C Examples

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By salih649
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Middle East Technical University Department of Computer Engineering

CENG 140
Spring ’08

Take Home Exam 1

REGULATIONS
Due date: 16 April 2008, Wednesday (Not subject to postpone) Submission: Electronically. You will be submitting your program source code written in a file which you will name as hw1.c through the cow web system. Resubmission is allowed (till the last moment of the due date), The last will replace the previous. Team: There is no teaming up. The take home exam has to be done/turned in individually. All parts involved (source(s) and receiver(s)) get zero.

Cheating:

INTRODUCTION
This problem is about identifying a text language. A human approach to this problem could be an attempt to spot well known and frequently used words form languages. So a use of ’the’ would imply ’english’, a use of ’avec’ would imply ’french’ etc. Our approach will be totally different. We will be making use of the computers ability to process data in huge amount. The concept that we will employ is called ’bigrams’. In general n-gram is the grouping of n many entities in a neighborhood. A bigram is the neighborhood of two entities. In our case ‘entities’ are letters and some punctuation characters and neighborhood means “being followed by” (in a word). So for example in the word “ATTRIBUTED” (considering also the surrounding spaces as letters ‘ ’) Has the following bigrams: A, AT, TT, TR, RI, IB, BU, UT, TE, ED, D The frequency of bigrams differ from language to language. So bigram frequency can be considered as a signature of the language. Of course to be conclusive the amount of the text analyzed must be large. Just as an example (taken from www.cryptograms.org/letter-frequencies.php) The most often occurring bigrams and their frequency percentage (%) in English is TH ER ND AT HA IT ES 3.88 2.18 1.57 1.34 1.27 1.13 1.09 HE AN ON OU TO IS NG 3.68 2.14 1.42 1.29 1.17…...

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... Lesson learned Stay away from the transition region! In other words, we must ensure that an input voltage representing a logical “low” value is significantly lower than VIL, and an input voltage representing a logical “high” value is significantly higher than VIH. Q: Seems simple enough! Why don’t we end this exceedingly dull handout and move on to something more interesting!? A: Actually, staying out of the transition region is sometimes more difficult than you might first imagine! The reason for this is that in a digital system, the devices are connected together—the input of one device is the output of the other, and vice versa. Jim Stiles The Univ. of Kansas Dept. of EECS 11/5/2004 Noise Margins 6/12 For example: V+ V+ vI1 vO1 =vI2 vO2 output of that inverter is therefore vO 1 = VOL . Thus, the input Say that the input to the first digital inverter is v I 1 = V + . The to the second inverter is likewise equal to VOL (i.e., vI 2 = vO 2 = VOL ). V+ V+ vI1 =V+ vO1 =vI2 =VOL vO2 be a problem—after all, isn’t VOL much lower than VIL?? Q: So? This doesn’t seem to Jim Stiles The Univ. of Kansas Dept. of EECS 11/5/2004 Noise Margins 7/12 A: True enough! The input vI2=VOL is typically well below the maximum acceptable value VIL. In fact, we have a specific name for the difference between VIL and VOL—we call this value Noise Margin (NM): NML = VIL − VOL Volts ⎤ ⎡ ⎣ ⎦ The noise margin......

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...the organization is the bearer of numerous transactions. Inside organizations one may find remarkable opportunities for just or unjust behaviour, for moral or immoral behaviour, for situations of equality or inequality which deserve to be evaluated ethically. As FEWEB is a school for the study of economics and business administration in an economic perspective we focus on so-called “economic decisions” which are decisions being taken with some form of economic calculus. In this course we will spend time on questioning whether the economic or financial outcomes of these decisions are morally neutral or deserve some further moral investigation. Now, this course trains its participants what moral investigation is all about. We do so, for example, by questioning whether such decisions or the expected outcome of such decisions may contribute to something as an increased income for some parties involves, or to our common good, or to the durability or continuity of the organization as such, or some other goal or objective. A good objective does not justify always an act, moral philosophers say since Antiquity. Organizations as context The study area 'ethics in the context of business organizations' is a very broad area. It considers the moral dimension of general economic problems, the moral issues of the business world and its corporate actors, and moral problems of people working in organizations. Most productive activities and service activities that are being channelled......

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