Africa: Malaria Care Improves with Cash

In: Social Issues

Submitted By AAANARTEY
Words 715
Pages 3
Africa: Malaria Care Improves With Cash A question had been nagging at Ghanaian researcher Alexander Nartey.
Since Ghana’s government had made health insurance available to the country’s poor to ease the burden of health care, why were so many people still paying cash, including those seeking basic treatment for malaria?
The Ghanaian government in 2003 introduced its National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), which Nartey called a “pro-poor policy” to help those less likely to be able to pay for health care. The British charity Oxfam in a 2011 report found a number of problems with the scheme, calling it “severely flawed”, but Nartey was focusing on one key question: why weren’t more poor using it when the premium was less than U.S.$10 per year?
With the support of the Dodowa Health Research Centre in Ghana, Nartey set out to find the answer. Because of his research, the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH) included him in its Young Investigator Awards last year, giving him international recognition by his peers and a $250 cash award.
What Nartey discovered was what he said was a problem within Ghana’s health system - namely a delay in care. Those who used health insurance generally waited longer to receive treatment - standing in line or sitting on a bench until their turn came - but if they paid out of pocket they were treated much quicker.
This, Nartey said, particularly made a difference when people were seeking treatment for malaria. In a 2010 report, Ghana’s Ministry of Health attributed the illness to 33 percent of deaths among children under five and nine percent of maternal deaths - two groups that are especially vulnerable to the parasite.
Most people initially self-treat for malaria and can’t afford high-quality medications, Nartey said. They will go to a “chemical shop” or pharmacy…...

Similar Documents


...November, 10 2013 Malaria Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of human beings as well as other animals that is caused by parasitic protozoans belonging to the genus Plasmodium. This disease is prevalent in tropical as well as subtropical areas in a wide circle around the equator, including a large part of Sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas, and Asia. Even though the agent for P. falciparum malaria has existed for 50,000 to 100,000 years, the population of the parasite did not rise until approximately 10,000 years ago, at the same time with progresses in agriculture (Harper and Armelagos) together with the human settlements development. Human malaria parasites’ close relatives are still common in chimpanzees. A number of evidence proposes that the origin of P. falciparum malaria may be from gorillas (Prugnolle, Durand and Ollomo). The disease was previously referred to as marsh fever or ague because of its relationship with marshland and swamps (Reiter). Malaria was, at one time, common in the majority of North America and Europe, but it is no longer prevalent, although imported instances do take place (Webb). Malaria used to be the most significant health hazard faced by U.S. military personnel in the South Pacific in the course of the Second World War, where approximately 500,000 men became infected (Bray), and 60,000 American troops lost their lives from malaria during the South Pacific and African campaigns (Byrne). Scientific research on malaria made its......

Words: 1751 - Pages: 8


...Malaria is the leading death, illness, and poor growth in developing countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria is a parasitic disease spreading through mosquito bites that involve high fevers, flu-like symptoms, and death. The World Health Organization (2012) reported over a million deaths are attributable to Malaria and 90% of all deaths caused by the disease occur in sub-Sahara Africa. According to the 2012 report from the World Health Organization (WHO), an estimation of 600,000 deaths occurs every year in Sub Sahara Africa, in which a child dies each minute. These young victims are mostly children under five years of age. Many techniques have been put into place to help eradicate the disease, but a lack of well-targeted education systems, which is one of the most effective tools, remains a serious challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa Despite the availability of such many strategies, there is a need to propose a new study that will outline how we can make significant difference in the education systems by the way we use Mobile Technology. Summary To ensure the management, and control of the disease, the data collection will help determine if the disease has a direct correlation to the level of social education, to the lack of adequate resources, good governance in the political arena, lack of Health care services or the financial burden from the affected families? In combination with other research, the recommendation provided by this study will help sustain economic and......

