Cgi in Hollywood Cinema

In: Film and Music

Submitted By kenneth0stokes
Words 2567
Pages 11
Kenneth Stokes
Writing and Rhetoric 1
April 14th, 2013

CGI and Practical Effects in Film

It’s hard to believe that the first real use of what we know as computer-generated imagery (CGI) took place in a feature film, Westworld, which was in 1973. But it would be another 20 years before Hollywood experienced a real revolution in special effects, when photorealistic dinosaurs rampaged though Jurassic Park, a Michael Crichton-inspired theme-park-gone-wrong movie. The concept of today’s level of 3D CGI animation is an evolution from basic cartoon animation into a simulated world that seeks to represent realism as accurately as possible. It does this by slicing up the world into the smallest segments possible, and then controlling how those tiny parts of the real world objects move, react and change based on the other objects and conditions within that 3D world (See fig. 1).
The history of computer-generated imagery goes hand in hand with the history of the computer, as the computer evolved CGI effects got possible. For the origins of computer-generated imagery we need to go back to the year 1968. In this year a group of Russian mathematicians and physicists headed by N.Konstantinov created a mathematic model of a moving cat across a screen. A program was made for a specialized computer called BESM-4. The computer printed hundreds of frames to be later converted into usable film material. In the 1970′s CGI really got a hold in the designing community. With many people experimenting with new movie and designing techniques the technology rapidly evolved. New CGI developments followed shortly as a few months later in 1971 the first CGI was used in television programs. After these first steps into discovering the possibilities of CGI a probably familiar man named George Lucas saw it’s possibilities. George Lucas conceived the popular Star Wars franchise that made…...

Similar Documents

Global Cinema

...01/18/2013. Global Cinema Questions for Spanish Cinema and Cell 211. 1. Individual Question: I have not used this film in a class before. I want your honest opinion of it. Look at the course objectives and refer to specific ones as you address whether or not I should use this film again in Global Cinema. I think Cell 211 portrays a very excellent example of Spanish cinema and Global Cinema at large and hence, should be used in future classes. One of the main objectives of the Global Cinema course is for the student to be able to differentiate between film as mass consumption entertainment like the ones produced in Hollywood and film as cultural art as produced in other countries. Even though Cell 211 has a lot in common with Hollywood style of film production, I think it still kept close to the international style of filming because the main Character in the movie, Juan Oliver, was not Idolized and made to seem superhuman. The movie was realistic and not only was it entertaining but also very emotional, which is a strong trait of Spanish films. I particular like the final scene where Armando asked if there was any questions signifying that the movie answered all and any questions the audience had. Another important objective of this course is help the student identify the historical and political issues being addressed in the film and I think Cell 211 couldn’t have done that any better. The ETA members were taken hostage in the prison and I remember......

Words: 435 - Pages: 2

American Cinema

...American Cinema Unit 2 1. Oligopoly is the exclusive ownership of a industry by several companies acting in concert. Vertical integration is the studios’ control not only of the production of movies but also their distribution and exhibition. The story department consists of workers that are professional readers employed by the studio. They hire these workers to find and develop script ideas out of newspapers, magazine articles, plays, and books. Block booking is the tactic of forcing exhibitors to rent movies in groups rather than separately. Radio-Keith-Orpheum was one of the five major production studios in Hollywood. United States v. Paramount Pictures, Inc., et al. is the Supreme Court decision which ruled that the studio system constituted an oligopoly because it depended on such illegal practices as blind bidding and block booking. Blind bidding is a standard practice in which an exhibitor was forced to rent a movie from a studio without ever having been given the chance to see it or learn anything about it. Minors, was the name given to the three smaller studios in Hollywood during the studio era. 2. A and B are false 3. Studio system ended after the Supreme Court ruled in the late 1940s that the studios were engaging in unfair business practices. The unfair business practices were owning not only film production facilities but also distribution and exhibition facilities. 4. A false, B true, C true, D true 5. I believe that the studio system changed......

