A Paper on the Disease Hiv

In: Science

Submitted By tayyyyyye
Words 1470
Pages 6
HIV
Definition:
HIV, also known as human immunodeficiency virus is a virus, which targets and attacks the immune system. This causes the person to not have the ability to fight off diseases and infections. Without a healthy and fully functioning immune system, the person is at risk for life-threatening diseases.
Etiology:
As soon as HIV enters the bloodstream, the virus will seek and attack a specific type of white blood cell called the lymphocyte. The cell is called a T-Helper Lymphocyte and it is essential to the functioning of the immune system. The T-cell commands the immune system in a time of attack to get rid of viruses, bacteria and other organisms. It sends signals out to other cells, which produce antibodies to eliminate the foreign virus/bacteria. When the HIV makes contact with the T-cells it infects and destroys them, damaging their ability to signal for antibody production. This will result in the decline of the immune system over a period of time, making the person vulnerable to life threatening diseases.
Pathophysiology:
The virus gains entry to the cells by attaching itself to the CD4 cells receptor and a co-receptor through the envelope glycoproteins. The virus makes DNA copies of itself from the viral RNA. Once inside the cellular DNA, the provirus resides inside the nucleus of the infected cell and can remain there for a long period of time. It can also become transcriptionally active and can replicate itself while using the human host cell machinery. The viral RNA is then multiplied to make different structural and accessory proteins. Within a few weeks times since the infection has entered the body, there is a high level of viral replication in the blood. There is also a decline of CD4 cells. The immune systems response to the HIV and develops more CD4 T-cells that are near normal numbers. The immune control is a dependant killer to…...

Similar Documents

Hiv Disease Stigma

...Erving Goffman was one of the first sociologists to write about disease stigma. Goffman thought that people were stigmatized by others on the basis of being different, and this “deviance” results in “spoiled identity.” (Bios Sociologicus:) Singling people out as different devalues their social position. This idea of stigma focused on the social/psychological processes of being stigmatized and the consequences of stigma. Using a variety of qualitative methods, Goffman developed classifications of the different elements of social interaction. (Goffman E. 1971) Goffman made contributions to the related fields of the sociology of mental illness and the sociology of stigma. Goffman defined a stigma as a ‘deeply discrediting’ attribute in the context of a set of relationships. He distinguished three types: abominations of the body, blemishes of character and tribal stigmata. (Bios Sociologicus:) Goffman knew that the handling of possibly damaging information was critical for three aspects of our identity: “the ‘personal’, the ‘social’ and the ‘ego”. (Tarwireyi F.) Our personal identity is what makes each of us unique and it consists of fingerprints of our life histories. Our identity is what others understand about us. Our ego identity refers to what we think about ourselves. In one part of Stigma Goffman suggested that we are all, to some degree, stigmatized. (Bios Sociologicus:) There is a huge amount of inequalities in health that we see within and between countries...

Words: 532 - Pages: 3

Discuss the View That Hiv/Aids Is a Disease of Poverty

...Manuel HIV is a long term social problem in most underdeveloped countries. This takes us directly beyond the epidemiological aspects of the disease to the social and economic dimensions. Many social studies have revealed that HIV and AIDS is fast becoming a social cancer and it can be understood if one was to assess the social structure and the availability of resources in the society. The most affected persons are those who live in the lower strata of the social stratification due to inequalities that comes with social structure. This paper serves to explain that HIV and AIDS is a social problem of poverty and it also looks at other factors such as religion, promiscuity and child rights which also result in the spread of the disease. It is undisputed to say that poverty is implicated in the prevalence in most developing world. Because these countries are generally poor people are normally forced to engage in activities that end up putting them at the risk of HIV. United Nations (2004) revealed that in South Africa more than 6 million people where living with HIV. The paper also revealed that the majority number who were affected were blacks who are generally poor who have no proper housing facilities, mal-nutritional, lack of safe water. Further research has suggested that Botswana and Zimbabwe have high prevalence of the disease due to the poor conditions which prevails in these countries. In Zimbabwe around 2 million people are said to be contracting the disease and an......

