chinese state was established by Qin Shi Huang of the Qin state in 221 BC. Qin Shi Huang proclaimed himself the "First Emperor" , and imposed many reforms throughout China, notably the forced standardization of the Chinese language, measurements, length of cart axles, and currency. The Qin Dynasty lasted only fifteen years, falling soon after Qin Shi Huang's death, as its harsh legalist and authoritarian policies led to widespread rebellion. The subsequent Han Dynasty ruled China between 206 BC and 220 AD, and created a lasting Han cultural identity among its populace that extends to the present day. The Han Dynasty expanded with military campaigns reaching Korea, Vietnam, Mongolia and Central Asia, and also helped establish the Silk Road in Central Asia. China was for a large part of the last two millennia the world's largest economy. However, in the later part of the Qing Dynasty, China's economic development began to slow and Europe's rapid development......

Words: 12304 - Pages: 50

Language

...English: “… but if you go to an interview and you can't shake hands, look someone in the eye and speak in the appropriate register, you are not going to get the job or place at university”. Sheffield Spring academy advises its pupils to avoid the use of informal words such as “hiya” and “ta” when they’re in school. The teachers will try to learn the pupils when to use Standard English and when to use colloquial language. Kathy August from The United Learning Trust (ULT) says that by doing this they will enhance their prospects of getting a job or a place at the university; so basically the reason is that you won’t be declined because of your accent. The thing about slang is that it is very appealing to children and adolescents. Slang is part of Black English. Maria Manning researched how it was used in a school and saw to her big surprise that many children of different ethnic backgrounds used slang. The main reason was that they wanted to rebel against a culture that had nothing to offer them. Both white and black pupils, who are from the most deprived parts of England as Sheffield Spring, feel excluded from the “British culture” which represents Standard English. This could be a reason why the “slang prohibition” won’t work. Maybe it will just make them more belligerent against the culture. According to the text “Standard English and Received Pronunciation” some people think that the link between accent and social status is weakening. On the other hand we have......

Words: 672 - Pages: 3

Language

...Language Latin became the prominent language during the Reign of the Roman Empire. Wherever the Roman Empire was ahead the Latin language was spoken. When the Empire fell is when Latin was switched over to Vernacular. Many people chose to speak this language other than Latin. It became a way of life and how the culture would develop in later years. Religion played a huge role in this. Charlemagne believed that in order for one to practice Christianity they needed to be able to read and write it. He began to crusade for the introduction of Literacy at this point. The English would speak The Old English type of language and the Anglo Saxons would start using Vernacular. The type of Vernacular Language often depended on the social class of that individual. Lower classes spoke what we know as English and the upper classes spoke the vernacular dialect ("End of Europe's," 1997) . Most of the vernacular language was introduced by entertainers and poets who would travel to the area carrying out stories that they had heard. Most of these writings were romantic and spoke of loss and tragedy. This was of course the Dark ages. They spoke of longing and whoa in love. Vernacular was adapted so they could understand these writings. Language was originally used in religion, and therefore became part of the culture that one existed in. It was thought that in order to practice a religion one needed to be able to speak that language and write it as well, which is where......

Words: 1110 - Pages: 5

Languages

...Languages in the U.S. COM/150 May 1, 2010 M. Lynn O’Donnell Have you ever noticed how many people speak a different language? It seems there are many people in the US who speak foreign languages and have limited English comprehension; so how do we adjust to this growing population? While foreign languages are taught more frequently and encouraged by employers, adversity surrounding Spanish speaking individuals in the US and their ability to support themselves remain. In recent years it has been documented that foreign languages are being taught more frequently. More Americans are studying foreign languages than before, data obtained from a 2006 survey indicates over 1.5 million college students were enrolled in foreign language courses in 2006 fall class schedules. American colleges and universities indicate Spanish as the most widely taught language. Other languages that are showing an increase in enrollment at a steady pace are French, German and Russian. With so many individuals coming from different countries to work or live with families already in the US it is becoming almost a necessity to be able to speak another language to communicate effectively with others. Foreign languages are becoming popular among college students as well as adults that have completed their education and are looking to expand their job skills. Some individuals make the choice to take these classes simply to communicate with others who are of limited English speaking ability. ......

Words: 1473 - Pages: 6