Words: 308 - Pages: 2

Marketing of Services Pvr Cinemas

... Marketing of Services SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY: DR. SANJAY MEDHAVI, HARSHITA CHATURVEDI, DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION MBA MARKETING ,3RD SEM, UNIVERSITY OF LUCKNOW UNIVERSITY OF LUCKNOW. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I, Harshita Chaturvedi, have completed this project with full determination and dedication. First of all I would like to thank our professor, Dr Sanjay Medhavi, for providing us the opportunity of presenting such an interesting topic. I had very little knowledge of the PVR Cinemas but now i have learned a lot while completing this project. I would also like to thank my sister who was of great help in providing the guidelines of how to prepare the project. Lastly, i would like to thank all those who indirectly helped me in some or the other way in completing this project. TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION4 PVR CINEMAS5 STP OF PVR CINEMAS7 MARKETING MIX- 7 PS9 SERVICE BLUEPRINTING16 CONCLUSION 18 REFERENCES...................................................................19 INTRODUCTION Over the last decade, India has registered the fastest growth among major democracies and is now the fourth largest economy in terms of ‘‘purchasing power parity’’.Over the years, spending power has been......

Words: 6086 - Pages: 25

Strategy Cgi

...financiers CGI au cours de 2011 14 Annexe 2 : FFOM 15 Annexe 3 : Ratios 19 Introduction CGI est une entreprise œuvrant depuis 35 ans dans le domaine des technologies de l’information et des systèmes informatiques par impartition de services dans les entreprises. ➢ La mission de l’entreprise est d’aider ses clients « en leur fournissant des services professionnels de la plus grande qualité, compétence et objectivité afin d’atteindre pleinement leurs objectifs en informatique, en processus d’affaires et en gestion. Dans tout ce que nous faisons, nous misons sur le partenariat, l’intrapreneurship, l’esprit d’équipe et l’intégrité, contribuant ainsi à développer une entreprise de classe mondiale en TI et en gestion des processus d’affaires[1] ». ➢ CGI veut créer une valeur durable et une fidélité pour ses trois groupes de partenaires : o Clients, CGI innove afin de faire plus avec moins, quelle que soit la situation économique. o Membres, CGI favorise une mentalité de propriétaire qui stimule et récompense leur contribution. o Actionnaires, CGI produit de solides résultats financiers afin de leur procurer un rendement supérieur à long terme. ➢ Succès et croissance : 2011 a été la meilleure année financière jusqu’à maintenant. CGI demeure chef de file mondial dans le secteur des TI. ➢ Stratégie financière : Nous analyserons les paramètres et les assises de la stratégie financière adoptée par l’entreprise CGI pour......

Words: 5632 - Pages: 23

Hollywood

...Hollywood is a district in Los Angeles, California, U.S.A., situated west-northwest of Downtown. Due to its fame and cultural identity as the historical center of movie studios and stars, the word "Hollywood" is often used as a metonym for the American film and television industry. Today much of the movie industry has dispersed into surrounding areas such as Burbank and the Westside, but significant ancillary industries (such as editing, effects, props, post-production, and lighting companies) remain in Hollywood. Many historic Hollywood theaters are used as venues to premiere major theatrical releases, and host the Academy Awards. It is a popular destination for nightlife and tourism, and home to the Walk of Fame. There is currently no official boundary of Hollywood (Los Angeles does not have official districts), but the 2002 secession movement and the current Neighborhood Council boundaries can serve as guides. There is a sign at the northeast corner of Fairfax Avenue and Melrose Avenue indicating that one is entering Hollywood. Generally, Hollywood's southern border follows Melrose Avenue from Vermont Avenue west to Fairfax Avenue. From there, the boundary continues north on Fairfax, wrapping east around the separate City of West Hollywood along Willoughby Avenue then wrapping around on La Brea and heads west along Fountain Avenue before turning north again on Laurel Canyon Boulevard into the Hollywood Hills. The eastern boundary follows Vermont Avenue north from......