Words: 1823 - Pages: 8

Hiv Aids Paper

...AIDS Paper Sarah E Kimball-Lincon Shawnte McMillan Elbert HIV/AIDS is an epidemic on a global stance. HIV is a virus that can cause AIDS. HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. These virus both destroy a persons immune system. The disease makes the person more susceptible to other infections. AIDS is the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The difference between these two diseases is that HIV is what causes AIDS. When a person is infected with HIV, with medicine, they can usually live decades without having severe symptoms or developing into AIDS. Once a person has reached a certain level of T-cell destruction is when that person no longer has HIV but rather full blown AIDS. There is not a set time period for developing AIDS from HIV however; the threshold is when ones T-cell or CD4 cell count is less than 200. To put this into perspective a healthy person has a CD4 cell count of 500-1800 per cubic millimeter of blood. HIV can be transmitted through bodily fluids and sharing needles. Specifically blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk is how the virus is transmitted. HIV is transmitted through the sharing of needles by one person using the needle to inject themselves and then passing it to another who may not be infected but just used the same needle as someone who was infected. HIV can be transmitted through these ways but the most common in the United States is that of unprotected sex. The important thing to......

Words: 1381 - Pages: 6

Combat Hiv/ Aids, Malaria and Other Diseases

...One of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is to "Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases". Their targets are to (1) Stop and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/ AIDS by 2015, (2) Attain universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all the people who need it and (3) Stop and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases by 2015. Globally, new HIV infections continue to decline in some regions dropping 21% from 2001 to 2011. More people are living with HIV due to fewer AIDS - related deaths because of the scaling up of antiretroviral therapy; the continued large number of new infections with 2.5 million people are newly infected each year. Comprehensive knowledge of HIV transmission remains low among young people, along with condom use. More orphaned children are now in school due to expanded efforts to mitigate the impact of AIDS (Goal 6, 2013). While the target was missed by 2011, access to treatment for people living with HIV increased in all regions. At the end of 2011, 8 million people were receiving antiretroviral therapy for HIV. This total constitutes an increase of over 1.4 million people from December 2010. By the end of 2011, eleven countries had achieved universal access to antiretroviral therapy (Goal 6, 2013). The global estimated incidence of malaria has decreased by 17% since 2000, and malaria -specific mortality rates by 25%. In the decade since 2000, 1.1 million deaths from malaria were averted. Countries......

Words: 393 - Pages: 2

Epidemiology Paper on Hiv

...Health Promotion May 16, 2014 HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It can lead to immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS. It is caused by the HIV entering the uninfected body and stats to destroy CD4+cells which are there to help the body fight infection and disease (Webmd.com, 2014). Once you have HIV, you have it for life. More than 1.1 million people in United States alone are living with HIV and 1 out of 6 font even know it. About 50,000 people are infected with HIV each year (Cdc.gov, 2014). It is more commonly see in the gay community particularly young black males. In 2011 an estimated that 15,529 people had died. (Aids.gov, 2014) HIV is spread by having unprotected sex with someone who has HIV, sharing needles and less commonly by being born to an infected mother, blood transfusions or being stuck with an HIV-contaminated needle (Aids.gov, 2014). HIV has three stages of symptoms (Early, Latency, and Progression to AIDS). Early stage of HIV happens in the second to fourth week after being infected. It is the body’s natural defense mechanism to fighting off an invader. Symptoms are flu like and can be easily put off to other illnesses. Symptoms like fever, sore throat, rash, fatigue, aches and pains. These symptoms can last from a few days to several weeks. Clinical latency stage is when the virus is continuing to develop without producing symptoms. Even though the individual is symptom free they are still able to transmit HIV to others. The last stage is......

