Bio 151 List of Structures

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Biology 115 Semester List of Structures
Chapter One

Anatomy is the study of body structure and the relationship between structures

Physiology is the study of how the structures of the body function

Levels of Structural Organization
Chemical
Cell
Tissue
Organ
Organ system
Organism

Homeostasis Positive feedback loop Negative feedback loop

Relative Positions
Superior
Inferior
Anterior
Posterior
Medial
Lateral
Bilateral
Ipsilateral
Contralateral
Proximal
Distal
Superficial
Deep

Body Sections
Sagittal
Transverse (horizontal)
Frontal (coronal)

Body Regions
See Figure 1.17

Chapter Two

Chemistry
Matter
Element Major elements Carbon Oxygen Hydrogen Nitrogen
Atom
Subatomic particles Protons Neutrons Electrons Atomic number Atomic weight Isotopes

Chemical bonds Ionic bonds Covalent bonds Polar Nonpolar Hydrogen bonds

Chemical reactions
Synthesis (anabolic) reactions Simple sugar + simple sugar → Carbohydrate
Bond between sugars- Glycosidic bond
Function of carbohydrates- energy source Amino acid + amino acid → Protein
Bond between amino acids- Peptide bond
Function of Proteins – body structure and functional molecules

Nucleotide + nucleotide → Nucleic acid
Bond between nucleotides- Phosphodiester bond
Function of nucleic acids- DNA stores genetic information - RNA intermediary between DNA and protein

Glycerol + 3 fatty acids → Triglyceride (lipids) Bond between fatty acids and glycerol- Ester bond Function of triglycerides- energy storage

Decomposition (catabolic) reactions Reverse of the above listed reactions

Inorganic Molecules Water Salts Acids
Bases

Organic Molecules Carbohydrates Proteins Nucleic acids Lipids

Chapter Three

Anatomy of the Cell
Plasma membrane Phospholipids Amphipathic
Cytoplasm…...

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