Benjamin

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Walter Benjiamin, una metodologia della storia dell'arte
Ma il maggior contributo di questi tragici anni per la definizione di una metodologia della storia dell'arte che fosse realmente globale e sociale lo dobbiamo a Walter Benjamin che nel suo libro Eduard Fuchs, il collezionista e lo storico parte dalla valorizzazione del fatto che Fuchs prestò attenzione a fenomeni artistici solitamente relegati in secondo piano - caricature, costumi, arte erotica, arti applicate popolari come ceramiche tombali e figure in ceramica per tetti – rompendo per la prima volta definitivamente con la concezione classicistica dell'arte. Così, certamente, non viene scardinata la considerazione dialettica dell'arte, possibile solo quando nascerà una scienza della storia che non abbia più come oggetto un groviglio di puri dati di fatto ma un gruppo definito di fili che costituiscono la trama di un passato nell'ordito del presente. Manca il momento distruttivo, che garantisce l'autenticità del pensiero dialettico. Nel saggio Benjamin individua come compito del materialismo storico il superamento dell’atteggiamento “contemplativo” e neutrale assunto dallo storicismo per introdurre una visione dialettica della storia. Il passato non deve essere considerato come inserito in un ordine lineare e progressivo, bensì come qualcosa di unico, un’”esperienza originaria” in cui il presente si incontra con il passato in una “costellazione critica” che “fa deflagrare la continuità della storia”. L’idea di un presente nel quale si incontrano i diversi registri temporali dell’eternità e dell’istante era probabilmente maturata in Benjamin attraverso la lettura di Baudelaire, il quale, come abbiamo visto, nei saggi de Il pittore della vita moderna aveva definito la modernità come coesistenza, nel presente, del transitorio e dell’effimero con l’eterno e l’immutabile. Ma, continua Benjamin, il merito più…...

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