Words: 787 - Pages: 4

Hiv Epidemiology Paper

...Epidemiology HIV is an acronym that stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. The HIV virus attacks a carrier’s immune system making a simple cold detrimental to their health. It is spread though contact with an infected individual’s blood, semen, or vaginal fluid. The two most common ways that people contract HIV is though unprotected sex with a partner who knowingly or unknowingly has HIV, or through sharing needles with regards to drug use. The HIV virus works by attacking cells called CD4+ cells. These cells make up a large part of one’s immune system. When a certain number of CD4+ cells are destroyed, the human body is no longer able to fight off infections, regardless of how common. When the CD4+ cell amount becomes so little in quantity, the patient’s diagnosis usually changes from HIV to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The amount of time it can take for those infected to progress to AIDS can take up to 12 years (aids.gov, 2014). With ObamaCare, the primary goals regarding HIV is aimed at: 1) reducing the number of people who become infected with HIV, 2) increasing access to care and optimizing health outcomes for people living with HIV, and 3) reducing HIV-related health disparities (aids.gov, 2014). By providing preventative care such as condoms, education on monogamy, free clinics for STD (sexually transmitted diseases) screening, the population will be at a lesser risk of contracting HIV. In 1995, 44 percent of the general public indicated that......

Words: 1421 - Pages: 6

Hiv Epidemology Paper

...In my paper regarding communicable diseases I choose to discus HIV/AIDS. In this paper I will discuss HIV, and the different ways HIV is transmitted, to the many complications that are associated with HIV, and discuss how community health nurses can help patients develop a plan for managing the disease process. I will also refer to an agency that can help nurses gather data they need to treat patients physically, and emotionally, as well as resources for patients to refer to when they feel like they need questions answered to their questions. According to (AIDS.GOV) “HIV” stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. I will discuss what each letter represents: H – Human – This virus can only infect human beings. I – Immunodeficiency – HIV weakens your immune system by killing off vital cells that help fight the disease and infection. A weakened immune system cannot protect the host or human like it should be able to. V – Virus – A virus can only replicate over and over by invading a cell within the body of its host. HIV is similar to other viruses, such as the flu or the common cold. The biggest difference is that in time, our immune system can destroy most of the viruses in our bodies. With HIV the body’s immune system can't eradicate the virus. In turn once a patient is diagnosed with HIV they have it for the rest of their natural life. Like many viruses, HIV can lay dormant for extended periods of time in the cells of your body that attacks a key part of your immune system,......

Words: 1613 - Pages: 7

Respiratory Disease Paper

...Tuberculosis and the Impact it has on Society and the Healthcare Industry According to the “American Lung Association” (2015), “Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that usually infects the lungs, but can attack almost any part of the body.” “In 2006, the World Health Organization declared TB a global health emergency and developed a global plan to stop TB that aims at saving 14 million lives by the year 2015. This plan appears to be on track since the death rate has dropped 40% from 1990 to 2010 (WHO, 2012)” (Neighbors & Tannehill-Jones, 2015, pp. 199). Tuberculosis (TB) is considered to be a primary disease. This is because it starts by a person breathing infected air and is spread by that person sneezing or coughing (Neighbors & Tannehill-Jones, 2015). TB is very common in areas that have a lot of people and not enough space for those people; also it is common in places that are not very clean. “The number of TB cases in the United States has seriously risen due to the influx of high numbers of infected immigrants, the homeless, individuals with AIDS who have poor resistance to infection, and the development of drug-resistant bacteria” (Neighbors & Tannehill-Jones, 2015, pp. 200). Tuberculosis has had a huge impact on society because of how fast it can kill people if they do not get it treated properly. “Current facts according to the World Health Organization (WHO) include the following: ■ One-third of the world’s current population has been......

Words: 801 - Pages: 4

Hiv and Aids Research Paper

...thirteen years and older are infected with HIV, 14% of them being unaware of their infection. As of 2010, those most severely affected by the virus include men who have sex with men, accounting for 78% of new HIV infections in men. Since the epidemic began in the early 1980’s, 306,885 MSM diagnosed with AIDS have died, 5.302 of the individuals accounted for in 2011. Women account for 84% of new HIV infections as a result of heterosexual sex, with a mortality rate of 3,516 in 2011 and 89,683 since the epidemic began. Overall, the percentage of newly infected women has significantly decreased by 21%, going from 12,000 to 9,500 women. The other 16% of new infections in women occur as a result of injection drug use, with an estimated mortality rate of 3,723 in 2011. In both newly diagnosed men and women combined, blacks/African Americans account for 44% of cases, with an estimated 1 in 16 black men and 1 in 32 black women acquiring the disease at some point in their lifetime. Hispanics/Latinos also make up a high percentage of newly infected individuals with an estimated 20% of cases reported in 2011. In comparison to white males and females, Latino males are 2.9 times more likely to acquire the virus and Latinas 4.2 times more likely. In 2011, 2,310 Hispanics/Latinos died as a result of AIDS, with an overall 99,281 recorded deaths since the epidemic began (aids.gov, “HIV In The United States: At A Glance”, 2014). Since the first cases of HIV were reported in 1981, 39 million......