Words: 1020 - Pages: 5

Prevalence of Malaria in West Africa: Economic and Social Burden

...Prevalence of Malaria in West Africa: Economic and Social Burden University of Maryland University College MGMT 640 Professor Anderson April 13, 2014 TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACTS…………………………………………………………………… 3 BACKGROUND……………………………………………………………….. 4 METHOD……………………………………………………………………….. 5 RESULT…………………………………………………………………………6 CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………….6 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………… 8 ABSTRACTS Background: The effects of malaria burden cannot be overemphasized on a society. Malaria disease affects human being: psychologically, physically, and socially and economic development of a nation. Methods: In this study survey and Willingness To Pay Approach was used to evaluate the prevalence of Malaria in West Africa. Results: Conclusion: It is important for the government to hear the cries of the poor people who are often inflicted with communicable disease so that the eradication of the malaria can be possible. Background According to Teklehaimanot and Mejia (2008), “Malaria is one of the most important challenges to global public health. Every year, there are between 300 million and 500 million cases of malaria worldwide, and more than 1million people die from the disease, most of them are children younger than 5 years. Ninety percent of the cases and 75% of the deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. These childhood deaths, resulting mainly from cerebral malaria and anemia, constitute somewhere between 20% and 25% of child mortality in Africa”......

Words: 1167 - Pages: 5


...Malaria Malaria is a potentially fatal illness of tropical and subtropical regions. The disease is caused by a parasite which is transmitted to human beings bitten by infected mosquitoes. The disease is widespread in Africa, and over one million people die of malaria every year on the continent. Symptoms of malaria may include a generalized body ache, tiredness, headache, sore throat, diarrhea, and fever. It is worth mentioning that these symptoms may not be dramatic, and can easily be mistaken for an attack of influenza or similar non-life threatening illness. A decline can then be sudden and dramatic, with a rapid increase in the number of parasites in the victim's blood stream. A high wavering fever may develop, with shivering and dramatic perspiration. Complications of a serious nature, such as involvement of the kidneys or brain may then follow. Cerebral malaria is extremely serious, with the victim becoming delirious and entering a coma. Cerebral malaria is frequently fatal, and it is extremely important that all suspected cases of malaria should receive medical attention as soon as is possible. All persons possibly exposed to malaria that develop any influenza like illness or fever within seven days of entering, or three months of departing a malarious area should seek medical attention, and have blood tests taken to check for possible malaria infection. It is preferable for such blood tests to be taken during a bout of fever. It may be sensible to have a......

Words: 768 - Pages: 4

Malaria Issue Report

...Issue Report: Malaria The abstract: This report will be exploring the cause of malaria, the symptoms that occur in infected people and the many treatments being tested and used to treat the disease of malaria. Malaria is a disease caused by an infection of the red blood cells with a tiny organism called protozoa. There are four different types of species of the malaria protozoa (Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae) and each has a slightly different effect on the body. These organisms are carried from person to person by the main mosquito called Anopheles. When it bites an infected person, the mosquito sucks up blood containing the parasite, which may then be passed on to someone else when a mosquito bites them. ‘It is estimated that 300 to 500 million malaria infections occur annually and 90% of these are in the sub-Saharan Africa’. [8] The problem: Malaria is a biological problem because it affects the body, this could be through having various symptoms such as shivering and vomiting or it could result in problems with people’s red blood cells and cause them to be fragile and not functioning properly. The problem of contracting malaria is finding a cure for it or finding the right treatment to treat the infected person. At the moment biologists are trying to find a cure that will effectively work within the body and invent a new vaccine that helps boosts people’s immune systems so that they respond effectively to the......