Words: 2942 - Pages: 12

European Cinema More Complex Than American Cinema

...European cinema is more complex than American cinema. The above statement does not entirely reflect the reality. At the level of creative expressions, the relationship between these two continents has always been, to say the very least, a two-way road. The exchanges concerning Hollywood and the international cinema scene are long-standing and deeply rooted. During the formation of classical Hollywood cinema, many of its key architects were in fact European emigrants – Lubitsch, Dieterle, Lang, Hitchcock, Sirk, to name but a few. More recently, many of Hollywood’s finest contemporary directors – Scorsese, Altman, Coppola and others – have often turned to Europe, to the French New Wave, Italian neo-realism and the New German Cinemas for a source of inspiration and influence. In the Bioscope of 8 January 1925, Joseph Schenck, then president of United Artist, commented brutally on British film productions: “You have no personalities to put on the screen. Your stage actors and actresses are no good on the screen. Your effects are no good, and you do not spend nearly so much money.” Similar remarks can be found about almost any European cinema in almost any decade. It is possible to question the aesthetic standards by which such complaints are made. It can be argued that slow rhythms, deliberate staginess, and lack of star presence or of visible production values are positive qualities which European film-makers have exploited in creative ways and which the Hollywood cinema is the......

Words: 551 - Pages: 3

Jamaican Cinema

...Post-War World Cinema 15/5/09 Critical Essay: Jamaican Cinema (focus – The Harder They Come (Perry Henzell, Jamaica, 1971) ‘Representing Jamaican culture on the screen, how The Harder They Come triggered the development of Jamaican cinema.’ The Harder They Come was the first movie made in Jamaica, directed by a Jamaican and with a Jamaican theme. The film opened the country’s eyes to the creation of film and the industry that surrounds it. It also gave the world (particularly the West) its first filmic taste of the cultural, social and historical issues of 20th century Jamaica. It was not only successful in the eyes of its audience but also in the eyes of film critics worldwide. Geoff Parker writes “Indisputably the greatest Jamaican film ever made, The Harder They Come is also one of the finest films yet made about the third world.” (2001). At first glance Perry Henzell appears to be using a narrative to document Jamaican roots Reggae music (especially that of Jimmy Cliff); but although The Harder They Come went a long way towards creating a huge global Reggae following the film had many other underlying issues. Even though most critics (Cham, Parker, Yearwood and others) discuss the film as the one that popularised Reggae music in the West it is the task here to illustrate that The Harder They Come brought Jamaican society and its culture into cinematic visibility. Cinema in Jamaica had only a western and predominantly Hollywood......

Words: 2433 - Pages: 10

Hollywood in the 1940's

...Lainie Vinikoor A Golden Hollywood During the 1930’s and 1940’s, the establishment of the film industry in Hollywood not only immensely changed the city of Los Angeles, but the nation as a whole. Hollywood’s golden age and success can be credited to the great achievements in film, the studio production system, business strategies of the studios, and the changing nature of the economic situation of the country. The implementation of sound and color in film are considered to be the two highest achievements in art and science during this time. Prior to, silent, black and white films were considered the cutting edge technology of the time. However, these primitive techniques were soon overshadowed with the introduction of sound and color. “[The film industry] had no idea what technology would mean to them] they had stumbled into the use of sound almost by accident…They were reluctantly beginning to experiment with color… and tens of thousands of people were marveling at this novelty.” (Friedrich 15) The uses of sound and color in film led to the creation of new opportunities and genres including musicals, crime films, screwball comedies, among many others. These new genres with the continued development of sound and color, made film more appealing and generated a larger and thus more lucrative audience for film. It was the introduction of sound color in film was a success that instantly improved the popularity and the profits of these films. These new achievements were......