Words: 509 - Pages: 3

Cancer and Hiv Paper

...Risk Factors of Cancer and HIV/AIDS Michaila Shaak Psych 627 05/11/2015 Professor Rebecca Gazda Risk Factors of Cancer and HIV/AIDS Cancer and HIV/AIDS are both deadly diseases which causes the body to turn against itself making normal functioning a danger (Straub, 2012). Cells of the body are intended to divide and replenish, but when abnormal cells do this, they become malignant tumors which spread throughout the body (Straub, 2012). Though some cancers can be caused by lifestyle choices and others have a stronger genetic component, none discriminates. Cancer can affect every gender, age, culture and ethnicity (Straub, 2012). Though HIV/AIDS can also be found throughout the population, the way that it is acquired is much different than cancer which cannot be passed from person to person (Straub, 2012). The paper will cover the immune surveillance model of cancer in psychoneuroimmunology and address how it compares to the biphasic model. We will also explore the effects of psychosocial factors on cancer and HIV/AIDS, specifically strategies for coping and stress management in cancer patients as well as the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. According to Straub (2012), cancers can be divided into four types. The first and most common of these are carcinomas, which make up about 85 percent of all cancer that is diagnosed in adults (Straub, 2012). This type of cancer attack epithelial cells or the inner and outer surfaces of the body including the major organs and the skin...

Words: 1695 - Pages: 7

Benchmark Assignment: Hiv Epidemiology Paper

...Benchmark Assignment: HIV Epidemiology Paper Dawn Hickey-Johnson Grand Canyon University Benchmark Assignment: HIV Epidemiology Paper     “The global trends and adverse health impact of HIV, viral hepatitis, STIs, and TB remain among the major and urgent public health challenges of our time. These conditions account for substantial morbidity and mortality, with devastating fiscal and emotional costs to individuals, families, and societies. Despite decades of investment and support, the U.S. still experiences a disproportionate burden of these conditions compared with other Western industrialized nations, with substantial health disparities being observed across population subgroups and geographic regions.” (Hazel D. Dean, ScD, MPH Kevin A. Fenton, MD, PhD, 2010)     This paper will focus specifically on HIV/AIDS.  “    Genetic research indicates that HIV originated in west-central Africa during the late nineteenth or early twentieth century. ·         AIDS was first recognized by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1981 and its cause, HIV, identified in the early 1980s. ("STOP AIDS," 2009)     Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome(AIDS) is a disease caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). HIV attacks the  human immune system, and progressively reduces its effectiveness, leaving the host susceptible to opportunistic infections and tumors. Due to the extended incubation period, the time between being infected with the virus and the......

Words: 4429 - Pages: 18

Hiv Epidemiology Paper

...Epidemiology Paper: HIV Grand Canyon University: NRS-427V 08/09/2015 Human immunodeficiency virus, otherwise known as HIV, is a serious disease that affects the bodies’ immune system. HIV affects the immune cells, specifically called the CD4 cells or T cells. As time passes, these cells are destroyed and soon the body begins to lose its ability to fight off infections and disease. HIV is the virus that could lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. Unfortunately, there is no cure for HIV, meaning once infected, you will remain infected for the rest of your life. The earliest HIV case was known to be in 1959. While it is unknown when exactly it came about, or from where, the transfer of the disease is thought to be from animal to human decades earlier. Some scientists believe that the chimpanzee transmitted the virus to humans, back when humans would hunt the chimpanzees for their meat. The contact with their HIV infected blood caused the spread of the communicable disease. After slowly spreading across Africa through the years, the virus made its way out into the world. “The first cases of HIV in the United States date back to 1981.” (Holland, 2013) The HIV infection is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus. There are many myths about how HIV is spread; the truth of how it is spread is simple, through blood, semen, vaginal/rectal fluids and breast milk. “These fluids must come in contact with a mucous membrane or damaged tissue or be directly......