Words: 2457 - Pages: 10

Honey Care Africa

...Honey Care Africa is an interesting trio of articles in which we learn how one man can make a significant difference to an industry and an entire country. The authors of Honey Care Africa describe the successes, failures and overwhelming challenges that Farouk Jiwa had to overcome to transform the culture of the African people so that they may become self-sufficient and successful farmers in the beekeeping industry. The history of farming and more specifically beekeeping in Africa was characterized by corruption, inefficiencies, and limited resources available to the farmers. Additionally, many farmers had to wait long periods of time before ever getting paid for their products. These difficulties often discouraged them and limited their ability to continue their operation. Farouk Jiwa is the founder and Director of Honey Care Africa. Jiwa established a for-profit business model that focused on assisting African farmers in establishing their own independent beekeeping business. His vision was to establish a profitable company that was also committed to environmental preservation and human development. Jiwa demonstrated a supportive leadership style by looking beyond his own perspective and attempting to see the industry through the eyes of the average African farmer. This leadership style was demonstrated when he asked himself the simple question, “If I was the average farmer in Kenya today with two acres of land, what would stop me from producing honey?” Jiwa......

Words: 599 - Pages: 3


...Malaria A. Analyze the selected communicable disease outbreak by doing the following: 1. Describe the communicable disease outbreak. Malaria has been around for nearly 4,000 years. It is a serious disease and at times came be fatal. It is caused by a parasite which infects a type of mosquito. The mosquito feeds on people which cause flu like symptoms. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates over 200 million cases of malaria occur annually and more than 600,000 die each year as a result of contracting it. Essentially, it was eliminated from the United States in the 1950’s, however, due to ease and frequency of traveling to and from malaria endemic countries it continues to be world-wide health concern. Even though it was eliminated in the U.S. nearly 2,000 cases of malaria are reported each year, mostly from travelers. (CDC, 2014) Like the United States, Egypt had essentially eliminated malaria with the last know transmission in 1998. However, in the spring of 2014 several local acquired malaria cases were reported in a small village along the Nile River. There have been no known outbreaks in Egypt since June of 2014 but it is a reminder that malaria is still a world health concern. (CDC, 2014) 2. Analyze the epidemiological determinants of the outbreak. Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite and is generally transmitted to humans via mosquito bites. Those infected generally experience flu like symptoms such as chills and fever. If untreated and......

Words: 1633 - Pages: 7

Eliminating Malaria

...Eliminating Malaria Brown 1 Malaria was first discovered in ancient times. The cause of Malaria was discovered by French scientist Alphonse Laveran in 1880 and 20 years later the type of mosquito responsible for the transmission was discovered by scientists in Italy and India. There is no malaria vaccine that has been proven to be effective and researchers all over the world are working to find a vaccine that will eventually eliminate malaria. Despite the obstacles, they are optimistic that a vaccine is in reach. Malaria is caused by a parasite called Plasmodium and it is transmitted by certain types of mosquitos. Once bitten, the parasite targets liver cells and then proceeds to target red blood cells (RBCs). According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS), “Because the malaria parasite is found in RBCs, malaria can also be transmitted through blood transfusion, organ transplant, or the shared use of needles or syringes contaminated with blood. Malaria also may be transmitted from a mother to her fetus before or during delivery” (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 12). Malaria is very uncommon in the United States; however, it is still widespread in tropical and subtropical countries. It is mainly a problem in Central and South America, Africa, Asia, and the Indo-Pacific regions. According to Dr. Ananya Mandal: In 2010, according to the World Health Organization, there were 216 million episodes of malaria and 655,000 deaths worldwide...

Words: 2229 - Pages: 9

The Impact of Hiv&Aids, Tb, and Malaria in Africa

...The impact of HIV&AIDS, TB, and malaria in Africa Jack Saint Mary University Introduction Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), tuberculosis (TB) and malaria, which are extremely serious diseases, kill millions of people every year. Most of the deaths are found in developing countries, especially in Africa. Vietor K. Barbiero (2006) reports that during 2005 alone, approximately 2.8 million people died from HIV/AIDS in Africa, half a million Africans is killed by TB, and close to 900,000 Africans are killed by malaria every year (p.6-7). Three of the most serious contagious diseases (HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria) have significant impact on healthcare, economy, and education in Africa. HIV leads to AIDS. According to AVERing HIV&AIDS (2010), HIV is a kind of virus that damages immune system cells step by step. As a result, the body becomes weaker and weaker and becomes more susceptible to contagions. AIDS will evolve when HIV destroys the immune system enough (Para.3). AVERing HIV&AIDS also reports that AIDS is a “medical condition”. A person is believed to have AIDS when his or her immune system becomes too feeble to repel contagions (para.1). HIV/AIDS in Africa HIV/AIDS is one of the most serious diseases. It alone kills a huge amount of people every year in Africa. For example, Barbiero (2006) reports that although Africa has only 15 percent of the world’s population, 60 out of 100 infected......