Words: 1322 - Pages: 6

Innovations in Cinema

...reward type business. It has been the goal of studios and filmmakers to put buts in seats at cinemas all over the world. Over the decades new technologies have added more interest to viewers in the ultimate goal to have the best experience watching a film. In society the cinema was used as a catalyst to forget about what’s going on in daily lives of viewers and take the audience to another world or another time. It was the perfect getaway from troubles of the real world. The Beginning: The first developed film technology was the Kinetoscope projector. Inventor Thomas Edison developed the Kinetoscope. The Cinematograph developed by the Lumiere Brothers was an advancement on its predecessor the Kinetoscope. The Lumiere Brothers would send camera men all over to film various things done by people and they would show the film with their Cinematograph to an audience and from there the cinema was born. Around 1898 a man named George Melies used the technology given and established vast sets and camera tricks as a way to make films even more unique and special. Melies’ films would take the viewer to the moon or on an adventure across the seven seas. People would come to see his films because it was something different. Up to that point films were only a minute or two long but with the success of Melies longer films other producers began making longer films as well. The Birth of the Cinema Theater: At this time film exhibition was more of a novelty where it would be shown......

Words: 1417 - Pages: 6

Spanish Cinema

...Global Studies 298: Barcelona Winter 2009 Cinema History in Barcelona and Spain Cinema reflects the voice and culture of a nation. It documents important changes in politics, lifestyle, and even language. Barcelona was the birthplace for Cinema in of Spain. During the silent period of film all of the biggest Spanish directors including Marro, Chómon, Gelabert, and Bános were based out of Barcelona (Alvarez 6). The first films that had sound where shown in Barcelona before anywhere else, although without sound due to the lapse in technological capabilities (Alvarez 7). Barcelona’s movement in film did not stop there. Throughout the years and generations Catalan cinema has been a part of Spanish culture and has in its own right fought to survive. In the beginning Barcelona was the sole player in Spanish Cinema. Madrid, the other major metropolitan area, was more concerned with traditional forms of entertainment such as bullfighting and la zarzuela (musical theater) (Alvarez 6). The first Spanish film was actually that of a group of church goers leaving Sunday Mass which was entitled Salida de la misa de doce del Pilar or in English: “Leaving the Midday Mass at the Church of Pilar in Zaragoza.” This film was already the way from 1896 and would seem to show an enthusiastic future for film if it were not for such factors as foreign competition, government, and an overbearing church (Stone 14). During the turn of the century in particular themes of the......

Words: 1671 - Pages: 7

Hollywood

...The Effects of Hollywood Since the eventful day of September 11th torture has been a hot topic for the media, movies, and has even sparked debate amongst government officials. In the article, “Whatever it Takes” by Jane Mayer, she debates on the subject by comparing real life torture from an interrogators point of view and those of the fantasy world from which the producers and writers come up with for the hit TV show 24. Mayer attempts to influence her readers about the effects that the show 24 has on its viewers, which include young cadets, through interviews with highly trained interrogators. Mayer also interviews the show’s writers, producers, and actors to expose some of the main concerns in regards to the torture scenes in the hit show 24. Throughout the article, Mayer makes it clear that she does not agree with the way torture is being projected in the show 24 by starting off her discussion questioning the producer’s credibility, Joel Surnow. Mayer wants people to see Surnow as an arrogant and selfish person by quoting Surnow as saying, “People in the Administration love the series, too, it’s a patriotic show. They should love it” (Surnow Qtd in Mayer 1). Mayer’s point is that Surnow is very confident in the show’s popularity regardless of the criticism the show brings amongst some of its viewers. Surnow also bluntly tells Mayer that he is arrogant, there’s no denying it. She also points out many times in her article that he is a conservative and goes on to say......

Words: 1403 - Pages: 6

Hollywood Paranoia in the 50s

...reference to at least two films, how did Hollywood address the paranoid, hysterical political climate of the 50s? The Cold War began in 1947 between the USSR and the USA. After World War II, both countries began to distrust each other, as they knew the amount of power each country had in terms of nuclear weapons. Not only did they distrust each other, but they lacked a mutual understanding of each other’s culture. The USA believed in capitalism and the USSR believed in communism. This lack of mutual understanding caused mass paranoia within America as they feared that communists would infiltrate their society. This hysteria was known as the Red Scare which lead to “a range of actions that had a profound and enduring effect on U.S. government and society.” (Red Scare, 2013). During World War II “moviegoers learned to appreciate cinema for what it was: a powerful delivery system of ideology” (Doherty, 2003, p. 19) and after World War II “Soviet Communism and American Democracy, found its domestic expression in fierce debates over the subversive influence of the popular media.” (Doherty, 2003, p. 21). Hollywood was scrutinized first for allegedly using the film industry to influence the public about communism. The House of Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) was formed in 1938, and it’s investigations were “frequently focused on exposing communists working inside the federal government or subversive elements working in the Hollywood film industry” (Red Scare, 2013). On......