Words: 1453 - Pages: 6

Disease Paper

...Today, there are many diseases people have to deal with. Some of them are treatable and some of them are permanent. One of the visible autoimmune diseases is vitiligo. Vitiligo occurs when melanocytes die or stop producing the pigment that gives a skin, hair, and eye color. When people have vitiligo the skin becomes whiter, and it usually occurs on skin on both sides of the body. The exact trigger is not known, but it relates to the immune system to attack, destroy the melanin-forming cells because of the family history, sunburn, stress, or exposure to chemicals. It can happen at any age, but usually occurs before the age 20. In the article “For Vitiligo Patient, Arthritis Drug Restores Skin Color” from June 24, 2015 says that a medication for treating rheumatoid arthritis has given the color back to the skin in a patient with vitiligo. It is reported that steroid creams and light therapy are not as effective in reversing the pigmentation. Yale investigators decided to use FDA-approved medication (Janus kinase inhibitors). The patient was given tofacitinib, before this medication the patient’s white spots were increasing. After two months the results were seen, patient had repigmentation on the face, arms, and hands. After five months, this white spots were almost gone; the patient had only several white spots left on the body. There were no negative results seen using tofacitinib. The scientists believe that this could be a breakthrough in the treatment of vitiligo.......

Words: 1058 - Pages: 5

Hiv Formal Paper

... Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a devastating virus that a person can acquire if they are not careful with their bodies. HIV has a history of fear, illnesses and even death but the technology we have now has improved a person’s quality of life and also has prolonged their life throughout the years. In the AIDS.gov site it cited CDC stating “Over the past decade, the number of people living with HIV has increased, while the annual number of new HIV infections has remained relatively stable. Still, the pace of new infections continues at far too high a level—particularly among certain groups” (HIV, 2014). This paper will be talking about the description of HIV, describing the determinants of health and factors that contribute to the development of HIV. It will also be discussing the epidemiologic triangle of HIV, explaining the role of the community health nurse and will identify at least one national organization that addresses HIV. Causes and mode of transmission of HIV are sharing drug needles with someone who is infected with HIV as well as having unprotected sexual intercourse (oral, anal, vaginal), contact with semen, infected blood (blood transfusions), pregnancy, childbirth and or breastfeeding. You cannot get infected with HIV by consensual contact such as holding or shaking hands, hugging, kissing, breathing the same air or using the same water or being bitten by the same insect. Symptoms vary but most of the people with HIV will have flu-like symptoms in......

Words: 1550 - Pages: 7

Communicable Disease Hiv

...Immunodeficiency Virus, or HIV, is a virus that attacks the body’s immune system, and if left untreated, it can develop into Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, or AIDS (AIDS, 2015). HIV is a virus that a person will have for the rest of their life, because the human body can never completely get rid of the virus (AIDS, 2015). There is currently no cure for HIV, but if properly treated, it can be controlled. HIV is caused by a virus that specifically attacks CD4 cells. These cells are responsible for the immune system. When left untreated, HIV attacks these cells, leaving the human body unable to fight off infection or cancers (AIDS, 2015). There are three stages of HIV. The first is the acute infection stage where there is a large amount of the virus being produced in the body. A person may not even know they have HIV in this stage. The second stage is the clinical latency stage where very low levels of the virus is being produced because a person may be receiving treatment. A person can live in the clinical latency stage for years, even decades. The final stage of HIV is known as AIDS and this is where a person is susceptible to opportunistic infection. (AIDS, 2015). There are several symptoms of HIV, but the only way to be certain that one has HIV is through testing. Early symptoms include fatigue, muscle aches, fever, chills, swelling of lymph nodes, night sweats, and ulcers in the mouth (AIDS, 2015). Some people may be infected with HIV but not know it......

Words: 1540 - Pages: 7