Words: 2145 - Pages: 9

Overview of Malaria as a Microbial Disease

...Overview of Malaria as a Microbial Disease Students Name Institutional Affiliation Introduction Quinn (2011) defines microbial diseases as sickness or ailments that affect animals and humans as a result of the introduction of one or four different types of microbes. For instance, Sorvari and Pirttila (2008) define microbes as tiny invisible disease-causing organisms only seen by the use of a powerful. Notably, there are four different types of pathogens that cause sickness. These are viral diseases that are the most common type of microbe causing diseases to human beings. Examples of viral diseases include AIDS, chicken pox, influenza and measles (World Health Organization, 2004). Bacterial diseases such as anthrax, cholera, chlamydia and peptic ulcer diseases give an account of the second class of microbial diseases. Fungal diseases such as athlete’s foot and Dutch elm disease form the third class whereas protozoan diseases occupy the fourth place in the division and consist of diseases such as malaria, giardiasis, and cryptosporidiosis. According to the World Health Organization (2004) an epidemic refers to a rapid spread of infectious diseases to affect large numbers of people in a given location. For example, the spread of meningococcal infection. Endemic diseases are infections with the ability to remain constant in a given region without the need for external inputs such as malaria and chicken pox. In addition, pandemics are diseases that spread......

Words: 2152 - Pages: 9


...There are many communicable diseases that can affect our community. Malaria is one that is increasing in the number of outbreaks reported each year. This analysis of malaria will help identify the disease, discuss the epidemiological determinants of the outbreak and the effect to the community at a system level, as well as identify the reporting protocol, protocol execution plan and prevention strategies. Malaria is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide, particularly in Africa and South Asia. There are four types of Malaria. The most severe type is a microscopic parasite called Plasmodium falciparum. Malaria-like symptoms were first described in ancient Chinese medical writing, then in 2700 BC, malaria was described in the Nei Ching, The Canon of Medicine. Malaria became widely spread in Greece by the 4th century BC. Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran, a French army surgeon was the first to notice parasites in the blood when stationed in Algeria in 1880 and was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1907 for his findings (CDC). The United States eliminated malaria in the early 1950’s, but up to 2,000 cases of malaria are reported annually, mainly due to foreign travelers. The transmission and risk factors are epidemiological determinants of this outbreak of malaria. First, malaria is transmitted primarily by Anopheles mosquito bites. It is transmitted in most cases by an infected female mosquito. The parasites are transmitted to humans from the mosquito’s saliva to the......

Words: 475 - Pages: 2


...Malaria has a long history since it first appeared more than 4000 years ago. It has always proved very deadly to the human race (CDC, n.d.). It is unknown when Malaria come across into the US. However, during the construction of the Panama Canal at the turn of the 20th century, U.S. officials made great progress in controlling malaria which was wide spread in the U.S. at that time. By 1914 eradication efforts reduced Malaria to about 6000,000 cases per year. By 1934, that number was further reduced to about 125,5000 cases per year. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Malaria is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium in mosquitoes. Human malaria is caused by four different species of Plasmodium: P. Falciparum, P. Malariae, P. Ovale and P. Vivax. A person can get malaria by mosquitoes that are infected with the Plasmodium species. In 2011, approximately 2,000 cases of malaria were diagnosed and treated in the United States (CDC, n.d.). There were top 3 states of malaria outbreak cases in the US. There were 238 cases in New York City, 126 in Maryland, and 104 in New Jersey. The overall number of cases represents an increase of 14 percent from the 1,691 cases reported for 2010 and the largest number of reported cases since 1971. Many malaria cases were reported diagnosed each year in the United States are imported from regions where mosquito borne malaria transmission is known to occur. 75 percent occurred among U.S. residents and 25 percent among......

