A Paper on the Disease Hiv

In: Science

Submitted By tayyyyyye
Words 1470
Pages 6
HIV, also known as human immunodeficiency virus is a virus, which targets and attacks the immune system. This causes the person to not have the ability to fight off diseases and infections. Without a healthy and fully functioning immune system, the person is at risk for life-threatening diseases.
As soon as HIV enters the bloodstream, the virus will seek and attack a specific type of white blood cell called the lymphocyte. The cell is called a T-Helper Lymphocyte and it is essential to the functioning of the immune system. The T-cell commands the immune system in a time of attack to get rid of viruses, bacteria and other organisms. It sends signals out to other cells, which produce antibodies to eliminate the foreign virus/bacteria. When the HIV makes contact with the T-cells it infects and destroys them, damaging their ability to signal for antibody production. This will result in the decline of the immune system over a period of time, making the person vulnerable to life threatening diseases.
The virus gains entry to the cells by attaching itself to the CD4 cells receptor and a co-receptor through the envelope glycoproteins. The virus makes DNA copies of itself from the viral RNA. Once inside the cellular DNA, the provirus resides inside the nucleus of the infected cell and can remain there for a long period of time. It can also become transcriptionally active and can replicate itself while using the human host cell machinery. The viral RNA is then multiplied to make different structural and accessory proteins. Within a few weeks times since the infection has entered the body, there is a high level of viral replication in the blood. There is also a decline of CD4 cells. The immune systems response to the HIV and develops more CD4 T-cells that are near normal numbers. The immune control is a dependant killer to…...

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