Words: 2021 - Pages: 9

The Media and Hollywood

...The media and Hollywood in particular are supposed to be one of the avenues through which people get positive information about any organizational entity, I was thinking that their role was that of “promotional and entertainment” and not pointing accusing fingers or trying to tarnish the image of a noble and professional body like Nursing to achieve personal gratification. Granted in some of the TV shows like the “ER”, “Grey’s Anatomy”, or “Scrubs” portrayed the action of some nurses as being sexual, drug addicts or just there to follow the doctor’s instructions as I was told by my friends who have the nerves to watch these shows, (I never was interested in wasting my time watching those kind of shows that demoralizes and portrays only the negative side of my profession because of a shortcoming from a particular nurse). The way I really analyzed the actions/ behavior of these nurses or” Jackie” in the ER show is that the story was make believe and that they were trying to let people know that nobody is perfect or above making mistakes, meaning that nurses are human beings as well who are faced with the too many challenges and shortcomings of life. This is the only way we as nurses should see this chain of derogative allegations and scandals being aired by these TV shows, knowing that we worth more than that. The case of the media and Hollywood in particular airing false rumors about the nursing profession brings this saying to my mind “imagine a kettle calling the pot......

Words: 520 - Pages: 3

Cinema

...Dissertation : Impact of the Digital Cinema in the INDIAN CINE INDUSTRY. Aims of the Dissertation : To investigate the current trends of digital cinema in Indian Cine Industry. To demonstrate the latest standards used in the digital cinema globally. To compare and contrast the modern digital cinema with previous methods used in the cinema industy. Background of the Dissertation : Indian Cinema Industry is currently one of the largest producer of films in the world wide in terms of ticket sales and no. of films produced. In recent years , there has been tremendous increase in the establishment of digital cinema due to latest technology and commercial institutions of film making. Possibly promoted by recent global business trends , more and more large business cine companies are providing their own production services. If we take past 5 to 10 years back , it is very hard to bring the movies into cinema theatres due to insufficient availability of technology. It is the intention of this dissertation to examine impact on Indian cine industry approach to the implementation of digital cinema. Relationship to Previous Work : One of the multinational Company dealing with digital cinema was by Cineworld where internal management of all the movies was modifying into the new mode of digital phenomenon. Over the years , no. of movies have developed and release which shows the clear understanding of new digital cinema. It has now become professional......

Words: 392 - Pages: 2

Non –Western and Experimental Cinema

...DITI BHATTACHARYA NON –WESTERN AND EXPERIMENTAL CINEMA SETTING A CONTRAST BETWEEN MARGINAL CINEMA AND MAINSTREAM CRITICAL THEORY MA –PG 1 TERM PAPER DEPARTMENT OF FILM STUDIES JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY The term third cinema has found its roots in the so called third world, which generally refers to the nations located in Africa, Latin America and Asia where historical encounter with colonial and imperial forces have shaped their political and economic power structure . at the same time it could be said that the third world is a kind of cinematic response to the first cinema (which conjures images of Hollywood movies , consumption and bourgeoisie values ) as well as second cinema (referring to “nouvelle vague” or the European arthouse filmmaking demonstrating aesthetic but not always political innovation).The reference to the concept of third cinema appeared for the first time in the Cuban film journal ,cine Cubano, (1969) in a report of an interview with members of the cine liberacion group .it was said at that point of time that there is a growing need for the development of a cinema of aggression .one that would put an end to the irrationality that has come before it. Thus beginning in the mid 50s and continuing up to the present these films have helped immensely in forging a sense of national identity and cultural autonomy . it would be interesting to know that at this point of time there was a development of film theory and critical methodology in the first......

Words: 1523 - Pages: 7