Words: 2353 - Pages: 10

Air Africa Bussiness Plan Sample

...1.0 Executive Summary Air Africa is an establishing private limited African budget airline based on passenger and cargo air transportation service linking the whole southern and northern African region. We provide cheap and fast routes service to destinations within Africa with the aim to ease pressure on the middle and low income earners and give them an experience of also flying than resorting to bus and trains. Air Africa has healthy projected sales by the third year hopefully the market entrant would have been accepted and plans to transport 40 000 people monthly. It was started to provide and add and ease the transportation gap in the regional market. From our research we saw that there are some African routes which are not served or underserved so our Airline has targeted such destinations. Our customers are business executives and women who are involved in round tables were they sell products in different parts of the region to enhance cultural diversification. School children travelling within Africa to further education will not have the hassle of travelling by bus for long distances for example from Zimbabwe to Namibia which is a two day journey by road and will cost around US dollars 100. Tourist travelers who will be on the search of the African passion and wild life, Africa is well known for the BIG 5 and also possessing some wonders of the world and that’s the most rewarding trip of Africa to meet its people. Air Africa will cut the gap between......

Words: 7621 - Pages: 31


...Introduction: The word malaria comes from 18th century Italian “male” meaning "bad" and “aria” meaning "air". The term was first coined by Dr. Francisco Torti, Italy, when people thought the disease was caused by foul air in marshy areas. It was not until 1880 that scientists discovered that malaria was a parasitic disease which is transmitted by the “Anopheles” mosquito. Malaria is one of the most widespread infectious diseases of our time. There are more than 225 million cases of malaria each year, taking the lives of 781,000 people a year (World Malaria Report, 2010). Major proportion of death occurs in Sub-Saharan Africa and victims are under the age of 5. Children and pregnant women are among the most vulnerable. Many Sub-tropical countries of Latin America, Caribbean, Africa, Oceania and Asia are at risk. It is the fifth leading cause of death worldwide and almost 40% world’s population is at risk. Causes: Malaria parasites are members of the genus Plasmodium. P.falciparum, P.malariae, P.ovale, P.vivax and P.knowlesi are responsible for malaria in humans. P.falciparum is the most common type of infection and is responsible for 80% of all malaria cases and 90% deaths from malaria. “Malaria parasites contain apicoplasts an organelle usually found in plants, complete with their own functioning genomes. These apicoplast are thought to have originated through the endosymbiosys of algae and play a crucial role in various aspects of parasite metabolism e.g. fatty......

Words: 1942 - Pages: 8

Use of Information Technology to Improve Patient Safety and Quality of Nursing Care

...Use of Information Technology to Improve Patient Safety and Quality of Nursing Care Introduction We are in a great evolution in the way we are gathering data, gaining information, and increasing our knowledge to provide our patients’ with safe quality care. Without information technology (IT) in today’s healthcare industry, it would be impossible to delivery high quality care. The purpose of this paper is to explore data accuracy & safety, data integrity, and the contributions of IT. Data Accuracy and Safety One of the biggest obstacles to interoperability among information systems is the vast amount of medical terms used to describe the same concept. One strategy that is being implemented in IT to increase data accuracy and safety is to ensure that all electronic health records (EHRs) in all hospitals share common standards for data, classifications, coding systems (Qamar, R., Kola, J.S., & Rector, A.L., 2007). The aim is to standardize medical vocabulary to reduce differing interpretation of information and errors resulting from the traditional paper records. This is an accomplishment that groups have been working on for the last decade. The health IT Standards committee has endorsed a single set of vocabulary standards and a single guide for putting them in place for each area of quality reporting measures (Mosquera, 2011). Two work groups, The Systemized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT) and The Logical Observation Identifiers Names and......

Words: 1098 - Pages: 5